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Preface                                                              xxv
Acknowledgments                                                     xxvii
Editors' Note                                                       xxix
PART I. INTRODUCTION                                                   1
Chapter 1. Defining Terrorism and Counterterrorism                     3

     A.   Seeking a Definition of Terrorism: a Brief Sketch            4

                Notes and Questions                                    8

     B.   The Process of Labeling Terrorists and Terrorist            12

                Designation of Foreign Terrorist Organizations (8     12
                U.S.C. §1189)

                People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran v.            13
                Department of State
                United States v. Afshari                              16

                Notes and Questions                                   20

     C.   Defining Terrorism in International Law                     21

                Almog v. Arab Bank, PLC                               21

                Saperstein v. The Palestinian Authority               32

                Notes and Questions                                   35

     D.   Defining Counterterrorism: a Road Map to This Book          37

PART II. ATTACKING TERRORISTS ABROAD                                  39
Chapter 2. Waging War on Terrorists                                   41

     A.   The President's Defensive War Power                         41
                The Prize Cases                                        43

                Notes and Questions                                    46

     B.   Statutory Authorization and Limits                           50

                Bas v. Tingy                                           50

                Notes and Questions                                    53

     C.   Defending Against al Qaeda—1998 and 2001                     57

                Authorization for Use of Military Force (Pub. L. No.   59
                107-40 (2001))

                Notes and Questions                                    60

Chapter 3. Targeted Killing                                            65

     A.   Law and Practice of Assassination                            66

                W. Hays Parks, Executive Order No. 12333 and           67

     B.   Targeted Killing by Predator                                 71

                Notes and Questions                                    72

Chapter 4. The Fourth Amendment and Counterterrorism                   83

     A.   Detection of Terrorist Threats                               84

                William C. Banks & M.E. Bowman, Executive              84
                Authority for National Security Surveillance

                John Ashcroft, Attorney General, U.S. Federal          85
                Efforts to Combat Terrorism

                Fact Sheet: Plots, Casings, and Infiltrations          86
                Referenced in President Bush's Remarks on the
                War on Terror
     B.   The Fourth Amendment Framework                                 87

                William C. Banks & M.E. Bowman, Executive                87
                Authority for National Security Surveillance

     C.   A National Security Exception?                                 89

                Senate Report No. 95-604                                 89

                United States v. United States District Court (Keith)    91

                Notes and Questions                                      98

     D.   A Foreign Intelligence Exception?                             101

                Select Committee to Study Governmental                  101
                Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities
                (Church Committee), Intelligence Activities and the
                Rights of Americans

                United States v. Ehrlichman                             102

                Notes and Questions                                     104

                United States v. Truong Dinh Hung                       106

                Notes and Questions                                     110

Chapter 5. Congress and Counterterrorism Intelligence: The Foreign      111
Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)
     A.   The Scope of Fourth Amendment Protection                      112

                Smith v. Maryland                                       112

                Notes and Questions                                     116

     B.   Congressional Authority for Surveillance: the Foreign         119
          Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)

                United States v. Rosen                                  120

                Notes and Questions                                     129
     C.   FISA, Law Enforcement, and "The Wall"                       143

                In re: Sealed Case Nos. 02-001, 02-002                145

                Notes and Questions                                   154

     D.   FISA Trends                                                 156

                Case Study: The Terrorist Surveillance Program        157

                Letter from William E. Moschella, Asst. Attorney      157

                American Civil Liberties Union v. National Security   162
                Notes and Questions                                   169

Chapter 6. Third-Party Records and Data Mining                        175

     A.   Finding the Dots—Third-Party Records                        175

          1.   Expectations of Privacy Regarding Transactional Data   175

                Smith v. Maryland                                     176

                Notes and Questions                                   176

          2.   Techniques and Authorities for Collection of           178
               Transactional Data

                Doe v. Ashcroft (Doe I)                               180

                Doe v. Gonzales                                       194

                Notes and Questions                                   195

     B.   Connecting the Dots—Data Mining                             200

                Notes and Questions                                   204

Chapter 7. Screening for Security                                     209

     A.   Checkpoint Searches                                         210

                MacWade v. Kelly                                      211
                 Notes and Questions                                  217

     B.   Identification and Watch Listing                            218

                 Gilmore v. Gonzales                                  219

                 Peter M. Shane, Watch Lists Maintained by Federal    221

                 Notes and Questions                                  222

     C.   Profiling                                                   228

                 Guidance Regarding the Use of Race by Federal        228
                 Law Enforcement Agencies

                 Notes and Questions                                  231

Chapter 8. Organizing and Coordinating Counterterrorism               239
     A.   Executive Authority for Counterterrorism Investigations     240

                 Executive Order No. 12,333                           241

                 Attorney General's Guidelines on General Crimes,     242
                 Racketeering Enterprise and Terrorism Enterprise

                 Attorney General's Guidelines for FBI National       247
                 Security Investigations and Foreign Intelligence

