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VPN - Virtual Private Network and OpenVPN

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TuxMachines DebianAdmin Monsterb LinuxBloggers AdamsInfo LinuxScrew FreeSoftwareLinux Jam's Ubuntu Blog Androidtux All For Linux VPN - Virtual Private Network and OpenVPN Article Index 1. Introduction 2. Why VPN 3. How does VPN works 4. VPN Encrypted Tunnel Fundamentals 5. The theory behind Virtual Private Network 5.1. VPN fundamentals 6. Static key vs. Certificates 6.1. Symmetric Key Encryption 6.2. Public Key Encryption 7. Examples of VPN connection 8. Installation of OpenVPN 8.1. Installation from official repository 8.2. Installation from a source code 8.3. Enabling a Virtual Network Interface

8.3. Enabling a Virtual Network Interface 9. VPN Connection and Symmetric Key Encryption 9.1. Setting up VPN Server 9.1.1. Generate Static Symmetric Key 9.1.2. Start OpenVPN Server 9.2. Setting up VPN Client 9.2.1. Start Client 9.3. Testing A VPN Connection 9.4. Using a OpenVPN configuration files 10. VPN Connection with Public Key Encryption 10.1. Public key infrastructure 10.2. What needs to be done 10.3. Establishment of Certification Authority 10.4. Generate a Certificate Signing Request 10.5. Signing Certificate Signing Requests 10.6. Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Protocol 10.7. Creating configuration files 10.8. Start OpenVPN server 10.9. Start OpenVPN client 10.10. Test VPN Connection

1. Introduction
This article will describe a configuration of Virtual Private Network connection by using an OpenVPN application. Firstly, you will be exposed to some basic theory behind Virtual Private Networks. Then, the article will guide you with step-by-step instructions on how to setup a OpenVPN virtual private network by using Symmetric Key Encryption and Public Key Encryption. This article is meant for everybody who possesses a basic knowledge of linux administration and networking.

2. Why VPN
If you work in IT industry, it is very common that you do not use only a single computer sitting on your work desk, but you also utilize other systems connected to the same local area network. As long as you are sitting on your office chair this approach should not be a problem. However, this situation can become complicated once you are in hurry, and therefore, you need to take some of your work home. You are able to take you company laptop with you, but to fully utilize company resources you would also need to be connected to the company's local area network. The solution to this problem depends on what resources are needed to complete your job. If you need some shared files available on the company's network, you may just simply copy these file to your laptop's hard drive or to USB stick. In case you need to work on the system installed on your company's PC you can also use some virtualization tools such as VirtualBox or VMware. Soon enough you will realize that this approach is not as convenient as you would like it to be, and that you spent more time by copying files and synchronizing virtual systems than concentrating on your work. The ideal solution in this case should allow employees to access company's local resources from an external network. This can be done by forwarding ports of the local services via firewall. Exposing local ports to the Internet is not entirely the safest approach. The more ports are exposed from your local network to an external network such as the Internet, the more vulnerable your local system will become. The ideal approach in this situation could be a use of just single port for all services coupled with encryption and user authentication. This can be achieved, for example, by using a Virtual Private Network (VPN).

3. How does VPN works
VPN networks are often operated as client-server applications. Good example could be an implementation of MS Windows PPTP or OpenVPN on the Linux Platform. VPN server is directly running on a firewall, where it creates virtual network interface and additional virtual network subnet. VPN server is waiting for connections on the external network interface of the firewall where it performs authentication of a VPN client application. After successful VPN client authentication a VPN client is given an IP address from a virtual subnet. Consequently, an encrypted tunnel is created between VPN client and VPN server, which is used for safe transfer of packets between two distant networks via the Internet. Services, which a VPN client can connect to, can furthermore be defined by firewall rules. This way firewall ensures that VPN client can connect only to services it is allowed to connect. If the previous couple sentences looked to you little difficult to understand, do not despair! Everything will become clearer once we see how encrypted tunnel works in an example.

4. VPN Encrypted Tunnel Fundamentals
VPN tunnels are generally considered as something mysterious and everybody who mentions them, is "cool" :-) However, there is nothing to be afraid about, in the fact principle of Virtual Private Network is very simple. Data in IP networks are exchanged in packets. Information about destination and a source of the packet can be found in the packet's header. The actual user data are carried as a payload. Let’s  imagine that ssh client wants to talk to ssh server over the Virtual Private Network. Packets leaving a host's network interface located on the local network are sent with a destination port number 22. When this packet reaches a VPN tunnel it is encapsulated into the VPN packet

where original packet is now treated as a payload. If the VPN server listens on the port 443, the VPN packet will carry a destination port
VPN Encrypted Tunnel Fundamentals

443. When looking at the previous figure it is apparent that this kind of network data transfer over the VPN is a waste of transfer rate because original packet has a smaller payload space just because it needs to fit into the VPN tunnel packet. In VPN analogical sense this can be considered as a drawback.

