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					                      MONA LAKE WATERSHED

                WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PLAN




                               NOVEMBER 2005
                            PROJECT NO. G01513WM




FISHBECK, THOMPSON, CARR & HUBER, INC.              Engineers ● Scientists ● Architects
       1515 Arboretum Drive, SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49546 Telephone: 616-575-3824
TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................. 1

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................... 4
    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Phase II Storm Water Program ....................... 4
    Development of the Mona Lake Watershed Management Plan ........................................................... 5
    Public Participation ................................................................................................................................ 5

CHAPTER 1 - DESCRIPTION OF WATERSHED ........................................................................................ 8
   1.1      Study Area ............................................................................................................................. 8
   1.2      Geology and Topography ...................................................................................................... 9
   1.3      Soils ....................................................................................................................................... 9
       1.3.1 Hydrologic Soil Groups .................................................................................................. 10
   1.4      Hydrology ............................................................................................................................. 11
   1.5      Population ............................................................................................................................ 11
   1.6      Land Use ............................................................................................................................. 12
   1.7      Natural Features .................................................................................................................. 12

CHAPTER 2 - REPORTED CONDITION OF WATERSHED ..................................................................... 16
   2.1      Biological and Chemical Assessments of the Watershed ................................................... 16
   2.2      Watershed Assessments ..................................................................................................... 19
   2.3      Health Consultation ............................................................................................................. 22
   2.4      Total Maximum Daily Load Reports .................................................................................... 23
   2.5      National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Phase II Storm Water Program Outfall
   Screening ............................................................................................................................................ 25
   2.6      Superfund Sites on the National Priorities List .................................................................... 26

CHAPTER 3 - DESIGNATED USES OF THE MONA LAKE WATERSHED .............................................. 28
   3.1      Designated Uses ................................................................................................................. 28
   3.2      Impairments to Designated Uses ........................................................................................ 30
       3.2.1 Point Source Pollution .................................................................................................... 31
       3.2.2 Nonpoint Source Pollution.............................................................................................. 31
       3.2.3 Priority Subwatersheds of the Mona Lake Watershed ................................................... 35
   3.3      Sources and Causes of Impairments .................................................................................. 36

CHAPTER 4 - GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................ 41

CHAPTER 5 - IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY ........................................................................................ 48
   5.1      Best Management Practice Recommendations .................................................................. 48
   5.2      Cost/Benefit of and Commitments to Implementing Best Management Practices .............. 48
   5.3      Methods of Evaluation ......................................................................................................... 49

CHAPTER 6 - SUSTAINABILITY ................................................................................................................ 58
   6.1      Muskegon Area Storm Water Committee ............................................................................ 58
   6.2      Mona Lake Watershed Council ........................................................................................... 58

BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................................... 59




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TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1       Participating Watershed Stakeholder Groups ..................................................................... 6
Table 2       E-mail Distribution List ......................................................................................................... 7
Table 3       Communities Located in the Mona Lake Watershed .......................................................... 8
Table 4       Threatened, Endangered, and Species of Special Concern in Muskegon County ........... 13
Table 5       High Quality Natural Communities in Muskegon County .................................................. 15
Table 6       Designated Uses for Surface Waters in the State of Michigan ......................................... 28
Table 7       Met, Impaired, or Threatened Designated Uses of the Mona Lake Watershed................ 29
Table 8       Pollutants of the Mona Lake Watershed ........................................................................... 32
Table 9       Priority Subwatersheds of the Mona Lake Watershed ...................................................... 36
Table 10      Sources and Causes of Pollutants Impacting Designated Uses ....................................... 37
Table 11      Goals and Objectives of the Mona Lake Watershed ......................................................... 42
Table 12      Implementation Activities................................................................................................... 51

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1      Study Area
Figure 2      Quaternary Geology
Figure 3      Topographic Relief
Figure 4      Topographic Slope
Figure 5      Soils Series Groups
Figure 6      Prime Farmland
Figure 7      Hydrologic Soil
Figure 8      Population Density
Figure 9      Population Change
Figure 10     Presettlement Vegetation
Figure 11     Land Cover

LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1    Biological Community Assessments of Black Creek
Appendix 2    A Biological Survey of Big Black Creek
Appendix 3    A Biological and Chemical Survey of Black Creek
Appendix 4    A Biological and Chemical Assessment of Little Black Creek
Appendix 5    Mona, White, and Muskegon Lakes Report
Appendix 6    Mona Lake Watershed Stewardship Assessment
Appendix 7    Preliminary Watershed Assessment: Mona Lake Watershed
Appendix 8    Little Black Creek Health Consultation
Appendix 9    Biota TMDL for Little Black Creek
Appendix 10   Biota TMDL for Black Creek
Appendix 11   NPDES Permitted Discharges




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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Mona Lake Watershed Management Plan (WMP) was developed as part of the National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II Storm Water Program by the Muskegon Area Storm
Water Committee (MASWC). This document provides a description of watershed characteristics,
identifies watershed pollutants, and makes recommendations for the treatment, prevention, and reduction
of pollution in the Mona Lake Watershed (Watershed).

