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NANA O. WARE

IRIS BARNOR




ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND MANAGEMENT
MGT 201.10, FALL 2005
DR. STUART UMPLEBY
BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




RATIONALE:
The Department is the unit of the Government Agencyresponsible for the issuance of
Passports and travel documents to the citizens and residents of Ghana. The Ghanaian
government is undertaking reform measures to streamline the processing and issuance of
travel documents to ensure that no procedural irregularities occur. The driving force behind
this upheaval is the fact that the activities of this division are in direct correlation to security,
protecting the interests of the country and that of its citizens. Our efforts by way of this project
will help our client in taking the first and greatest possible measure in enhancing national
confidence in the integrity of the Department.

GOALS:
Our goal in pursuing this project is to help the Department develop a new process, a
structured and logically-related set of activities or tasks if you will. The implementation of
which will govern personnel and coordinate the application process, irrespective of the
different functions and agencies involved. The new process will also serve as a system of
checks and balances, reducing any inconsistencies and/or irregularities.

The business process reengineering phase seeks to examine the current AS-IS process and
design a better process that will make the work of all the stakeholders effective and efficient,
and also, to streamline the process so that it will be supported by the chosen technology. In
addition, the TO-BE process seeks to integrate the Department of Births and Deaths Registry
with the Department of Passports to ensure that legitimate documents are used to obtain
passports and any travel documents.

The next step will be to implement an enterprise technological solution for the tracking and
issuance of passports. The overall goal of this project is to eliminate the inefficiencies and
fraud that has plagued the current system, and also to help strengthen the national security of
Ghana.

METHOD:
A great opportunity lies ahead, an opportunity to work hand-in-hand with our client
representative in assessing their current processes and mapping out new and improved
activities. We will collaborate on this project via email, telephone, and instant messaging
considering the fact that the stakeholders are not in a geographically centralized location.

Below are the various stages of our analysis:

Identification Stage-
Model the process (as-is) and Identify the activities

Vision Stage-
Outline the process structure/work-flow, identify value-added activities, and benchmark
performance.

Design Stage-
Outline entity relationships, re-examine process linkages and integrate interfaces and
information.


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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




Human Asset Design Stage-
Identify job characteristics, define jobs and teams, define skills and staffing needs, outline
management structure, specify job changes, design change management program and plan
implementation.

Implementation Stage-
Develop new process, train personnel, implement pilot, refine transition and perform
adjustments (continuous improvement)


Results:
    Presentation of Group Recommendation/Project to MGT 201 class in December 2005.
    Delivered Project Report to Steve Dankwah our client representative.


ACHIEVEMENTS:
Initial contact was made with our client representative to discuss the goals and expectations
of all stakeholders going in, and to map out a viable cause of action.

After the first contact we established the need for a change in business process at the unit, to
incorporate a system of checks and balances, a form of transparency between functions and
procedures particularly with other agencies involved in the validation of documents presented
with applications.




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




                      TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. PROJECT SELECTION AND GOALS ………………………………………………… 5

  2. BACKGROUND ON GHANA …………………………………………………………… 5


  3. BACKGROUND ON THE GOVERNMENT AGENCYAND THE
     PASSPORT DIVISION ……………………………………………………………………10

  4. AS-IS PROCESS   ……………………………………………………………………………….14

  5. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS …………………………………………………………… 15

  6. CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM ………………………………………………………..17

    6.1.   DEFINING THE PROBLEM ………………………………………………………17
    6.2.   THE NEED FOR CHANGE ……………………………………………………….18
    6.3.   ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM………………………..19

  7. BENCHMARKING OF GHANA PASSPORT PROCESS AGAINST UNITED STSTES
     AND CANADA ……………………………………………………………………………….24

    7.1. Z-TEST ANALYSIS FOR THE BENCHMARK …………………………………… 25

  8. TO-BE PROCESS …………………………………………………………………………..27

    8.1.   READINESS FOR CHANGE …………………………………………………… 27
    8.2.   EXPLANATION OF PROPOSED PROCESS……………………………………27
    8.3.   ADDENDUM TO NEW PROCESS          ……………………………………31
    8.4.   POTENTIAL FOR WORKING WITH CLIENT …………………………………33
    8.5.   EXTENT OF COMMITMENT …………………………………………………… 33

  9. GROUP PROCESS     …………………………………………………………………. 33

  10. REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………… 35




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




    1. PROJECT SELECTION AND GOALS

Our group selected this project for a reason that hit close to home, patriotism.

Both team members are Ghanaians by birth and having grown up in Ghana, we have

witnessed the transition from military to democratic rule, from influence peddling, bribery and

corruption to the enactment of rules and regulations under the tenet of introducing

transparency into the governance of Ghana. Working on this project will serve us our

contribution to a major cause, a cause geared for the protection of our home country and its

citizens.