5. The theory behind Virtual Private Network
Let's imagine a small company network consisting just from a single subnet, in which all clients are connected to the Internet via company's gateway, which can also used as a firewall. How the connection is done, is not important, it is enough to mention that external gateway network interface uses external ip address. This scenario is visualized on the following figure:
The theory behind Virtual Private Network

  In case that an employee wants to connect to some company's services from outside world, his/her attempt would be rejected by the firewall. Not just because this attempt is coming from completely different subnet but also because the ports to the particular services are not open. Once the VPN server starts functioning on the gateway, it automatically creates a virtual network interface with subnet 192.168.2.0/24, which would then start accepting a connection from external network. Once employee passes VPN server's authentication, a VPN server will assign an IP address from a 192.168.2.0/24. For 192.168.1.0/24 hosts would be the systems on 192.168.2.0/24 network appear that they are located on the separate local subnet, but in fact the communication is done by encrypted VPN tunnel over the Internet.

5.1. VPN fundamentals
The following image will try to explain fundamental principles of VPN server-client communication. The gif animation will change every 14 seconds. The aim of this animation is to explain a logic behind a VPN communication in simplest form as possible. Please note, that there are many other factors behind the scenes which had been for the sake of simplicity omitted.

VPN fundamentals

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1/14: VPN Client establishes a connection with a VPN Server via external network interface. 2/14: VPN Server assigns IP address to a vpn client from a local virtual subnet 192.168.2.0/24. 3/14: VPN Client prepares a packet for a host 192.168.1.3 located within a private subnet 192.168.1.0/24. 4/14: VPN Client encrypts and hides an original packet inside the outer public packet. 5/14: The packet is dispatched by the VPN client via public network to the VPN Server. 6/14: A network packet acquired from the public network is decrypted and decapsulated by the vpn server. This way VPN server obtains a packet for the private network. 7/14: VPN Server handles a newly acquired packet as it was sent locally on a 192.168.1.0/24 subnet. 8/14: Packet is delivered to the host with destination IP address 192.168.1.3. 9/14: Host with IP address 192.168.1.3 creates a network packet with destination IP 192.168.2.2. 10/14: VPN Server receives a reply packet. 11/14: According to the VPN Server's routing table, this packet links up with the Virtual Private Network. 12/14: VPN server encrypts and hides an original packet inside the outer public packet. 13/14: The packet is dispatched by the VPN server via public network to the VPN client. 14/14: The network packet acquired from the public network is decrypted and decapsulated by the vpn Client. This way VPN client obtains a packet from the private network.

6. Static key vs. Certificates
One of the best characteristics of VPN solution is an encryption which leads to the client-server confidentiality communication enhancement. Once the connection between VPN Server and VPN Client is encrypted, an interceptor cannot read the message. Encryption is done on both sides of VPN transmission and thus creating so called VPN tunnel via public network such as the Internet. Encryption can be divided into two main groups:

6.1. Symmetric Key Encryption
This type of communication requires a one symmetric key which will be used on both sides to encrypt a message and this way preventing an interceptor to read a message. To do this, symmetric key needs to be produced and exchanged between both sides. This means that both sides will use the same encryption key to encrypt as well as to decrypt sent and received messages.

6.2. Public Key Encryption
When it comes to the public key encryption, each side has a public key and private key. There are four keys in total. Sender encrypts a message with a receiver's public key and receiver decrypts a message with its own private key. Since only the receiver has an access to its own private key only he can decrypt a message. OpenVPN supports both ways of above mentioned encryptions. Symmetric encryption in terms of OpenVPN is regarded as a static key mode and public key encryption as a certificate mode. Before we put both types of encryption s into the test by showing a real configuration and testing examples, let's have a look on the following list which contains deliberately unsorted strengths and weaknesses for each solution: Symmetric Key Encryption:

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symmetric encryption simple configuration no Certificate Authority ( CA ) is required server can serve only single client at the same time key must be stored in text file on the both systems which increases a risk that it will fall to the wrong hands difficult key exchange

Public Key Encryption:
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asymmetric encryption more complicated configuration Certificate Authority ( CA ) is required server can server many clients simultaneously

7. Examples of VPN connection
Now, that we have grasped a necessary theory about Virtual Private Networks, we can move on, and explore all mandatory steps for creating a VPN connection with Symmetric Key Encryption and Public Key Encryption. As a starting point in both cases there will be two computers with fresh Debian Linux installation. How the connection between those two PC's is created is not important. The connection can be done via cross-over cable, two bridged virtual machines or over the Internet. What is important, is that both PC's can ping each other and VPN Server will have 1194/UDP port open for connection from a VPN Client. In the further text we will refer to these systems as a VPN-Server ( IP Address: 10.1.1.3 ) and a VPN-Client ( IP Address: 10.1.1.4 ).
bash interpreter location: /bin/ bash

A VPN tunell will be created as point-to-point 192.168.0.1 - 192.168.0.2. However, for VPN tunnel created with use of Public Key Encryption ( OpenVPN certification mode ) the client's IP address will differ and will be assigned from 192.168.0.0/16 subnet IP address pool. In our case the client will obtain a IP address 192.168.0.6.