DESCRIPTION OF WATERSHED

Mona Lake covers approximately 695 acres on the west shoreline of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. The
Watershed is a divergent system of scenic and biologically productive areas contrasted with locations that
are subject to the adverse impacts of development. Residents report that they rely on this resource for
boating, canoeing, sailing, swimming, and fishing activities as well as for agricultural use.

Mona Lake is fed primarily by Black Creek and discharges into Lake Michigan through a navigation
channel. The Watershed drains approximately 55,534 acres and covers parts of three counties and
fourteen municipalities. Major waterways that discharge directly into Mona Lake include Black Creek and
Little Black Creek, both designated coldwater streams. A number of smaller tributaries and drains are
present in the Watershed including Cranberry Creek, Cress Creek, Ellis Drain, Hall Drain, and Kuis Drain.
Forests (36%), agriculture (29%), development (20%), grasslands (9%), wetlands (4%), and
open water/barren land (2%) cover the landscape.

REPORTED CONDITION AND DESIGNATED USES OF THE MONA LAKE WATERSHED

Mona Lake’s water quality improved between 1972 and 1975, following wastewater diversion from the
Muskegon County Wastewater Treatment Facility. Between 1972 and 1980, marked reductions in surficial
sediment contaminants occurred, although concentrations of heavy metals in sediments near the mouth
of Little Black Creek remained high.

Current water quality conditions of the Watershed impair many of the Watershed’s designated uses due
to nonpoint source pollution and past point source pollution. Pollutants and impairments of concern
include sediment, heavy metals, toxic substances, hydrocarbons, nutrients, pathogens, thermal pollution,
and unstable hydrology. Poor water quality has resulted in the following impaired designated uses of the
Watershed: coldwater fishery, warmwater fishery, other indigenous aquatic life and wildlife, and partial
and total body recreation. Biological surveys and other watershed studies have found a number of
Mona Lake’s tributaries have poor macroinvertebrate and fish communities. In addition, Mona Lake and
several subwatersheds do not meet water quality standards.



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GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The overall goal established for the Watershed is to restore and improve its impaired and threatened
designated uses. Six long-term goals were established to achieve this overall Watershed goal:

1. Prevent soil erosion and reduce sedimentation in Mona Lake and its tributaries.

2. Reduce concentrations of heavy metals, toxic substances, and hydrocarbons.

3. Reduce nutrient loading of Mona Lake and its tributaries with particular attention to sources of

    phosphorus.

4. Prevent pathogens from entering surface waters flowing to Mona Lake.

5. Reduce sources of thermal pollution to Little Black Creek.

6. Stabilize stream flows to moderate hydrology and increase base flow.


Short-term objectives were also created by examining the long-term goals and determining how they

would best be met. All goals and objectives are intended to address the current watershed conditions and

improve water quality over time.


IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY

The MASWC discussed, reviewed, and recommended potential best management practices (BMPs) for
the Watershed. Practices were chosen after considering sources and causes of watershed pollution and
their impacts on designated uses. BMPs include structural, vegetative, and managerial practices.
Information and Education (I&E) activities were also recommended to inform the public about watershed
concerns and motivate people to action. Implementation of these practices will make progress toward
meeting long-term goals and short-term objectives.

Evaluation methods were selected for each proposed action to determine its success at preventing,
reducing, and treating water pollution. I&E efforts will be evaluated on their effectiveness at informing and
educating the public, as well as inspiring individuals to take action. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation
methods were recommended, as well as methods to measure watershed activities and water quality
results. Measurement of watershed activities evaluate the effort shown by the permittee to implement
storm water controls, while measurements of water quality results show how implemented activities have
affected the Watershed.




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In addition to selecting evaluation methods, the MASWC also determined the cost/benefit of each
practice. Proposed actions were flagged as having “minimal” (< $500), “moderate” ($500 to $5,000), or
“high”   costs   (>$5,000)   to   help   permittees   determine   what   can   feasibly   be   implemented.
Recommendations were also identified as having a “minimal,” “moderate,” or “high” benefit in terms of
either social awareness or water quality improvements. Actions identified as most beneficial are those
considered the most effective at preventing, treating, or reducing water pollution.