                 Notes and Questions                                  252

     B.   Information Sharing and Agency Reforms                      259

          1.   Bridging the Law Enforcement/Intelligence Collection   259

          2.   Reforming the FBI                                      263
                Notes and Questions                                       264

Chapter 9. Investigating Abroad                                           267

                Reid v. Covert                                            267

                United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez                         270

                Notes and Questions                                       276

                United States v. Bin Laden                                278

                Notes and Questions                                       286

Chapter 10. Civil Detention of Terrorist Suspects                         295

                Affidavit of Michael E. Rolince, U.S. Dept. of Justice,   296
                Exec. Office for Immigration Review

                Office of the Inspector General, Dept. of Justice,        298
                The September 11 Detainees: A Review of the
                Treatment of Aliens Held on Immigration Charges

                Non-Detention Act (18 U.S.C. §4001(a))                    301

                Notes and Questions                                       302

Chapter 11. Suspending the Great Writ                                     311

     A.   Statutory Basis for Habeas Corpus                               312

                Habeas Corpus (28 U.S.C. §§2241, 2243)                    312

     B.   Suspending the Writ for U.S. Persons                            313

                Ex parte Milligan                                         314

                Notes and Questions                                       317

     C.   Availability of the Writ to Nonresident Aliens                  320

                Johnson v. Eisentrager                                    321
                Rasul v. Bush                                         326

                Notes and Questions                                   333

     D.   Suspending the Writ for Aliens?                             335

                Boumediene v. Bush (D.C. Cir. Feb. 20, 2007)          336

                Boumediene v. Bush (S. Ct. Apr. 2, 2007)              343

                Notes and Questions                                   346

Chapter 12. Military Detention of Terrorist Suspects                  349

     A.   Wartime Detention of Combatants Before 9/11                 349

                Ex parte Milligan                                     349

                Ex parte Quirin                                       353

                Notes and Questions                                   357

     B.   Detention of U.S. Citizens as Combatants After 9/11         359

                Hamdi v. Rumsfeld                                     359

                Order by President George W. Bush to the              380
                Secretary of Defense (June 9, 2002)

                Rumsfeld v. Padilla                                   382

                Padilla v. Hanft                                      383

                Notes and Questions                                   388

     C.   Military Detention of Alien Enemy Combatants After 9/11     394

                Notes and Questions                                   396

Chapter 13. Interrogating Terrorist Suspects                          399

     A.   The Evolving History of Detainee Interrogation in the War   399
          on Terrorism

     B.   The Legal Standards and Their Application                   404
                Memorandum from John Yoo and Robert J.                 404
                Delahunty, Application of Treaties and Laws to al
                Qaeda and Taliban Detainees

                Memorandum from Alberto R. Gonzales, Decision re       410
                Application of the Geneva Convention on Prisoners
                of War to the Conflict with Al Qaeda and the Taliban

                Memorandum from William H. Taft IV, Comments on        413
                Your Paper on the Geneva Convention

                Working Group Report On Detainee Interrogations        414

                Memorandum from Donald R. Rumsfeld, Counter-           422
                Resistance Techniques in the War on Terrorism

                Notes and Questions                                    425

Chapter 14. Extraordinary Rendition                                    453

                Arar v. Ashcroft                                       453

                Notes and Questions                                    461

PART V. ARRESTING, PROSECUTING, AND REMOVING                           469
Chapter 15. Criminalizing Treason, Terrorism, and Material Support     471

     A.   Treason and Sedition                                         471

                United States v. Rahman                                471

                Notes and Questions                                    477

     B.   Material Support Crimes                                      478

                Providing Material Support to Terrorists (18 U.S.C.    479

                Providing Material Support or Resources to             479
                Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (18
                U.S.C. §2339B)

                Prohibitions Against the Financing of Terrorism (18   480
                U.S.C. §2339C)

                Humanitarian Law Project v. Reno                      480

                United States v. Al-Arian                             485

                Notes and Questions                                   488

     C.   The Long Arm of the Law: Extraterritorial Criminal          493

                United States v. Bin Laden                            494

                Notes and Questions                                   500

Chapter 16. Apprehending Terrorists                                   505

     A.   Extradition                                                 505

                In the Matter of the Extradition of Marzook           505

                Notes and Questions                                   512

     B.   Irregular Rendition                                         516

                United States v. Alvarez-Machain                      516

                Notes and Questions                                   522

Chapter 17. Trying Suspected Terrorists as Criminals                  529

     A.   Classified Information Procedures Act                       530

                Classified Information Procedures Act (18 U.S.C.      530
                app. 3 §§4-6)

                United States v. Lee                                  532

                Notes and Questions                                   535

     B.   Confronting Secret Witnesses                                540

                United States v. Abu Marzook                          540
                Notes and Questions                                   546

     C.   Handling Secret Exculpatory Testimony                       547

                United States v. Moussaoui                            547

                Notes and Questions                                   552

Chapter 18. Trying Suspected Terrorists as Unlawful Enemy             557
     A.   Trial by Military Commissions Before 9/11                   558