8. Installation of OpenVPN
OpenVPN application consists only from one binary file which name is equal to the application name itself, thus openvpn. This binary file is used to start an OpenVPN server as well as OpenVPN client and therefore it is important to install the same OpenVPN packages on both sides. To be more precise, a difference between an OpenVPN Server and OPenVPN Client is just in how the configuration is carried out on both sides. It is recommended to install OpenVPN packages from the official repository of your Linux Distribution you intent to use for this purpose. If, from some reason the packages for OpenVPN are not included in the official repository of your linux distribution feel free to install from source code. Both installations will be briefly covered in the following paragraphs. Repeat a following installation steps for vpn-server as well as a vpn-client.

8.1. Installation from official repository
Installation from the official Debian repository is simple as running a apt-get command:
linuxconfig.org:~# apt-get install openvpn Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree... Done The following extra packages will be installed: liblzo2-2 Suggested packages: openssl The following NEW packages will be installed: liblzo2-2 openvpn 0 upgraded, 2 newly installed, 0 to remove and 19 not upgraded. Need to get 397kB of archives.

After unpacking 1114kB of additional disk space will be used. Do you want to continue [Y/n]?

Apt-get will automatically fetch required prerequisites as in this case it is a liblzo2-2 package.

8.2. Installation from a source code
Installation of OpenVPN from source code involves steps like downloading a source code from OpenVPN Home page and compiling it with following sequence of commands:
linuxconfig.org:~$ linuxconfig.org:~$ linuxconfig.org:~$ linuxconfig.org:~$ linuxconfig.org:~$ linuxconfig.org:~# wget http://openvpn.net/release/openvpn-2.0.9.tar.gz tar xfz openvpn-2.0.9.tar.gz cd openvpn-2.0.9 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local make make install

What happens here, is that openvpn binary file will be created by the source code compilation and installed in a /usr/local/sbin directory.

8.3. Enabling a Virtual Network Interface
OpenVPN works with Virtual Network Interfaces TUN/TAP. TUN and TAP are virtual network kernel drivers and TUN ( TUNnel ) must be enabled in the kernel or at least as a module in order to virtual private network be able to function. TAP kernel driver can be found in the network interfaces section under the name "Universal TUN/TAP device driver support". To confirm that a TUN module is supported by your system check a config file created during a kernel compilation. As it was already mentioned previously, for this article a Linux Debian was used, and in Debian a TUN driver is supported by default in the form of a kernel module. This can by confirmed by the following command:
grep CONFIG_TUN= /boot/config-

eth0 interface directly represents a hardware device, which can be, for example a PCI network card. On the other hand, TUN/TAP devices represent a virtual network interface. Packets traveling via TUN/TAP interface are sent to the application before they reach eth0 network interface. This allows an application such as OpenVPN encrypt or decrypt packets before they reach a physical network.

9. VPN Connection and Symmetric Key Encryption
9.1. Setting up VPN Server
Almost all configuration settings can be passed to the OpenVPN application via command line. Another option is to create a configuration file which will be read during the OpenVPN initialization. Creating a configuration file is a clean way to maintain a Virtual Private Network connection settings, since the number of outgoing connections can grow where the only limits is just a robustness of your system. However, for sake of simplicity and transparency in the following example we will use command line parameters to configure an OpenVPN server.
linux_VPN_Server:~# /sbin/ifconfig eth0 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:70:5A:F7 inet addr:10.1.1.3 Bcast:10.255.255.255 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:fe70:5af7/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:110 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:85 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:11724 (11.4 KiB) TX bytes:13204 (12.8 KiB) Interrupt:169 Base address:0x2000

9.1.1. Generate Static Symmetric Key
Before we can start a OpenVPN tunnel, a symmetric key neds to be generated and exchanged between server and client. To generate a Symmetric Key run a following command:
linux_VPN_Server:~# openvpn --genkey --secret staticVPN.key linux_VPN_Server:~# cat staticVPN.key # # 2048 bit OpenVPN static key # -----BEGIN OpenVPN Static key V1----00e5dea65588eec9800f72607c6fb050 62a58ad4a44039d22635bdd817886c8b 69dbe38384eed05dcdca54c604e46d74 daec8f0e074f2a142db0efafe25520cb a71a0c0314800be297275205bc6d18e3

a71a0c0314800be297275205bc6d18e3 852419caac500dc4135c2ce375c5020a dd4ed783c1f47518e74c6b10124173ca 8ef3b52cfc297daf21683bb4f735856f 825c7ee868385dfcf4c3363d261e0e13 dfb60d3e3abc6a2075b8d243d3976eee 1afdff0e865d5973e2f6b6418f603aca 1923053d44ac0021ff74efbf00e60e3f b928d4cc32f9d3d65566f8c1aaa5eb45 e1ebc134a1b060b6dde30ca5b9a54900 a1a5e0746ba7778285f163317433fb19 c0d5669677d9e921051c1fa6d3c75d47 -----END OpenVPN Static key V1-----