SUSTAINABILITY

Muskegon Area Storm Water Committee

In 2004, the MASWC began coordination with the Mona Lake Watershed Council (Council) to develop the
Mona Lake Watershed Management Plan (WMP). This WMP will provide the MASWC with the necessary
information to implement recommendations to meet short-term objectives and long-term goals in
accordance with the NPDES Phase II Storm Water Program.

Mona Lake Watershed Council

The Council works to “restore, protect, and maintain, for future generations, the Mona Lake Watershed as
a viable natural resource and to inspire attitudes, awareness, and knowledge through the use of science
and education.” In August 2004, the Council received a two-year grant to fund the development of a
management plan for the Watershed that meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 319
requirements. In addition to the Watershed project, the Council is also involved in the Little Black Creek
Public Health Outreach project in order to educate residents about the health concerns associated with
contaminated sediments in Little Black Creek.




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INTRODUCTION

This document provides a description of watershed characteristics, identifies watershed pollutants, and
makes recommendations for the treatment, prevention, and reduction of pollution in the Mona Lake
Watershed (Watershed). The Mona Lake Watershed Management Plan (WMP) was developed as part of
the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II Storm Water Program by several
communities and stakeholders within Muskegon County.


THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM PHASE II
STORM WATER PROGRAM

In 1987, Congress amended the Clean Water Act to protect water bodies from the impacts of urban
runoff. The 1987 amendments required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to address storm water
runoff in two phases. The Phase I NPDES Storm Water Program began in 1990 and applied to medium
and large municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) located in incorporated places or counties with
populations of 100,000 or more. Five cities in Michigan were required to comply with Phase I including
Ann Arbor, Flint, Grand Rapids, Lansing, and Warren. The Michigan Department of Transportation was
also required to comply. Phase I also required permit coverage for discharges from 11 industrial
categories of activities, including construction sites disturbing 5 acres of land or more. The Phase II
NPDES Storm Water Program required permit coverage by March 2003 and applied to MS4s located in
areas with populations between 50,000 and 100,000 and with surrounding areas of greater than 1,000
people per square mile. Construction sites required permits if disturbing land equal to or greater than
1 acre, but less than 5 acres. Under Phase II, operators of regulated small MS4s are required to design
their programs to reduce the discharge of pollutants in storm water to the "maximum extent practicable.”




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DEVELOPMENT OF THE MONA LAKE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PLAN

The Mona Lake WMP was written in compliance with the requirements of the NPDES Phase II Storm
Water Program. The main purpose of this document is to identify implementation actions needed to
protect and restore designated uses and resolve water quality and quantity concerns. Development of the
Mona Lake WMP was completed by several Phase II Storm Water Permittees (Permittees) within the
Watershed    in   accordance    with   the   Public   Participation   Process   (PPP)      submitted   to   the
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) in April 2004. These Permittees joined those of
the Muskegon Lake Watershed and the Lower Grand River Watershed to form the Muskegon Area Storm
Water Committee (MASWC) in order to begin controlling direct discharges into the surface waters of the
state. Permittees located in the Watershed include the City of Muskegon Heights, City of Norton Shores,
City of Roosevelt Park, City of Muskegon, Egelston Township, Muskegon Charter Township,
Fruitport Charter Township, and Sullivan Township. Muskegon County Administration, Muskegon County
Drain Commissioner, and Muskegon County Road Commission are also permittees.


PUBLIC PARTICIPATION

A PPP was developed to solicit public participation in the development of the Mona Lake WMP. The PPP
was submitted to the MDEQ in March 2003 and approved. Several methods for engaging the public in the
development of the Mona Lake WMP were specified in the PPP. Communication methods included
meetings, public meetings, newsletters and print media, and an e-mail distribution list.

Meetings

The MASWC attended bi-monthly and quarterly meetings of the Mona Lake Watershed Council’s
(Council) Technical and Steering Committees during 2005 to exchange information on the state of the
Watershed and to assist in the development of the Mona Lake WMP. In addition, the MASWC held a
Mona Lake WMP work session on September 15, 2005, at the Muskegon Charter Township Hall. This
work session was held to assist in the identification of watershed pollutants and impaired designated
uses, as well as the selection of appropriate best management practices. Participants included members
from the MASWC, Council, MDEQ, and Timberland Resource Conservation & Development.




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Public Meetings

The MASWC held two public meetings, May 3 and October 18, 2005, to provide opportunities for public
comment on the Mona Lake WMP. Thirteen watershed stakeholder groups (Table 1) attended these
meetings. Public meetings provided an opportunity for Watershed residents, local decision makers, and
watershed coordinators to share their concerns, offer solutions, and provide feedback regarding the
management of the Watershed.