Our client is the branch of the Government Agencythat governs the issuance of passports and

other travel documents to Ghanaian citizens and residents. The Ghana Department is one of

the frontline agencies supported by the „Gateway Project‟, under the Public Sector Reform

Act-a restructuring effort by the current Government to simplify and speed up procedures and

processes and improve service delivery through the use of efficient systems and technology.

The charter and goal for the project is to design a new process that will bring efficiency to the

passport acquisition process and also ensure that the new process lend itself to technological

implementation.



    2. BACKGROUND ON GHANA

Ghana was formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland

trust territory. Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in Colonial Africa to gain

its independence.

        In 1966 the first President of Ghana and Pan-African hero Dr. Kwame Nkrumah was

deposed in a coup, heralding years of mostly military rule. A new constitution, restoring

multiparty politics was approved in 1992 (Fourth Republican Constitution). Flt Lt. Jerry John


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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




Rawlings, head of state since 1981, won the presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was

constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. The current President John

Agyekum Kuffour defeated former Vice President Dr. Atta Mills in a free and fair election in

2000 and 2004 to succeed Jerry Rawlings. Ghana, a well-administered country by regional

standards is widely regarded as a model for political and economic reforms in Africa. It has a

high-profile peacekeeping role; troops from Ghana have been deployed in Ivory Coast,

Liberia, Sierra Leone, DR Congo, Lebanon, Rwanda, and the former Yugoslavia.



Facts about Ghana

Population: 21.8 Million

Capital: Accra

Major Languages: English, Akan, Ewe, Ga, Hausa

Major Religions: Christianity, Islam, Indigenous beliefs

Life Expectancy: 56 Years (Men), 57 Years (Women)

Monetary unit: Cedi

Main Exports: Gold, Cocoa, Timber, Tuna, Bauxite, Aluminum, Manganese Ore, Diamonds

GNI per Capita: US $380 (World Bank, 2005)

Internet Domain: .gh

Area: 238, 533 sq km (92, 098 sq miles) – The same size as Oregon

International dialing code: +233




Ghana Leaders

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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




President: John Agyekum Kuffour

John Kuffour of the ruling New Patriotic Party (NPP), is an Oxford trained Lawyer. And on

November 8, 2000 he was elected president of Ghana after defeating Dr. Atta Mills of the

then ruling National Democratic Congress (NDC). President Kuffour was re-elected in the

December 2004 national elections to another four-year term.



Vice President: Alhaji Aliu Mahama

Alhaji Aliu Mahama is a trained Civil Engineer from the Kwame Nkrumah University of

Science and Technology.



Speaker of Parliament: Mr. Sekyi Hughes, LLM

Mr. Hughes is a trained lawyer and he became the speaker of parliament after the 2004

elections.



Foreign Minister: Nana Addo Dankwah Akuffo-Addo

Nana Addo Dankwah is an Oxford trained lawyer and the son of the former president of

Ghana during the second republic.



Defence Minister: Kwame Addo Kuffour, MD

Dr. Kuffour is the junior brother of the current president of Ghana. He is also a practicing

medical doctor.




Finance Minister: Kwaku Baah Wiredu, CPA


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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




Mr. Wiredu is a Certified Public Accountant and he assumed his current position in January

2005.



Media in Ghana

Ghana enjoys a high degree of media freedom, and the country‟s private press and

broadcasters operate without any restrictions. The private press is lively, and often carries

criticism of government policy. Animated phone-in programs on a wide range of topics are

staple fare on many radio stations.

Private radio stations crowd the FM dial in Accra and elsewhere, most of them chasing a

limited amount of advertising revenue. The state-run GBC runs national TV and radio

networks. The news agency of Ghana is called GNA.

The BBC, VOA and Radio France Internationale are available on FM in Accra. Below is a list

of media houses in Ghana.

        The Press

                       The Ghanaian Chronicle

                       Daily Graphic

                       The Mirror

                       The Ghanaian Times

                       The Independent

                       The Statesman

                       Accra Daily Mail

                       Ghana Palaver

                       Sunday Herald

                       The Vanguard

                       The Daily Guide


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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




                 The Crusading Guide

                 And Many Others



    Television

                 Ghana Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) – operates Ghana TV (GTV)

                 Metro TV – jointly owned by the government and a private company

                 TV3 – privately owned

                 TV Africa – privately owned

                 MultiChoice – cable operator

                 DS TV – cable operator

    Radio

                 Ghana Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) – state- run, operates Radio 1

                 with programs in English and Ghanaian languages, commercial service

                 Radio 2 and regional FM stations in all the 10 regions of Ghana.