9.1.2. Start OpenVPN Server
At this stage a Static Symmetric Key can be used to start an OpenVPN server with will create a one side of a Virtual Private Network tunnel ready for connections:
linux_VPN_Server:~# openvpn --dev tun --ifconfig 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.2 --secret staticVPN.key Wed Jan 28 03:48:09 2009 OpenVPN 2.0.9 i486-pc-linux-gnu [SSL] [LZO] [EPOLL] built on Sep 20 2007 Wed Jan 28 03:48:09 2009 IMPORTANT: OpenVPN's default port number is now 1194, based on an official port number assignment by IANA. OpenVPN 2.0-beta16 and earlier used 5000 as the default port. Wed Jan 28 03:48:09 2009 TUN/TAP device tun0 opened Wed Jan 28 03:48:09 2009 ifconfig tun0 192.168.0.1 pointopoint 192.168.0.2 mtu 1500 Wed Jan 28 03:48:09 2009 UDPv4 link local (bound): [undef]:1194 Wed Jan 28 03:48:09 2009 UDPv4 link remote: [undef]

Parameter "--dev tun" instructs an OpenVPN application to use a virtual network interface TUN. The following parameter "--ifconfig 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.2" specifies IP addresses for both sides of virtual tunnel. OpenVPN consequently sets a virtual network interface tun0 to an IP address 192.168.0.1 and will enable a slot for a connection form a OpenVPN client on a IP address 192.168.0.2. Last parameter "-secret staticVPN.key" specifies a file with Static Symmetric Key created in the previous step. Let's confirm a correctness of the previous statements with ifconfig command:
linux_VPN_Server:~# ifconfig tun0 tun0 Link encap:UNSPEC HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00 inet addr:192.168.0.1 P-t-P:192.168.0.2 Mask:255.255.255.255 UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)

9.2. Setting up VPN Client
The procedure for setting up a OpneVPN client is very similar the the one which was used to set up a OpenVPN server. At this point we assume established connecton via 10.0.0.0 netowrk, client has installed and ready to use an OpenVPN application as well as a Symmetric key generated previously was copied over to the client by means of USB key or SCP. If this is the case nothing can stop us to start a OpenVPN client:
linux_VPN_Client:~# ifconfig eth0 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:00:C1:42 inet addr:10.1.1.4 Bcast:10.255.255.255 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:fe00:c142/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:456 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:293 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:434285 (424.1 KiB) TX bytes:28413 (27.7 KiB) Interrupt:169 Base address:0x2000

9.2.1. Start Client
Following command and paramaters can be used to start a OpenVPN client with static symmetric key:
linux_VPN_Client:~# openvpn --remote 10.1.1.3 --dev tun --ifconfig 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.1 \ --secret staticVPN.key Wed Jan 28 03:51:02 2009 OpenVPN 2.0.9 i486-pc-linux-gnu [SSL] [LZO] [EPOLL] built on Sep 20 2007 Wed Jan 28 03:51:02 2009 IMPORTANT: OpenVPN's default port number is now 1194, based on an official port number assignment by IANA. OpenVPN 2.0-beta16 and earlier used 5000 as the default port. Wed Jan 28 03:51:02 2009 TUN/TAP device tun0 opened

Wed Jan 28 03:51:02 2009 ifconfig tun0 192.168.0.2 pointopoint 192.168.0.1 mtu 1500 Wed Jan 28 03:51:02 2009 UDPv4 link local (bound): [undef]:1194 Wed Jan 28 03:51:02 2009 UDPv4 link remote: 10.1.1.3:1194

Parameter "--remote 10.1.1.3" speciefies a real IP address of the OpenVPN server which is waiting for a connection and therefore a OpenVPN client will connect to socket 10.1.1.3:1194/UDP. rest of the parameters has a exactly the same meaning as it was in case of OpenVPN server. The only difference is an order of IP addresses which are passed to the "--ifconfig" parameter. This way an OpenVPN application sets a local tun0 virtual network interface to 192.168.0.2 and will expect the OpenVPN Server to be set on 192.168.0.1. Agian confirm a corectenss of of these settings by ifconfig command:
linux_VPN_Client:~# ifconfig tun0 tun0 Link encap:UNSPEC HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00 inet addr:192.168.0.2 P-t-P:192.168.0.1 Mask:255.255.255.255 UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)

9.3. Testing A VPN Connection
OpenVPN server and client now uses a tun0 virtual network interface to maintain a encrypted virtual tunnel connection. OpenVPN server's tun0 interface is set to 192.168.0.1 and OpenVPN client's tn0 interface is set to 192.168.0.2.
linux_VPN_Server:~# ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:70:5A:F7 inet addr:10.1.1.3 Bcast:10.255.255.255 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:fe70:5af7/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:1264 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:835 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:507743 (495.8 KiB) TX bytes:105283 (102.8 KiB) Interrupt:169 Base address:0x2000 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b) tun0 Link encap:UNSPEC HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00 inet addr:192.168.0.1 P-t-P:192.168.0.2 Mask:255.255.255.255 UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b) linux_VPN_Client:~# ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:00:C1:42 inet addr:10.1.1.4 Bcast:10.255.255.255 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:fe00:c142/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:1953 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:1376 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:569341 (555.9 KiB) TX bytes:372027 (363.3 KiB) Interrupt:169 Base address:0x2000 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b) tun0 Link encap:UNSPEC HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00 inet addr:192.168.0.2 P-t-P:192.168.0.1 Mask:255.255.255.255 UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)