         Table 1 - Participating Watershed Stakeholder Groups
         1.   City of Muskegon
         2.   City of Norton Shores
         3.   City of Roosevelt Park
         4.   Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
         5.   Mona Lake Improvement Association
         6.   Mona Lake Watershed Council
         7.   Muskegon Area Storm Water Committee
         8.   Muskegon Charter Township
         9.   Muskegon County Administration
         10. Muskegon County Health Department
         11. Muskegon County Road Commission
         12. Sullivan Township
         13. Watershed Residents

Newsletter and Print Media

To encourage attendance, the MASWC members posted public notices at their township and city halls
announcing the public meeting on October 18, 2005. Residents were encouraged to attend in order to
offer their comments on the final draft of the Mona Lake WMP.

E-mail Distribution List

An e-mail distribution list was created to convey information about planning activities and public input
opportunities. Watershed stakeholder groups, included on the distribution list, are noted in Table 2.




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 Table 2 - E-mail Distribution List
 Annis Water Resources Institute                 Muskegon County Cooperating Churches

 City of Muskegon                                Muskegon County Drain Commissioner

 City of Muskegon Heights                        Muskegon County Environmental Coordinating Council

 City of Norton Shores                           Muskegon County Health Project

 City of Roosevelt Park                          Muskegon County Health Department

 Consumers Energy                                Muskegon County Road Commission

 Egelston Township                               Muskegon County Waste Management System

 Fishbeck, Thompson, Carr & Huber, Inc.          Muskegon Lake Public Advisory Council

 Fruitport Charter Township                      Muskegon Public Schools
                                                 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
 Great Lakes Marina
                                                 Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
 Lake Michigan Federation                        Natural Resources Conservation Service

 Michigan Anglers                                Office of Senator Stabenow

 Michigan Department of Environmental Quality    Sullivan Township

 Michigan House of Representatives               Save Our Shoreline
                                                 Timberland Resource, Conservation, & Development Area
 Michigan Senate
                                                 Council
 Mona Lake Watershed Council                     United Way

 Moorland Township                               Volunteer Muskegon

 Muskegon Area Storm Water Committee             Watershed Residents
                                                 West Michigan Shoreline Regional Development
 Muskegon Charter Township
                                                 Commission
 Muskegon Chemical Council                       West Michigan United Labor Volunteers

 Muskegon Conservation Club                      Westshore Consulting

 Muskegon Conservation District                  YMCA
 Notes:
 YMCA = Young Men’s Christian Association




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CHAPTER 1 - DESCRIPTION OF WATERSHED

1.1     STUDY AREA

Mona Lake is located on the west shoreline of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. The lake is fed primarily by
Black Creek, and ultimately empties into Lake Michigan through a navigation channel. For the purpose of
this Mona Lake Watershed Management Plan (WMP), the watershed boundary for Mona Lake was
defined as the vicinity drained by the urbanized area within Muskegon County, excluding the Muskegon
Lake Watershed and the Lower Grand River Watershed (Figure 1).

The Mona Lake Watershed (Watershed) drains approximately 55,534 acres and covers parts of three
counties, ten townships, and four cities (Table 3). Included in the system are several creeks, drains, and
lakes. Major waterways that discharge directly into Mona Lake include Black Creek and Little Black
Creek. Forests (36%), agriculture (29%), development (20%), grasslands (9%), wetlands (4%), and
open water/barren land (2%) cover the landscape U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 1992).


 Table 3 - Communities Located in the Mona Lake Watershed
           Community                    County         Percentage of Community within Watershed
 Casnovia Township                    Muskegon                               5%
 City of Muskegon                     Muskegon                               12%
 City of Muskegon Heights             Muskegon                               82%
 City of Norton Shores                Muskegon                               92%
 City of Roosevelt Park               Muskegon                               34%
 Egelston Township                    Muskegon                               41%
 Fruitport Charter Township           Muskegon                               34%
 Moorland Township                    Muskegon                               60%
 Muskegon Charter Township            Muskegon                               15%
 Ravenna Township                     Muskegon                               <1%
 Sullivan Township                    Muskegon                               15%
 Ashland Township                      Newaygo                               3%
 Bridgeton Township                    Newaygo                               1%
 Spring Lake Township                   Ottawa                               9%




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1.2      GEOLOGY AND TOPOGRAPHY

Glacial processes shaped Muskegon County during the last glacial period, called the Wisconsin era. As
the glaciers retreated between 8 and 10 thousand years ago, they left a glacial deposit, 150 to 400 feet in
thickness, on the surface of Muskegon County (United States Department of Agriculture [USDA], 1968).
As a result of glacier activity, the majority of the Watershed’s quaternary geology is made up of
Lacustrine sand and gravel (72%) (Figure 2). Lacustrine sand is moderately well-sorted, silty, and
generally consists of quartz grains. It is usually a near-shore deposit or near a sand source.
Lacustrine gravel is silty and commonly consists of angular to subrounded pebbles and cobbles. The rest
of the Watershed is covered in dune sand (17%), end moraines (10%), glacial outwash (1%), and
fine-textured glacial till (<1%).

