Corn Production

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					Corn Production

   AGRO 1033
   Field Crops
              Corn - botany
•   Zea mays
•   C4 plant                  brace roots

•   Summer annual
•   Monoecious
•   3 root systems:
      - seminal (temporary)
      - secondary (main system)             secondary roots


      - brace roots (support)
                                            seminal roots
Panicle, florets with
sterile ovaries




                        Ear, only has floret
                        pistol: stigma, style
     ‘ear leaf’
                        (silk), and fertile
                        ovary (kernel).
           Corn - botany
• Zea mays
• Five main kernel types:
     - flint: popcorn, ornamental
     - flour
     - waxy
     - sweet (white, yellow, mixed)
     - dent
flint   flour   sweet   yellow dent
              Corn - botany
•   Zea mays
•   ‘open’ pollinated
•   Hybrids
•   Transgenic types:
       - herbicide, ie., RR
       - insecticide, ie., ‘Yieldguard’ (Bt)
       - others coming!
                   Corn - botany
• Zea mays
• Early, mid-season varieties
• Main growth stages:
   –   emergence
   –   V5-7 (apply mid-season N fertilizer)
   –   internode elongation (IE) or ‘jointing
   –   Reproduction:
        tasseling
        silking
        anthesis (pollen shed)
        ‘milk’ – ‘soft dough’ – ‘dough’ – early dent –
         late dent
        Black Dot (physiological maturity)
flint   dent   flour
          Corn - History
• Central Mexico origin
• Early signs of cultivation about 8000
  years ago
• Spread to SW, SE, NE and then to great
  plains and Canada.
• Disseminated overseas in early 1500’s
• No known close relative, best match is
  a perennial grass called ‘teosinte’
           Corn - History
• Early types were flints and flours
• Considerable variability due to open
  pollination
• Dent types emerged about 1500 years
  ago
• 1940’s: Hybrid corn seed production
  revolutionized corn production, 2-3 fold
  yield increases seen in some areas!
          Corn - History
• Hybrid seed corn development:
  - develop stable ‘inbred’ lines
  - cross two different inbred lines
  - plant the seed produced (F1 hybrid)
  - offspring will yield 2-5X parents!
- New developments are herbicide
  resistant (glyphosate and some others)
  and internal insecticide producing
  transgenic varieties.
           Corn - utilizations
•   No. 1. Animal feed.
•   No. 2 high fructose corn syrup
•   No. 3, maybe soon to be No. 1 or 2, ethanol
•   Others:
    – Starch
    – Corn oil
    – Hybrid seed
     Corn Production – Hybrid
            selection
• Yield – No. 1
     - look at experiment station yield
       trials
 - Transgenic traits, ie., ‘RR’, ‘Bt’
 - Maturity, ie., early, mid-late
 - Cost, availability of seed
 - Disease resistance
  Corn Production - Planting
• EARLY! (late March
  to late April. Why?)
  - reduce late-season
     insect pressure
  - catch early rains
  - avoid late summer
     heat
  - higher yields, less
    input costs
  Corn Production - Planting
• EARLY! (late March
  to late April.)
• Seeding rates from
  22,000 – 36,000
• 30 – 38 in rows
• Try to get uniform
  stand and
  emergence
• May need
  insecticide
    Corn Production - Fertility
• SOIL TEST!
• Lime in fall
• P, K pre-plant
•
                                Pre-plant N, P, K
  N: rates vary from
  180-250 lbs N/acre
• Apply ½ pre-plant,
  the other ½
  sidedress at V5-7

                       Side dressing liquid N fertilizer.
    Corn Production - Insects
• Soil insects:
  - field history
  - insecticides:
       - in-furrow
                        Corn rootworm
       - over the top




                           wireworm
   Corn Production - Insects
• Foliar insects:
  - Plant early!
  - crop monitoring
  - insecticide only
    when needed, rare        Corn borer

  - Bt transgenics
    (corn borers, ear-
     worms,
     armyworms.

                         Corn borer ‘shot holes’
   Corn Production - Insects
• Foliar insects:
  - Plant early!
  - crop monitoring
  - insecticide only
                         Corn earworm
    when needed, rare
  - Bt transgenics
    (corn borers, ear-
     worms,
     armyworms.
                         Armyworms!
   Corn Production - Disease
• Managed by good
  agronomic
  practices, fungicide
  seed treatments,
  and variety
  resistance.            anthracnose
  Fungicides rarely
  used or needed.


                          Ear smut!
   Corn Production - Weeds
• Conventional
  hybrids:
  – Pre-emergence
    herbicides
  – Post-emergence
    herbicides if needed   Pre-emergence herbicides
  – Cultivation at side-
    dress
  Transgenic RR:
  - All glyphosate
  - Glyphosate + pre’s
                           Post-emergence herbicides
    Corn Production - Harvesting
•   Corn picker.
•   19-22% moisture
•   Dried down to < 15%
•   Stored
Corn Jokes




‘High breed corn’
Corn Jokes




   Corn Porn
 (‘naked’ ears!)
Corn Jokes




  Beer corn
Okay, enough of the ‘corny’
          jokes.




    Any questions or comments?

				
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posted:11/26/2011
language:English
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