                 Adom FM – private

                 Choice FM – private

                 Vibe FM – private

                 JOY FM – private

                 Space FM – private

                 Peace FM – private

                 Radio Gold – private

                 Happy FM – private

                 Hello FM – private

                 And Many Others




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




       3. BACKGROUND ON THE GOVERNMENT AGENCYAND THE DEPARTMENT
Nana Ado Danwah Akuffo-Addo heads the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; it is a cabinet level

ministry.


VISION AND MISSION STATEMENTS


Consistent with its constitutionally mandated responsibilities, "the Government Agencyexists

to promote and protect the interest of Ghana and its citizens abroad and to enhance Ghana's

security and prosperity through:


       Promoting friendly relations and economic cooperation between Ghana and other

       countries and enhancing Ghana‟s image abroad;



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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




       Promoting Ghanaian exports, tourism potential, attracting foreign investments for

       Ghana and enhancing scientific, technological and cultural links between Ghana and

       other States;

       Providing economic, political and security information and advise to Government;

       Providing consular service;

       Playing a positive and creative role as a member of the United Nations, the African

       Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the Non Aligned Movement,

       the Commonwealth and other international organizations to which Ghana belongs;

       Upholding the rule of law in international affairs and seeking the establishment of a

       just and equitable international order;

       Providing supportive services to relevant MDAs and local NGOs in their work; and

       Assisting diplomatic missions, international organizations and foreign NGOs in the

       discharge of their legitimate duties in Ghana.


The Government Agencyseeks to carry out the foregoing through a dedicated, efficient,

knowledgeable and patriotic staff.”




AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

For the period under review, the following continued to be the six core objectives of the

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as validated in the approved programme budget for the 2004

financial year;


       To promote and protect the interests of Ghana and its citizens abroad, and enhance

       Ghana‟s security and prosperity;
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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




       To provide efficient and effective consular and legal services within and outside

       Ghana;

       To promote favorable conditions for Ghana‟s trade, foreign investments, tourism and

       to seek scientific, technological and cultural cooperation with other countries and

       institutions;

       To promote fruitful political and economic relations with all countries especially

       Ghana‟s neighboring countries in the interest of peace, stability and economic

       development.

       To play a positive and creative role in the international organizations to which Ghana

       belongs; and

       To upgrade the Ministry‟s human and institutional capacity for the efficient execution of

       Ghana‟s foreign policy objectives


FUNCTIONS

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs‟ core function is to advise and assist Government in the

formulation and implementation of Ghana‟s foreign policy objectives, which includes

thoroughly proffering up advice on policy options in response to unfolding international

situations and events. The Ministry therefore, controls, directs and coordinates Ghana‟s

external relations and closely collaborates with other Ministries department and Agencies

(MDAs) to facilitate the realization of Government‟s agenda including efforts in the areas of

trade and investment promotion.



In addition to the core functions carried out to achieve the objectives contained in the Mission

Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the following functions are also undertaken:




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




       Dissemination of general information on Ghana within the international

       community;

       Coordination of the interaction between the Government of Ghana and foreign

       Governments

       Assistance to national security agencies in safeguarding and protecting the

       sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ghana.

       Promotion and maintenance of international peace and security and the policy

       of good neighborliness with Ghana‟s immediate neighbors;

       Assistance to key economic players in pursuing an accelerated rate of national

       economic development;

       Issuance of passports and other travel documents; and

       Provision of protocol services;


The Passport Department

This is the department within the Government Agencytasked with issuing passports and other

travel documents. The department in accomplishing this mission works in close collaboration

with the Department of Births and Deaths Registry.



       4. AS-IS PROCESS OF PASSPORT ISSUANCE (THE DEPARTMENT)




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




         GHANA PASSPORT ACQUISITION PROCESS-- AS-IS

    Customer                 Application
   Completes     Submits       & Fees
   Application               Submitted




                              Passport
                               Office
                              Receive
                             Application




                               New                Validate Docs        Request           Passport
                                             NO
                            Application?          & Info on File       Approved           Issued



                                YES


                               Validate
                                                       Docs &
                             Information
                                                        Info             YES
                                  &
                                                       Valid?
                           Supporting Docs
  Application
     Return
  To Applicant                                         NO



                                                  Application
                                                    Denied
                                                                                          Page 1




When a customer submits an application for a travel document, the Department follows a

well-defined 10-step process. Is this a well-defined process yes; is it an inefficient system

relative to meeting its mission of promoting the interest of Ghana, its citizens and

safeguarding security, definitely.

The application, once the required fees are paid goes through one of three channels. If it is

entirely a new application, the paperwork goes through the validation process and both

biometric data and supporting documentation are verified to establish their authenticity. If all

documents and information is determined to be valid, the request is approved and the travel

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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




document issued. On the other hand if validity is found to be wanting, the application will be

denied and returned to the applicant.