A belt of dune sand can be found along Lake Michigan’s shoreline. These dunes are postglacial in origin,
but are now generally stationary (USDA, 1968). Several miles inland, smaller dunes are scattered
throughout the poorly-drained areas of the lake plain. End moraines of fine-textured till occur in
Moorland Township at the southern portion of the Watershed and consist of non-sorted glacial debris.
Glacial outwash sand and gravel and postglacial alluvium occur in the extreme east end of the Watershed
and are typically fine to coarse sand alternating with layers of small gravel to heavy cobbles.

Generally, elevations within the Watershed vary from 550 to 600 feet, in the area surrounding the mouth
of Black Creek, to a height of 750 to 800 feet near the far eastern portion of the Watershed (Figure 3).
Most of the Watershed is fairly level to rolling and hilly (USDA, 1968) with slopes between 0 and 6%
(Figure 4).


1.3      SOILS

The Soil Survey of Muskegon County, Michigan (1968) indicates that approximately three-fourths of the
Watershed contains sandy soils (Figure 5). In general, the soils north of Mona Lake and Black Creek
consist of well-drained sand on rolling hills and nearly-level plains extending inland from Lake Michigan.
Sand extends to a depth of 4 feet or more and has a low-moisture-holding capacity and low natural
fertility. Soil blowing is likely in cultivated areas and may be severe. This area is not well suited for
farming, but is valued for recreational uses and its suitability for building construction.

The area along the northern perimeter of Mona Lake and Black Creek to the southern edge of the
Watershed contains sloping, dry sands intermingled with wet sands that lie at the base of slopes and in
depressions. Although these soils are also not well suited for farming, it has occurred in this area, due to
greater moisture availability.




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Another dominant soil type within the Watershed is hydric, or wetland soil, which comprises approximately
14% of the Watershed area. Wetland soil is generally located in Moorland Township, at the eastern end
of the Watershed. These areas contain both organic soil and heavy-textured mineral soil and have a high
water table and low natural fertility. Drainage and flood controls are required to manage water levels for
successful farming. However, adequate outlets are often lacking.

The Watershed formerly contained a dense, pine forest that was almost completely harvested by 1900.
Much of the area was cleared for farming, but was later abandoned due to low productivity. Approximately
7% of the Watershed contains prime farmland (Figure 6). Most of the prime farmland is located at the
upper reaches of the Watershed in Moorland and Casnovia Townships. Small areas of prime farmland
are also present along Black Creek and Cranberry Creek. However, to be productive, the soil along these
creeks must be drained and protected from flooding by dikes. If these fields dry out, they are susceptible
to soil blowing.


1.3.1 HYDROLOGIC SOIL GROUPS

Figure 7 indicates the hydrologic soil groups mapped within the Watershed. These groups indicate the
soils’ runoff potential and drainage characteristics. The grouping is based on the inherent capacity of the
soil, without vegetation, to permit infiltration. Group A soils have rapid infiltration and low runoff potential,
and Group D soils have very slow drainage and high runoff potential. When soils are classified with two
groups (i.e., A/D), the first letter represents the artificially drained condition, and the second letter
represents the soil’s natural drainage condition. If a Group D soil is artificially drained with a resulting
hydrologic characteristic of a Group A soil, the soil would be classified as a Group A/D soil.

Group A Soils: High Infiltration rate, low runoff potential. Well drained to excessively drained sands or
gravelly sands. High rate of water transmission.

Group B Soils: Moderate infiltration rates. Moderately well to well drained. Moderately fine to medium
coarse texture. Moderate rate of water transmission.

Group C Soils: Slow infiltration rate. Has layer that impedes downward movement of water moderately
fine to fine texture. Slow rate of water transmission.

Group D Soils: Very slow infiltration rate, high runoff potential. Clays with high shrink/swell potential.
Permanent high water table. Clay pan or clay layer at or near surface. Shallow over nearly impervious
material. Very slow rate of water transmission.