                Ex parte Milligan                                     558

                Ex parte Quirin                                       558

                Notes and Questions                                   558

     B.   Trial by Military Commissions After 9/11                    558

                Military Order of November 13, 2001, Detention,       559
                Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the
                War Against Terrorism

                Hamdan v. Rumsfeld                                    563

                Notes and Questions                                   583

     C.   The Military Commissions Act of 2006                        587

                Military Commissions Act of 2006 (Pub. L. No. 109-    587

                Notes and Questions                                   597

Chapter 19. Trying Suspected Terrorists as "special Interest"         601
     A.   Are All Terrorists a Danger to National Security?           602

                Cheema v. Ashcroft                                    603

                Notes and Questions                                   609
    B.   Using Secret Evidence Against Terrorist Suspects          610

               American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee v.      610
               Notes and Questions                                 614

    C.   Public Access to Removal Hearings                         618

               North Jersey Media Group, Inc. v. Ashcroft          620

               Notes and Questions                                 624

PART VI. MANAGING TERRORIST ATTACKS                                627
Chapter 20. Responding to a WMD Attack                             629

    A.   Thinking the Unthinkable: Planning a Response to a        630
         Terrorist Attack

               Notes and Questions                                 631

    B.   A Worst-Case Scenario                                     632

              Thomas V. Inglesby, Rita Grossman & Tara O'Toole,    632
              A Plague on Your City: Observations from TOPOFF

               Notes and Questions                                 635

    C.   First Responders: Roles and Authorities                   638

               The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the     639
               National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the
               United States

               Notes and Questions                                 640

    D.   Second Responders: The Federal Role                       642

               Notes and Questions                                 645

    E.   Quarantines and Other Compulsory Responses                647

         1.   State and Local Responses to a Terrorist Attack      648
                Jew Ho v. Williamson                                 648

                Jacobson v. Massachusetts                            652

                Notes and Questions                                  655

          2.   A Model State Response: The MSEHPA?                   658

                Model State Emergency Health Powers Act              659

                Notes and Questions                                  662

          3.   The Federal Response to a Bioterrorist Attack         662

                Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. §§243, 264)     663

                Interstate Quarantine (42 C.F.R. pt. 70)             664

                Notes and Questions                                  664

Chapter 21. The Military's Domestic Role in Counterterrorism         669

     A.   The Traditional Role of the Military in American Society   670

          1.   The Posse Comitatus Act as a Background Principle     670

                Bissonette v. Haig                                   670

                Notes and Questions                                  674

          2.   Exceptions to the Posse Comitatus Act                 675

                Insurrection Act (10 U.S.C. §§331-335)               675

                Military Cooperation with Law Enforcement            677
                OfficialsAct (10 U.S.C. §§371-382)

                Notes and Questions                                  679

     B.   The Military's Intelligence Role in Homeland Security      682

          1.   Military Domestic Surveillance During the Vietnam     682

                Laird v. Tatum                                       682
                   Notes and Questions                                687

          2.   Domestic Use of Military Intelligence for              689

                   Notes and Questions                                691

     C.   The Military's Role in Responding to Domestic Terrorist     691

          1.   Leading or Supporting Role?                            691

          2.   Controlling Authorities                                693

          3.   Organizing for a Response                              694

          4.   Lessons from Hurricane Katrina                         695

                   Notes and Questions                                696

     D.   Martial Law: When Planning Fails                            697

                   Ex parte Milligan                                  698

                   Notes and Questions                                698

Chapter 22. Public Sanctions Against Terrorists and Their Sponsors    703

     A.   International Sanctions                                     703

          1.   Developing a Consensus Among Nations to Fight          703

               a The United States Reaches Out                        703

               b International Commitment to Counterterrorism         704

                   United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy   705
          2.   Compulsory Actions by International Organizations      707

                United Nations Security Council, Resolution 1333      707

                Notes and Questions                                   710

          3.   Treaties Specifically Addressing Terrorism             711

                International Convention for the Suppression of the   712
                Financing of Terrorism

                Notes and Questions                                   716

          4.   Other Forms of International Cooperation               717

     B.   Domestic Public Sanctions                                   717

          1.   Designation of Foreign Terrorist Organizations         718

          2.   International Economic Emergency Powers Act            718

                Executive Order No. 13,224, Blocking Property and     719
                Prohibiting Transactions with Persons Who Commit,
                Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism

                Humanitarian Law Project v. United States Dept. of    722
                Notes and Questions                                   728

          3.   Other Domestic Economic Sanctions Against State        730
               Sponsors of Terrorism

                Notes and Questions                                   731

Chapter 23. Suing Terrorists and Their Sponsors                       733

     A.   Suing Terrorists and Their Non-State Sponsors               733

                Boim v. Quranic Literacy Institute and Holy Land      733
                Foundation for Relief and Development
                 Notes and Questions                       741

     B.   Suing State Sponsors of Terrorism                745

              Cicippio-Puleo v. Islamic Republic of Iran   745

                 Notes and Questions                       751

     C.   Collecting the Judgment                          754

                 Notes and Questions                       756

Appendix—Constitution of the United States                 757

Table of Cases                                             765
Index                                                      771

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