If the application is a renewal or „other‟ such as a request for re-issuance due to loss of a

previously issued passport, it is also subject to validation, though in this case the office has

documents already on file. The request is approved and the travel document is then issued.



       5. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

With any initiative that will drastically change the way people do their work, it is imperative for

management and the change implementation agents to gauge where all stakeholders who will

be affected stand on the proposed change and what needs to be done to bring everybody

aboard for an effective implementation of the resultant changes.



As a result of the above reason, our team and our client (Mr. Steve Dankwah –the Project

Manager) in Ghana conducted a stakeholder analysis to ascertain where everybody currently

is on the project and what we will need to do to move them to a desired state. Our team

strongly believed the views and inputs of all stakeholders to be very important because we did

not want to design a new process that did not have the approval and support of the people

who are supposed to use it. As a result surveys and interviews were conducted and the

resultant stakeholder chart is displayed below.




                           STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS



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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




                                                                         ACTION TO MOVE
                STRONGLY                                    STRONGLY     STAKEHOLDER TO
STAKEHOLDER     OPPOSED    OPPOSED   NEUTRAL   SUPPORTIVE   SUPPORTIVE   DESIRED STATE


                                                                         Continue to get government
                                                                         buy-in throughout the phases
                                                                         of the project, and also
                                                                         demonstrate and provide
                                                                         evidence to the government
                                                                         as to the gains, which are
                                                                         being achieved at each
                                                                         phase of the project in order
                                                                         for them to continue to
                                                                         provide their portion of the
Government                                                  X            funding for the project.


                                                                         Train and let the
                                                                         management know the
                                                                         benefits that the business
Management of                                                            process reengineering will
Department                                     X            √            bring to the department.


                                                                         Ease employee opposition
                                                                         and anxiety through training
                                                                         and seminars, and also let
                                                                         them know what benefits will
                                                                         accrue to them from the
                                                                         adoption of new ways of
                                                                         doing things within their
                                                                         function and organization as
Employees                  X                                √            a whole



                                                                         The government and the
                                                                         Ministry should embark on
                                                                         an educational program to let
                                                                         the public know the rationale
                                                                         for the changes in the
                                                                         passport procurement
                                                                         process. Also, the public
                                                                         should be educated on the
                                                                         new process so that they will
                                                                         know what is expected of
                                                                         them when applying for a
Customers -                                                              passport and the duration
Ghanaian                                                                 that it will take for them to get
Public                                         X            √            the passport.

                                                                         The International community
                                                                         is very supportive of the
                                                                         project, and to continue to
                                                                         secure their support, we
                                                                         should judiciously apply the
                                                                         funding that they are
International                                                            providing to the project and
Community                                                   X            nothing else.

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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




                                           X = Where this Stakeholder IS TODAY on the project
                                           √ = Where this Stakeholder NEEDS TO BE on the project




6. CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM

       6.1 DEFINING THE PROBLEM

The Department is the only agency within the arm of government that accounts for the

issuance of travel documents to the over 21million citizens of Ghana. The number of

applications flooding this office has been on a steady rise since the late 1990s. The numbers

will definitely grow higher and appropriate measures need to be taken in effort to improve

service procedures and better meet the needs of customers within considerations of foreign

and governmental policies.



Unlike most agencies, the business of the Department cannot be privatized. Privatized

agencies have an advantage in allocated resources and productive efficiency. It remains the

responsibility of the Government to balance the objectives and the rights of its citizens. This

agency is considered a relevant part of the government and is being awarded a high

developmental priority. Since it has a viable governmental mandate, this branch of

government does not fall under the commercialized industry sector. It is of great importance

not to lose sight of the fact that government has within its power the means to achieving

national security, therefore reforming the current processes and practices within this office is

long overdue.

A complete overhaul of the system is not necessary in this case; rather we seek to develop a

stream of processes from the current processes and improve upon those steps by adding

relevant steps that will meet the objectives laid out.
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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




The recent spate of worldwide events affecting national security including but not limited to;

passport fraud, identity thefts, absconding from the toil‟s of the law, and engaging in illegal

conduct which violates the laws of nations has led to the Ghanaian government taking an

introspective look at its existence.



       6.2 THE NEED FOR CHANGE

When an application for a Ghanaian passport or travel document is submitted there is no

formal validation process to verify the authenticity of those documents or the identity of the

applicant. There are people who hold claim to a Passport issued by the agency, some of

whom are not entitled to by law, such as individuals from other nations, many of whom are not

in good standing with the law. How, one may ask did such individuals come to possess such

documents.

      The absence of technology –means documents cannot be verified to ascertain their

       validity.

       Supplemental documents required by law to be submitted with all applications

       were in certain cases incomplete, altogether falsified or wholly absent. It is interesting

       to note that in all three scenarios passports were issued by the agency.