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1.4     HYDROLOGY

Mona Lake, a drowned river mouth, covers approximately 695 acres and supports a warm water fishery
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 2002). Major waterways that discharge directly into
Mona Lake include Black Creek and Little Black Creek, both designated coldwater streams
(Michigan Department of Natural Resources [MDNR], 2002). A number of smaller tributaries and drains
are present in the watershed including Cranberry Creek, Cress Creek, Ellis Drain, Hall Drain, and
Kuis Drain. In addition to Mona Lake, Carr Lake and Little Black Lake are also located in the Watershed.
Little Black Lake is fed primarily by Yonkers Drain and discharges into Lake Michigan via the
Little Black Lake Drain. Little Black Lake does not receive or discharge water to Mona Lake, but has been
included in the Watershed boundary for the purposes of this document. Retention time of subwatersheds,
within the Mona Lake Watershed, range from 4.4 hours to 19.5 hours (AWRI, 2003).

Municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) that convey and control storm water within the
Watershed are now regulated under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Phase II storm
water program. MS4s collect storm water runoff from impervious surfaces (i.e., roads and roof tops)
through a network of waterways and constructed storm drains, which then discharge to surface waters
within the Watershed. Heavy rainstorms can convey large volumes of storm water directly to surface
waters along with various storm water pollutants such as sediment, oil, and grease. Operators of these
regulated MS4s are now required to develop storm water pollution prevention initiatives through the
Phase II program, which will include measures to reduce the amount of storm water pollutants conveyed
to local waterways by the MS4s.


1.5     POPULATION

According to the 2000 U.S. Census, the Watershed has its highest population density in the region
surrounding Mona Lake (Figure 8). Roosevelt Park and Muskegon Heights are the most dense (2,501 to
3,850 people per square mile), followed by the City of Muskegon (1,001 to 2,500 people per square mile).
Norton Shores and Muskegon Charter Township have 501 to 1,000 people per square mile, while the rest
of the Watershed has 44 to 500 people per square mile.

Although the City of Muskegon and Muskegon Heights are densely populated, a decline in total
population was recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau (Figure 9). The City of Muskegon and
Muskegon Heights experienced a -0.4% and -8.6% change, respectively, in total population between
1990 and 2000. However, the rest of the Watershed’s population increased from 1% to 35%.
Norton Shores, Roosevelt Park, Fruitport Charter Township, and Mooreland Township increased their
populations from 1 to 10%, while the rest of the watershed experienced a larger population increase of
11% to 35%.


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Overall, the average rate of 7.1% population growth between 1990 and 2000 for Muskegon County
exceeded Michigan’s average rate of population growth, 6.9% (U.S. Census Bureau).


1.6     LAND USE

Prior to widespread European settlement in the 1800s, approximately one-third (32%) of the Watershed
was covered by White Pine-White Oak forests (Figure 10). Beech-Sugar, Maple-Hemlock forests (27%),
mixed conifer swamp (11%), and shrub swamp/emergent marsh (10%) were the other major types of
vegetation. Since European settlement, the Watershed’s landscape has changed significantly. By 1890,
the Watershed’s dense White Pine-White Oak forest was almost completely harvested (USGS, 1992).

According to the 1992 National Land Cover Dataset (Figure 11), present land use/cover is predominately
forests (36%). However, agriculture covers 29% of the Watershed and is concentrated in an area east of
the Muskegon County Wastewater Treatment Facility. Some of this farmland area is owned by the
treatment facility and is used as an integral part of the wastewater management system. Development
encompasses 20% of the Watershed with high intensity development (5%) concentrated north of
Mona Lake and low intensity development (15%) scattered throughout the lower two-thirds of the
Watershed. Wetlands (4%) are found primarily along the Black Creek corridor, and grasslands and
shrublands (9%) can be found where forests are located. Open water and barren land make up the
remaining 2% of the Watershed.


1.7     NATURAL FEATURES

According to the City of Muskegon Master Land Use Plan (1997), the City of Muskegon has five main
groups of natural features:   lakes/lakeshore, dunes, wetlands, rivers/streams, and woodlands. These
natural features are present throughout the Watershed and support a variety of species.

Several of the animal and plant species within the Watershed have been listed as endangered,
threatened, or species of concern. The Michigan Natural Features Inventory has compiled a database of
Muskegon County’s native plants, animals, aquatic animals, and natural ecosystems. Information has
been gathered from field surveys, museum and herbaria records, published works, and communication
with scientists.