If everything went smoothly and there is no firewall set between both endpoint which may interfere with the VPN tunnel, it should be easy to confirm a VPN connection with ping command.
linux_VPN_Server:~# ping -c 5 192.168.0.2 PING 192.168.0.2 (192.168.0.2) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 192.168.0.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=3.24 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.0.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=4.30 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.0.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=1.76 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.0.2: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=1.83 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.0.2: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=2.52 ms --- 192.168.0.2 ping statistics --5 packets transmitted, 5 received, 0% packet loss, time 4012ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1.766/2.733/4.305/0.952 ms

If at the same time we would start a tcpdump program on the OpenVPN client's virtual tun0 network interface we see an ICMP packets transmitted by ping program, including a replay packets.
linux_VPN_Client:~# tcpdump -i tun0 03:54:11.648040 IP 192.168.0.1 > 192.168.0.2: ICMP echo request, id 32520, seq 1, length 64

However on the OpenVPN client's real eth0 network interface the tcpdump program will produce a following ouptut:
linux_VPN_Client:~# tcpdump -i eth0 03:54:11.803616 IP 10.1.1.3.openvpn > 10.1.1.3.openvpn: UDP, length 124

This output from a tcpdump program can be used as a proof of what we have learn previously, that a packets from a virtual tun0 network interface are encapsulated into public network packets and are sent to the recipient encrypted via single 1194/UDP port.

9.4. Using a OpenVPN configuration files
Previous VPN tunnel example used a number of arguments and parameters passed on the command line to create a VPN connection. Although, almost every OpenVPN configuration directive can be passed to the openvpn command from the command line, this can sometimes become a very tiresome work. Therefore, we should complete this section on how to create a VPN connection using a Static Symmetric Key and OpenVPN configuration files. Here is a solution which involves a configuration files to achieve the same goal as shown previously.   OpenVPN Server config file Create a vpn-server.conf file with a following content:
# OpenVPN configuration file for VPN SERVER dev tun ifconfig 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.2 secret /root/staticVPN.key comp-lzo keepalive 10 60 ping-timer-rem persist-tun persist-key user openvpn group openvpn daemon

Explanation of OpenVPN configuration directives:
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OpenVPN Client config file Create a vpn-client.conf file with a following content:
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# OpenVPN configuration file for VPN CLIENT dev tun remote 10.1.1.3 ifconfig 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.1 secret /root/staticVPN.key comp-lzo keepalive 10 60 ping-timer-rem persist-tun persist-key user openvpn group openvpn daemon

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dev - use a TUN virtual network device remote - specifies a IP address or name of a VPN Server ifconfig - specifies local and remote endpoint secret - a path to the pre-shared static key file comp-lzo - enable a fast LZO data compression keepalive - keep connection alive by sending a regular ping packets, in our case the ping packet is sent every 10 seconds where reply packet must come within 60 seconds otherwise assume that the other endpoint is down. ping-timer-rem - should be used only on VPN server side where daemon started without explicit remote IP address, this way timeout starts only after VPN client connection. persist-tun - do not re-create a virtual network interface TUN after automatic restart persist-key - no need to read pre-shared static key file again after automatic restart user - run openvpn tunnel a user openvpn group - run openvpn tunnel a group openvpn daemon - once the initialization functions are completed run in the background as a daemon

  It is time to put those two OpenVPN configuration files into the action. As stated in both config files we need to create an openvpn user and group first. OpenVPN can run as a root. However, run a vpn tunnel as a non-privileged user "openvpn" is a smart move, and it will greatly enhance a security of your hosts. To create an openvpn group an addgroup command can be used: NOTE: openvpn user and group need to be created on both sides of the VPN tunnel (VPN Server and VPN Clients )
# addgroup openvpn

Now, that "openvpn" group is ready we can create a "openvpn" user.
# useradd --shell=/bin/false -g openvpn openvpn

At this point we are ready to engage both configuration files in OpenVPN tunnel creation: Start OpenVPN Server:
linux_VPN_Server:~# openvpn --config /root/vpn-server.conf linux_VPN_Server:~# ps aux | grep openvpn openvpn 2310 0.2 0.6 4060 988 ? Ss 01:00 0:00 openvpn --config vpn-server.conf root 2313 0.0 0.1 1512 224 pts/1 R+ 01:00 0:00 grep openvpn