      Some applications are not vetted but approved for issuance regardless

      Applicable fees are never paid in some instances, at least to the processing office.

       Which leaves you wondering where did those monies go?

      Document verifications are bypassed completely

      No substantial checks or inquiries are made into the backgrounds of applicants-

       whether they‟re currently listed on police records as wanted or for that matter any

       other law enforcement agency lists.

      Incomplete applications are sometimes approved

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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




       6.3 ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM

There are a myriad of flaws within the current AS-IS PROCESS for passport acquisition in

Ghana. And to find out what has led to the flaws in the current system, our team investigated

the problems and the inefficiencies of the process. Through the use of a cause and effect

diagram (fishbone diagram), we were able to fish out the factors that have contributed to the

flaws in the current process.



The cause and effect diagram below sheds light on the reasons behind the inefficiencies of

the system.




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




                  CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM FOR THE PASSPORT OFFICE
                                                                                              Saturday, December 03, 2005




                               People                Lack of Clear
                                                                            Policies
                                                     Policy for reviewing                 Employees don‟t
 Lack of training on                                 supporting documents                 follow the process
 modern fraud detection                      Lack of communication                        and policies in the department
                                             across and within divisions

Lack of competent                                          Lack of policy and
                                                           will to integrate the
Staff due to poor numeration                               Passport division with
                                                           Birth and Death Registry              Why is Passport
                                                                                               processing inefficient
      Lack of an Enterprise System                       Accountability and                         in Ghana?
      to integrate the passport                          Leadership is missing
      office and Birth and Death Registry                in the division

                                                          No System to track
                                                          and detect Fake              Supervision and oversight
                                                          Documents                    is lacking in the department

                                            Machine                  Management




                                                                                                                        Page 1




Human Resource Factor (People):

Departments and divisions within the Department have specific and varied goals and

inadequate resources at their disposal to perform those tasks. The lack of training in large

part plays a significant role in the problems the agency is saddled with today. The phrase „to

upgrade the human and institutional capacity for the efficient execution of objectives‟, which is

part of the Government Agencymission certainly does not hold true.




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




There is a direct relationship between staffing levels and functional performance. In every

organization there exists a threshold below which performance is compromised. Performance

has tapered off in this organization due to the lack of commitment on the part of the agency to

continuous improvement. Training is the first step to empowering employees and arming

them with the requisite skills to perform their jobs effectively. No substantive training policies

exist within this agency. Once employees get their foot in the door, that is basically it, they

work their way through the rank and file of the organization; rewards are based on length of

servitude alone. The foundation of the Department should be based on ongoing personal and

professional development.



Most of the staff members are not qualified in their respective fields, they bring a lackadaisical

perspective to the job, they lack in self-direction and self-directed professional growth. It is in

the interest of the agency to assist its staff by providing opportunities and economic support

for professional growth.



This leads to the one major problem hampering the effectiveness of this unit: the lack of

modern fraud detection. Since employees have absolutely no education on this front, they are

unable to detect the authenticity of the documents that come through their office daily. The

issue of fraudulent documents, some peddled right at the door of the passport issuing office

should not be disregarded. Individuals only have to pay a huge sum of money and they have

in their hands a new birth certificate, a new identity card, baptismal certificate or any other

identity establishing record.



There is currently no form of communication across and within the various divisions and

agencies involved with the process of issuing travel documents. Unrealistic as it sounds, there


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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




is no system of checks and balances from one step to the next. Once an employee passes an

application on to the next step it is deemed okay and subsequently moved down the line. This

is where the lapses occur. At the beginning of this project we mentioned that there are

scenarios where document verification is completely bypassed, and incomplete applications

approved.



Some employees within the passport issuing office „contract‟ with applicants for a „fee‟ and

run their paperwork through the system. Bribery and corruption is rampant, and the only

means to curtailing this practice is the implementation of checks and balances. An article in a

Ghanaian newspaper recounted how an investigator uncovered a scheme recently by some

Departmentrs charging as much as 700,000 Cedis ($100) for the issuance of one passport,

which is supposed to cost 50,000 Cedis ($7) -- (Ghana Review International Magazine).

Currently employees do not evoke any sense of responsibility and accountability. Working in

the Department is simply a means to an end for paycheck for employees and this clearly calls

for a change.



Technological Factor (Machine):

We live in the 21st century; certainly every modern organization should have access to

information technology, if not for any other reason, to speed up functional performance.

How does an agency that processes about 75000 passports every few weeks handle the

workload without access to functioning computers? Every process is carried out by hand;

paperwork is piled up to the roof within the offices. This point justifies the backlog of

applications spanning 6 months.