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Tables 4 and 5 provide a listing of all known occurrences of species that are threatened, endangered, and
of special concern, as well as high quality natural communities occurring within Muskegon County. This
list is based on known and verified sightings and represents the most complete data set available as of
January 4, 2005. This list is not considered to be a comprehensive listing of every potential species found
in the county. Additional species that are considered threatened, endangered, or of special concern may
be present in the county and not appear on this list.

 Table 4 - Threatened, Endangered, and Species of Special Concern in Muskegon County
           Common Name                         Scientific Name                     State Status
 1.    Atlantic Blue-eyed grass     Sisyrinchium atlanticum           Threatened
 2.    Bald Eagle                   Haliaeetus leucocephalus          Threatened
 3.    Bald-rush                    Psilocarya scirpoides             Threatened
 4.    Bastard Pennyroyal           Trichostema dichotomum            Threatened
 5.    Black Rat Snake              Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta          Special Concern
 6.    Black-fruited Spike-rush     Eleocharis melanocarpa            Special Concern
 7.    Blanding's Turtle            Emydoidea blandingii              Special Concern
 8.    Broad-leaved Puccoon         Lithospermum latifolium           Special Concern
 9.    Cerulean Warbler             Dendroica cerulea                 Special Concern
 10.   Cross-leaved Milkwort        Polygala cruciata                 Special Concern
 11.   Dune Cutworm                 Euxoa aurulenta                   Special Concern
 12.   Dusted Skipper               Atrytonopsis hianna               Threatened
 13.   Dwarf-bulrush                Hemicarpha micrantha              Special Concern
 14.   Eastern Box Turtle           Terrapene carolina carolina       Special Concern
 15.   Eastern Massasauga           Sistrurus catenatus catenatus     Special Concern
 16.   Ellipse                      Venustaconcha ellipsiformis       Special Concern
 17.   Few-flowered Nut-rush        Scleria pauciflora                Endangered
 18.   Frosted Elfin                Incisalia irus                    Threatened
 19.   Furrowed Flax                Linum sulcatum                    Special Concern
 20.   Ginseng                      Panax quinquefolius               Threatened
 21.   Great Blue Heron Rookery     Great Blue Heron Rookery          Not Available
 22.   Great Plains Spittlebug      Lepyronia gibbosa                 Threatened
 23.   Hall's Bulrush               Scirpus hallii                    Threatened
 24.   Henslow's Sparrow            Ammodramus henslowii              Threatened
 25.   Hill's Thistle               Cirsium hillii                    Special Concern
 26.   Hooded Warbler               Wilsonia citrina                  Special Concern
 27.   Karner Blue                  Lycaeides melissa samuelis        Threatened
 28.   Kirtland's Snake             Clonophis kirtlandii              Endangered
 29.   Lake Cress                   Armoracia lacustris               Threatened
 30.   Lake Floater                 Anodonta subgibbosa               Threatened
 31.   Louisiana Waterthrush        Seiurus motacilla                 Special Concern
 32.   Marsh Wren                   Cistothorus palustris             Special Concern



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 Table 4 - Threatened, Endangered, and Species of Special Concern in Muskegon County
          Common Name                           Scientific Name                      State Status
 33.   Meadow-beauty                 Rhexia virginica                   Special Concern
 34.   Mikania                       Mikania scandens                   Not Available
 35.   Missouri Rock-cress           Arabis missouriensis var. deamii   Special Concern
 36.   Northern Goshawk              Accipiter gentilis                 Special Concern
 37.   Northern Prostrate Clubmoss   Lycopodium appressum               Special Concern
 38.   northern prostrate clubmoss   Lycopodiella margueriteae          Threatened
 39.   Osprey                        Pandion haliaetus                  Threatened
 40.   Persius Duskywing             Erynnis persius persius            Threatened
 41.   Pine Katydid                  Scudderia fasciata                 Special Concern
 42.   Pinetree Cricket              Oecanthus pini                     Special Concern
 43.   Piping Plover                 Charadrius melodus                 Endangered
 44.   Pitcher's Thistle             Cirsium pitcheri                   Threatened
 45.   Prairie Warbler               Dendroica discolor                 Endangered
 46.   Prairie-smoke                 Geum triflorum                     Threatened
 47.   Prothonotary Warbler          Protonotaria citrea                Special Concern
 48.   Purple Spike-rush             Eleocharis atropurpurea            Endangered
 49.   Rainbow                       Villosa iris                       Special Concern
 50.   Sand Grass                    Triplasis purpurea                 Special Concern
 51.   Scirpus-like Rush             Juncus scirpoides                  Threatened
 52.   Slippershell Mussel           Alasmidonta viridis                Special Concern
 53.   Spindle Lymnaea               Acella haldemani                   Special Concern
 54.   Spotted Gar                   Lepisosteus oculatus               Special Concern
 55.   Spotted Turtle                Clemmys guttata                    Threatened
 56.   Sprague's Pygarctia           Pygarctia spraguei                 Special Concern
 57.   Swamp Rose-mallow             Hibiscus moscheutos                Special Concern
 58.   Tall Beak-rush                Rhynchospora macrostachya          Special Concern
 59.   Tall Green Milkweed           Asclepias hirtella                 Threatened
 60.   Tall Nut-rush                 Scleria triglomerata               Special Concern
 61.   Three-birds Orchid            Triphora trianthophora             Threatened
 62.   Tinted Spurge                 Euphorbia commutata                Threatened
 63.   Tooth-cup                     Rotala ramosior                    Special Concern
 64.   Trailing Wild Bean            Strophostyles helvula              Special Concern
 65.   Umbrella-grass                Fuirena squarrosa                  Threatened
 66.   Virginia Water-horehound      Lycopus virginicus                 Threatened
 67.   Wahoo                         Euonymus atropurpurea              Special Concern
 68.   Whorled Mountain-mint         Pycnanthemum verticillatum         Special Concern
 69.   Wild-rice                     Zizania aquatica var. aquatica     Threatened
 70.   Wood Turtle                   Clemmys insculpta                  Special Concern
 71.   Yellow-throated Warbler       Dendroica dominica                 Threatened
 72.   Zigzag Bladderwort            Utricularia subulata               Threatened