Start OpenVPN Client:
linux_VPN_Client:~# openvpn --config /root/vpn-client.conf linux_VPN_Client:~# ps aux | grep openvpn openvpn 2317 0.8 0.7 4060 1188 ? Ss 01:16 root 2319 0.0 0.4 2852 704 pts/0 S+ 01:16

0:00 openvpn --config vpn-client.conf 0:00 grep openvpn

Test VPN Connection:
linux_VPN_Client:~# ping 192.168.0.1 PING 192.168.0.1 (192.168.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=8.50 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=4.32 ms --- 192.168.0.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1005ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 4.327/6.416/8.506/2.091 ms

10. VPN Connection with Public Key Encryption
If you have followed this article from the begging up to this point, you may already know some basics on how Virtual Private Network works as well as you have established a VPN connection using Symmetric Key Encryption. Prior to the establishment of a VPN connection using Symmetric Key Encryption both VPN endpoints need to exchange a symmetric key first. Symmetric key needs to be exchanged securely using some private medium. In case, that company has a large number of employees and each employee needs to exchange symmetric key with anyone who wishes to establish VPN connection with, this task can become very tedious, not to mention that a key can be disclosed to the public somewhere on the way and the whole process would need to start again. This is where it comes to the Public key infrastructure (PKI).

10.1. Public key infrastructure
To avoid a public key exchange chaos when using a mesh like model, we could delegate one employee as a Certification Authority ( CA ) who will be responsible for keeping a record of all public keys. The aim of CA will be to collect all private keys from all employees and sign them with CA's private key - to issue a certificate. If anyone would like to confirm a document's signature created by any other employee, s|he would first use a CA's public key to confirm a sender's public key ( certificate ). Once the sender's public key is confirmed, this key can be further used to confirm a signature of the actual document. Since every peer sends it's own CA signed certificate, only what needs to be done, is just to redistribute CA's public key to every employee.

10.2. What needs to be done
To reduce a complexity, let's briefly describe steps which need to be done in order to create a VPN connection using OpenVPN and Symmetric Key Encryption: First we would need to establish Certification Authority. For this we will be using our VPN-Server with IP 10.1.1.3 . Note, that you can establish CA on any other system. The fact that we intend to have CA and vpn-server on the same system as our VPN-Server, is just matter of convenience. This step will produce a CA's self-signed public key ( certificate ) as well as matching private key. In the next step, we will generate a server's and client's Certificate Signing Request (CSR) and the outcome would be CSR also private key for both peers ( server & client ). Note, that both operations will be done separately on the server and client side. This way we do not

have to transfer a client's private key over unsecured connection. Next we would need to transfer client's CSR to the server where we would sign both server's and clients requests using CA's private key. This will produce two signed certificates one for a server and one for a client. In the next step, we would transfer client's signed certificate to the client along with CA's public key. Before we start, make sure that you have an openssl package installed on both systems ( vpn-client and vpn-server ):
apt-get install openssl

and that username "openvpn" and "openvpn" group does exist on both endpoints ( vpn-client and vpn-server ) of your future VPN connection.
# addgroup openvpn # useradd --shell=/bin/false -g openvpn openvpn

10.3. Establishment of Certification Authority
The following command will generate a CA self-signed certificate and private key. Which is all what we need, in order to be able to sign CSRs.
linux_VPN_Server:~# openssl req -new -x509 -extensions v3_ca -keyout ca-private-key.pem -out ca-certificate.pem -days 365 linux_VPN_Server:~#

You will need to supply some details and more importantly pass-phrase which you would use to sign CSR's. The output will look something like this:
linux_VPN_Server:~# openssl req -new -x509 -extensions v3_ca -keyout ca-private-key.pem \ -out ca-certificate.pem -days 365 Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key ...............++++++ ...++++++ writing new private key to 'ca-private-key.pem' Enter PEM pass phrase: Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase: ----You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request. What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank For some fields there will be a default value, If you enter '.', the field will be left blank. ----Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:SK State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Slovakia Locality Name (eg, city) []:Bratislava Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:linuxconfig.org Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []: Certificate Authority ( CA ) Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:Certificate Authority ( CA ) Email Address []: linux_VPN_Server:~#

If everything went well, now you have established your own CA ready to sign CSR. You can find two new files in a directory from where you have issued openssl command:
linux_VPN_Server:~# ls ca-certificate.pem ca-private-key.pem linux_VPN_Server:~#

10.4. Generate a Certificate Signing Request
Our CA is ready, so at this point we need to create a Certificate Signing Request for our vpn-server and vpn-client. You will be asked to enter some details in regard to your company. It is important that "Common Name" reflects your IP address or a fully qualified domain name (or FQDN) of the system the certificate is intended for.
linux_VPN_Server:~# openssl req -new -nodes -out vpn-server-CSR.pem Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key ..........................++++++ ............................................++++++ writing new private key to 'privkey.pem' ----You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request. What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank

For some fields there will be a default value, If you enter '.', the field will be left blank. ----Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:SK State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Slovakia Locality Name (eg, city) []:Bratislava Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:linuxconfig.org Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:VPN-SERVER Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:10.1.1.3 Email Address []: Please enter the following 'extra' attributes to be sent with your certificate request A challenge password []: An optional company name []: linux_VPN_Server:~#
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After creating a Certificate Signing Request you should have acquired two new files. vpn-server-CSR.pem - vpn-server Certificate Signing Request privkey.pem - vpn-server private key
privkey.pem vpn-server-CSR.pem

linux_VPN_Server:~# ls ca-certificate.pem ca-private-key.pem linux_VPN_Server:~#

inux_VPN_Client:~# openssl req -new -nodes -out vpn-client-CSR.pem Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key ............++++++ .....++++++ writing new private key to 'privkey.pem' ----You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request. What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank For some fields there will be a default value, If you enter '.', the field will be left blank. ----Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:SK State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Slovakia Locality Name (eg, city) []:Bratislava Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:linuxconfig.org Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:VPN-CLIENT Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:10.1.1.4 Email Address []: Please enter the following 'extra' attributes to be sent with your certificate request A challenge password []: An optional company name []: linux_VPN_Client:~#

After creating a Certificate Signing Request you shoud have accquired two new files. * vpn-client-CSR.pem - vpn-client Certificate Signing Request * privkey.pem - vpn-client private key
linux_VPN_Client:~# ls privkey.pem vpn-client-CSR.pem linux_VPN_Client:~#

Since our signing Certificate Authority resides on our vpn-server we copy clients signing a request to be signed there:
linux_VPN_Client:~# scp vpn-client-CSR.pem root@10.1.1.3:~/ root@10.1.1.3's password: vpn-client-CSR.pem 100% 672 0.7KB/s 00:00 linux_VPN_Client:~#

10.5. Signing Certificate Signing Requests
Both Certificates Signing Requests are waiting to be signed.
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vpn-server-CSR.pem vpn-client-CSR.pem 

For that we could create an openssl config file similar to bellow and use it with conjunction of openssl command. Use your favorite text editor and create a file called CA-openssl.config with content shown below:

linux_VPN_Server:~# cat CA-openssl.config [ ca ] default_ca = ca_default [ ca_default ] dir = . new_certs_dir = . private_key = ca-private-key.pem certificate = ca-certificate.pem database = index.txt default_md = md5 serial = serial default_days = 365 x509_extensions = usr_cert policy = generic_policy [ generic_policy ] countryName = optional stateOrProvinceName = optional localityName = optional organizationName = optional organizationalUnitName = optional commonName = supplied emailAddress = optional [ usr_cert ] authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid basicConstraints = CA:FALSE keyUsage = digitalSignature extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth linux_VPN_Server:~#

Certificate Authority needs to keep a track of all signed certificates ( index.txt ) and assigned a serial numbers to each of them ( serial ). Therefore, we need to create these two files:
touch index.txt; echo 01 > serial;

All is ready to sign CSR. Let's first sign vpn-server's CSR:
linux_VPN_Server:~# openssl ca -config CA-openssl.config -infiles \ vpn-server-CSR.pem Using configuration from CA-openssl.config Enter pass phrase for ca-private-key.pem: Check that the request matches the signature Signature ok The Subject's Distinguished Name is as follows countryName :PRINTABLE:'SK' stateOrProvinceName :PRINTABLE:'Slovakia' localityName :PRINTABLE:'Bratislava' organizationName :PRINTABLE:'linuxconfig.org' organizationalUnitName:PRINTABLE:'VPN-SERVER' commonName :PRINTABLE:'10.1.1.3' Certificate is to be certified until Feb 25 21:34:25 2010 GMT (365 days) Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y 1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y Write out database with 1 new entries

Server certificated is ready, we need to amend CA-openssl.config to sign VPN-Client's public key. Change line:
extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth TO: extendedKeyUsage = clientAuth

The following command will also do the trick:
sed 's/serverAuth/clientAuth/' CA-openssl.config > temp; mv temp CA-openssl.config

Now, we are ready to sign vpn-client's CSR:
linux_VPN_Server:~# openssl ca -config CA-openssl.config -infiles \ vpn-client-CSR.pem Using configuration from CA-openssl.config Enter pass phrase for ca-private-key.pem: Check that the request matches the signature Signature ok

The Subject's Distinguished Name is as follows countryName :PRINTABLE:'SK' stateOrProvinceName :PRINTABLE:'Slovakia' localityName :PRINTABLE:'Bratislava' organizationName :PRINTABLE:'linuxconfig.org' organizationalUnitName:PRINTABLE:'VPN-CLIENT' commonName :PRINTABLE:'10.1.1.4' Certificate is to be certified until Feb 25 21:37:53 2010 GMT (365 days) Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y 1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y Write out database with 1 new entries

Signed certificates are ready to use:
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01.pem - vpn-server certificate 02.pem - vpn-client certificate

linux_VPN_Server:~# ls 01.pem ca-certificate.pem ca-private-key.pem index.txt.attr index.txt.old serial vpn-client-CSR.pem 02.pem CA-openssl.config index.txt index.txt.attr.old privkey.pem serial.old vpn-server-CSR.pem linux_VPN_Server:~#