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




There is no existing system to track and detect the invalid documents that are submitted;

hence we have incomplete and falsified application support documents accepted as sufficient

proof. The paper trail is hard to maintain and keep track of. Since no sensible filing system

exists you have instances where employees do not want to go searching for a single file or

folder out of the heap, so they just pass the application on to the next step.



There is absolutely no way for the Department to verify with the Births and Deaths Registry if

the personal information on an application is accurate. Both agencies are clearly located

across town from each other and it certainly would not be cost-effective to haul files and

folders frequently to cross-check data. Certainly this brings to light the adverse effects the

lack of technological infrastructure and information technology expertise have on the

effectiveness of this agency.



Law enforcement agencies- Regional, Local and Foreign, have no means other than the

paper route in informing the passport issuing office of any restrictive actions pertaining to

certain individuals. In the absence of a database, all requests or inquiries are on paper and

stored in backrooms as such it is not feasible to rummage though tons of paperwork to check

every applicant‟s name against the law enforcement restrictive list. This makes it very difficult

for the passport agency to keep up with its mission of „upholding the rule of law‟. This is why

certain people are able to obtain Ghanaian passports and flee the country while awaiting

prosecution for various crimes.




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




Management:

There is lack of managerial accountability and Leadership in the passport division. The civilian

leaders of the department do not give their employees the needed leadership and motivation

for them to execute their work. This leadership and accountability problem has resulted in a

lack of supervision and oversight in the department.



Policies:

Although the department has a policy in place for reviewing and establishing the validity of

supporting documents, according to current and former employees the said policy is sub-

standard. This has contributed to the situation where employees cannot clearly distinguish

between valid and invalid documents because of the loopholes in governance.



Also, the Department and the Births and Deaths Registry need to be integrated to facilitate

and enhance the effective verification of documents being submitted for the acquisition of

passports and other travel documents. The lack of will to integrate the two departments

continues to give fraudsters and imposters the green light to engage in illegal activities since

there are no effective check systems in place to detect the fake documents, purported to have

been issued by the Births and Deaths Registry.



It was therefore a relief when the sector Minister as part of this process reengineering effort

announced that the two departments will be integrated to enable effective coordination and

information sharing to curb the problem of document fraud.




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




7. BENCHMARKING OF THE GHANA PASSPORT PROCESS AGAINST THE UNITED
STATES AND CANADA
With every process improvement or Total Quality Management (TQM) projects, it is best

practice to benchmark your process against the leaders within the industry (countries). After a

thorough research of countries that have a superior process that Ghana can emulate to

improve it‟s process, our team settled on the United States and Canada.

Both countries‟ passport acquisition process though not 100% foul proof against fraud, boast

the highest fraud detection rates and service delivery efficiency in the world.



7.1 Z-TEST ANALYSIS FOR THE BENCHMARK

       To help us ascertain the viability of the Canada and US passport acquisition process,

the team leveraged a quality tool called “Z-test” to compare the current state of the Ghana‟s

process against the two leaders in the field. Here we collected data on how long it takes for

passports to be processed in the three countries (Canada, US, and Ghana) and the fraud

detection rate in all three countries. Below is the result of study.




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        BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




                   Benchmarking – Ghana Against Canada & USA


                                Report 8B: Product Benchmarks
            Z.Shift                                      Zone of Average
                                                           Technology
                3.0


                2.5


                2.0
                                                                                                    Zone of
                1.5                                                                                 Typical
                                                                                                    Control

                1.0

Ghana           0.5
                                                                                  W orld-Class
                                                                                  Performance


                0.0

                       0         1         2         3            4        5        6
                                                                                                 Canada & US
                                               Z.Bench (Short-Term)

        From the above Z-test analysis, U.S.A and Canada are indeed leaders in the field. They

        occupy a position to the right of the zone of average technological performing countries. This

        is the area where every country aspires to be. In the case of Ghana, we see from the analysis

        that it occupies a position which lies to the left of the average technological performing

        countries. That the current performance of Ghana doesn‟t even equal to countries that have

        been deemed as average performers is an understatement.

        The Z-test analysis will assist the team in designing a process that can be tested against the

        world‟s leaders when it is fully implemented. The team will be able to run the test again to see

        if their solution meets the world standard or not.




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




8. TO--BE PROCESS


       8.1 READINESS FOR CHANGE:
       The current government has established the need to change and has drafted a

program to coordinate the implementation of reforms within this branch of government.

This makes our work here easier. The government will establish the mandate to build the
capacity of the Department, in providing timely and productive service to the public. Prior
consultations revealed the urgent need for the employees within this agency to be further
trained and developed and the dire need to appoint skilled Human Resource professionals
who understand the vision and objectives of the office. These professionals must be able to
implement HR interventions to align the output of the agency‟s employees to that of the
overall mission. Such a strengthened HR function will seek to improve the policies and
procedures pertaining to training, recruitment, performance management and career
management among others




8.2 EXPLANATION OF THE PROPOSED PROCESS
       To help the Department overcome its problems as a result of an inefficient process we

have designed a process that models itself around the US and Canadian passport process.