You can see both certificates with following commands:
openssl x509 -in 01.pem -noout -text openssl x509 -in 02.pem -noout -text

At this stage we need to copy vpn-vlient's certificate to the vpn-client system (10.1.1.4) and change the name to something like vpn-clientcertificate.pem. Along with the vpn-client certificate we also need to copy a CA's certificate:
linux_VPN_Server:~# scp 02.pem root@10.1.1.4:~/vpn-client-certificate.pem root@10.1.1.4's password: 02.pem 100% 3173 3.1KB/s 00:00 linux_VPN_Server:~# scp ca-certificate.pem root@10.1.1.4:~/ root@10.1.1.4's password: ca-certificate.pem 100% 1367 1.3KB/s 00:00 linux_VPN_Server:~#

Change the name of vpn-server's certificate to something like vpn-server-certificate.pem
linux_VPN_Server:~# mv 01.pem vpn-server-certificate.pem linux_VPN_Server:~#

list of files in vpn-server working directory:
linux_VPN_Server:~# 02.pem ca-certificate.pem CA-openssl.config linux_VPN_Server:~# ls ca-private-key.pem index.txt index.txt.attr index.txt.attr.old index.txt.old openvpn-server.conf privkey.pem serial serial.old vpn-client-CSR.pem vpn-server-certificate.pem vpn-server-CSR.pem

10.6. Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Protocol
Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement protocol allows two users to exchange a secret key over an insecure medium without any prior secrets. We need Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement file only on the server side of our vpn. It can be created by the following command:
linux_VPN_Server:~# openssl dhparam -out dh.pem 1024

10.7. Creating configuration files
OpenVPN configuration files will look similar to those we have created in the previous sections where we have created a virtual private network using Symmetric Key Encryption. Create files named openvpn-server.conf and openvpn-client.conf with the following content:  

OpenVPN Server config file Create a openvpn-server.conf Explanation of OpenVPN configuration directives file with a following content: l dev - use a TUN virtual network device # OpenVPN server configuration file example l server - assign IP addresses to the clients from a local 10.1.1.3 given subnet dev tun l ca - path to the Certificate Authority's certificate server 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 l cert - path to the vpn-server's signed certificate ca ca-certificate.pem cert vpn-server-certificate.pem l key - path to the vpn-server's private key key privkey.pem l dh - path to the Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement file dh dh.pem l remote - specifies a IP address or name of a VPN push "redirect-gateway" Server comp-lzo l ifconfig - specifies local and remote endpoint keepalive 10 60 l secret - a path to the pre-shared static key file ping-timer-rem persist-tun l comp-lzo - enable a fast LZO data compression persist-key l push - push a config file to the clients. Available user openvpn options are: --route, --route-gateway, --routegroup openvpn delay, --redirect-gateway, --ip-win32, --dhcpdaemon option, --inactive, --ping, --ping-exit, --ping-restart, --setenv, --persist-key, --persist-tun, --echo, -comp-lzo, --socket-flags, --sndbuf, --rcvbuf OpenVPN Client config file Create a openvpn-client.conf l keepalive - keep connection alive by sending a file with a following content: regular ping packets, in our case the ping packet is sent every 10 seconds where reply packet must # OpenVPN client configuration file example client come within 60 seconds otherwise assume that the dev tun other endpoint is down. remote 10.1.1.3 l ping-timer-rem - should be used only on VPN tls-remote 10.1.1.3 server side where daemon started without explicit ca ca-certificate.pem remote IP address, this way timeout starts only after cert vpn-client-certificate.pem VPN client connection. key privkey.pem comp-lzo l persist-tun - do not re-create a virtual network keepalive 10 60 interface TUN after automatic restart ping-timer-rem l persist-key - no need to read pre-shared static key persist-tun file again after automatic restart persist-key l user - run openvpn tunnel a user openvpn user openvpn group openvpn l group - run openvpn tunnel a group openvpn daemon l daemon - once the initialization functions are linux_VPN_Client:~# completed run in the background as a daemon

10.8. Start OpenVPN server
linux_VPN_Server:~# openvpn --config openvpn-server.conf linux_VPN_Server:~# ifconfig tun0 tun0 Link encap:UNSPEC HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00 inet addr:192.168.0.1 P-t-P:192.168.0.2 Mask:255.255.255.255 UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)

10.9. Start OpenVPN client
linux_VPN_Client:~# openvpn --config openvpn-client.conf linux_VPN_Client:~# ifconfig tun0 tun0 Link encap:UNSPEC HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00 inet addr:192.168.0.6 P-t-P:192.168.0.5 Mask:255.255.255.255 UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b) linux_VPN_Client:~#

10.10. Test VPN Connection
linux_VPN_Client:~# ping 192.168.0.1 PING 192.168.0.1 (192.168.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.

64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.805 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=1.51 ms --- 192.168.0.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1001ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.805/1.159/1.513/0.354 ms linux_VPN_Client:~#
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