Below is the proposed process along with explanations backing our recommendation.




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




       1
                                                                     2                                 3                            4                                          5



                                                                 Customer                          Receiving
                                                                                                                                New Or Old
                                                                Completes        Submits         Centers Accept                                         New          Administers Oath
                                                                                                                                Application?
                                                                Application                       Application


                   Submitted                    15                                                                                  Old
                                                                                                                                                  5


                                                                                                                                  Renew
                                     Passport Issued
                                                                                                                                Application


                   14
                                                                                                                                                                             Submits
                                                                                                                                                       6


                  Application                                                                                                     Submits       Passport Office
                   Approve
                                                                                                                                                   Receives
                                                                                                                                                  Application


                        NO                                                                                                                  Submits for validation
                                                         12                           11
                                                                                                                      9
                                13
                                                       Check
                                                                                                                                            Validate Application
                Customer has                        Application                  Application                      Documents                                          7
                                                                     Submits                          YES                                     and Supporting
               Criminal History?                  Against Criminal             Documents Valid                      Valid?
                                                                                                                                                Documents
                                                     Database



 Application            YES                                                                                          NO
  Return to                                                                                                                                   Receives Sends for
  Applicant                                                                                                                                    Results Validation

                 Application
                                                                                                                  Application
                   Denied
                                                                                                                    Denied
                                                                         10
                                                                                                                                                Dept. Of Birth
                                                                                                                                                 and Death
                                                                Denied                                                                           Registry &
                                                              Application                                                                         Passport
                                                                                                                                                    office               8
                                                                                                                                                 Integrated
                                                                                                                                                 Enterprise
                                                                                                                                                System (ERP)




           Explanation of the New Process

           This is how the TO-BE Process, which is modeled after the Canadian and the

           American system, will work.

                   (1) CUSTOMER – The member of the general public needs a passport or traveling

                              document.

                   (2) CUSTOMER – Customer picks up application, complete with the necessary

                              supporting documents.




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




       (3) RECEIVING CENTER – Customer sends the application and the required fee

          to a designated receiving center. The receiving centers are especially post

          offices and court houses throughout the country.

       (4) The Receiving center then sorts the application into new application and

          renewal application/ replacement application.

       (5) Administering of Oath – If it is a new application an oath will be administered

          by a judge or a notary public Officer after originals of supporting documents

          have been reviewed by the Receiving Officer for the completeness of the

          application and the penalties for knowingly submitting a false application and

          documents.

       (6) The Receiving Center sends the application to the Department after

          completing its process. This step eliminates the practice where individual

          applicants submit their application directly to the Department resulting in

          bribery and other illegalities between the corrupt staff of the department and

          applicants who do not want to follow the law.

       (7) & (8) Department – When the office receives the application, they then validate

          it against an integrated ERP system, which is shared by the Department and

          the Department of Births and Deaths Registry. This new system will enable

          information sharing between the two departments. Information sharing is

          imperative for the detection of fraudulent documents, which are presented as

          having been issued by the Department of Births and Deaths Registry. Currently

          there is no way of validating this claim under the current process since the two

          departments don‟t share information.




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




       (9) & (10) When the results for document and application check against the ERP

       system is received and the application fails, the application is then denied and the

       reasons communicated to the applicant with the reasons for denial.

       (11) & (12) On the other hand, if an application passes the test then it moves the

       next stage. Here the application is run against a law enforcement criminal

       database to determine if an applicant qualifies for an application based on his or

       her criminal history.

       (13) If an applicant has a criminal history or an outstanding charge then the

       application will be refused or denied and communicated to the applicant. On the

       other hand, if the check reveals no adverse findings against the applicant, the

       application is approved.

       (14) & (15) When an application is approved it should be signed off by a

       supervising Superintendent, then the passport is issued and submitted to the

       applicant through mode delivery that he or she chose.

    Although no process can be foul proof against fraudsters and criminals, the checks

    that have been integrated into the new process will curb the rampant incidents of

    impersonation and acquisition of passports and traveling documents with fake

    documents.

    Also, integrating the department of Births and Deaths Registry with the Passport

    Department will allow information sharing and the prevention of fake documents being

    used to obtain passports and traveling documents. In addition, applicants who have a

    criminal record will be prevented from obtaining passports and traveling documents.

    All these checks don‟t exist in the current process.

    The team believes that with proper training, motivation and empowerment of

    employees and the use of modern information technology, the new process will


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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




    eliminate the issues and problems that have plagued the Department if it is

    implemented to its logical conclusion.



    8.3 Addendum to New Process
    It is worthy to note that our new process recommendation will not be effective without
    the establishment of three other areas pertinent to the success and implementation of
    the reform efforts at the Department.


    Customer Service:
    One major setback that has faced the government and the various sectors the
    Department included is the apparent lack of customer/client service.
    No customer service facilities exist to serve the interest and requests of the public who
    are at the receiving end of this service. This has led to an image of bribery and
    corruption as well a lack of commitment on the part of the agency in delivering the
    best level of service that the stakeholders expect. It is to this end that client service
    units have to be set up to facilitate the requests of the general public and to address
    any complaints that might crop up.


    The objectives of the Customer Service Departments are to:
       Simplify the process and procedures for delivering service to the general public
       Carry out service delivery in a transparent, timely and cost-effective manner
       Establish customer service units to oversee the resolution of complaints and
        handle inquiries
       Institute a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the services provided by the
        agency.




    This process will demonstrate to the general public the agency‟s commitment in
    improving service delivery practices; provide a benchmark against which the agency
    can be measured; provide a customer complaint handling procedure and detail
    channels for redressing grievances.


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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




       Records Management:
       Storage and retrieval of files are a constant nightmare for this agency, contributing to
       delays in the processing of transactions for the public. Performance within the
       Department will be highly improved if employees are able to retrieve information
       expeditiously, reducing the incidence of resubmitting forms and documents. Less
       effort will be exerted in assessing the right information in decision-making situations,
       speeding up the service delivery process.




       Human Resource Policies:
       The goal of establishing an effective HR management policy is to attract, retain and
       develop a cadre of public service personnel through training, career management, and
       performance management towards providing a high performance environment that will
       step up their performance. (P-E fit, Ivancevich et al)


           The objective of this process is to promote:
          New, improved organizational structure and roles
          Appropriate staffing to roles and functions
          Enhance personnel skills
          Greater accountability through performance management
          New and Improved systems and processes




       8.4 POTENTIAL FOR WORKING WITH CLIENT

In designing this project, it is suggested that the Department employ the use of the World

Bank‟s Rapid Results approach whereby employees review their work processes with the

objective of shortening and improving services. In order to obtain maximum participation and

ownership of the job process by the employees, it is essential to get them involved in the

process design from inception to implementation.



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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




       8.5 EXTENT OF COMMITMENT:

The reengineering task force team is made up of both Senior and Junior staff members. The

lead facilitators of the BPR will be a team of two individuals who have knowledge of BPR and

have undertaken such measures before.

To ensure that the process is effectively implemented, the BPR office plans to organize

seminars and training for all members of the department. Also, plans are far advance to

initiate public education for the general public when the process comes into force.

The agency has allocated the needed funding for the project implementation and there is

leadership commitment to see through the project.



9. GROUP PROCESS

Our team adopted an informal procedure when we started work on our project. The goals of

the two team members were implicit and not necessarily discussed. The loyalty and sense of

belonging to the team at large eschewed from both of us at the onset.



The adaptation of the informal procedure enabled us to achieve our aims. No visible structure

existed, both team members assumed full and equal responsibility to carrying out the work

involved. We each took on leading roles and worked hand in hand to accomplish the task. It

was during the discussions that the leading roles emerged.



There was evidence of „pyramiding‟- a sequence of stages where we‟d each work on the

project on an individual basis and then come together to discuss it at length. Elements of

personal development such as working individually yet cooperatively helped us work tactfully

on the case.




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




We encountered some constraints early on in the project. The availability of us attending ad

hoc meetings was limited since we both live on opposite ends of the metro DC area. We

therefore decided to utilize all mediums of communication-email, Instant Messenger and

Telephone calls. All these came in handy and helped us bridge that communication gap.




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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: GHANA DEPARTMENT




10. REFERENCES
         1. “Country Profile: Ghana”
            http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/1023355.stm, Accessed
            11/29/2005
         2. “Ghana Country History” http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0858408.html,
            Accessed 11/28/2005
         3. “CIA World FACT Book 2005 – Ghana”
            http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/gh.html, Accessed
            11/29/2005
         4. “History of Ghana” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghana, Accessed 11/30/2005
         5. “Ghana Information Portal Web” http://www.ghanaweb.com, Accessed
            12/01/2005
         6. “Ghana Diaspora Portal” http://www.ghanatoday.com, Accessed 11/29/2005
         7. “Ghana Review International Online Magazine”
            http://ghanareview.com/review/, Accessed 12/05/2005
         8. “Welcome to The Republic of Ghana – Government Portal”
            http://www.ghana.gov.gh/index.php, Accessed 11/30/2005
         9. Memory Jogger II – Six Sigma, A guide Quality Tools (GE Publication 2003)




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