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 Table 5 - High Quality Natural Communities in Muskegon County
                                        Natural Communities
 1.   Coastal Plain Marsh                          Infertile Pond/Marsh, Great Lakes Type
 2.   Dry Sand Prairie                             Dry Sand Prairie, Midwest Type
 3.   Dry-Mesic Northern Forest                    -
 4.   Great Lakes Marsh                            -
 5.   Hardwood-Conifer Swamp                       -
 6.   Interdunal Wetland                           Alkaline Shoredunes Pond/Marsh, Great Lakes Type
 7.   Mesic Northern Forest                        -
 8.   Mesic Southern Forest                        Rich Forest, Central Midwest Type
 9.   Oak-Pine Barrens                             -
 10. Open Dunes                                    Beach/Shoredunes, Great Lakes Type
 11. Southern Floodplain Forest                    -




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CHAPTER 2 - REPORTED CONDITION OF WATERSHED

Several studies have been completed in the Mona Lake Watershed (Watershed) providing water quality
information for Mona Lake, Black Creek, and Little Black Creek. Several of these studies indicate the
presence of several nonpoint source (NPS) and point source pollutants and impairments including
sediment, heavy metals, toxic substances, hydrocarbons, nutrients, pathogens, thermal pollution, and
unstable hydrology.


2.1     BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ASSESSMENTS OF THE WATERSHED

Black Creek (1991)

According to the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), Black Creek’s headwaters have
been altered from dredging and channelization practices. Inputs from the Muskegon County Wastewater
Management System, which currently discharges 2 million gallons of water per day to the creek’s
headwaters, and two superfund sites, which have introduced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into
groundwater supplies, have also contributed to degraded conditions. In addition, impacts from elevated
deposits of sand caused the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) to halt efforts to
re-establish a trout population in Black Creek after 1989. Because of these concerns, the MDEQ
completed a biological community assessment of Black Creek in 1991 to assess the quality of fish and
macroinvertebrate (bottom-dwelling organisms) communities. Survey results were compiled in a report
completed by the MDEQ in May 2003 (Appendix 1 - Biological Community Assessments of Black Creek).

In June of 1991, MDEQ staff collected fish and macroinvertebrate data and water and sediment samples
at six sites along Black Creek and one site along Cranberry Creek. Habitat evaluations were also
completed. The assessment revealed that Black Creek was not supporting fish typically associated with a
coldwater fishery since trout, typical of a coldwater steam, were absent. Macroinvertebrate communities
found along Black Creek were rated acceptable to excellent. Habitat quality was rated fair to good, yet the
following were noted at various sites: insufficient bottom substrate, increased embeddedness, elevated
sedimentation of sand deposits, and substantially reduced combination of pools, riffles, runs, and bends.
Water samples were analyzed for 45 different organic compounds, but concentrations were found to be
lower than their respective detection levels. Lastly, sediment samples were found to have levels of
chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc; however, levels were lower than Probable Effect Concentrations
(PECs). PECs describe a level of contamination in the sediment above which adverse effects are more
likely to occur to aquatic life (primarily macroinvertebrates).




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Black Creek (1996)

The 1996 biological survey of Black Creek, a follow-up to the 1991 survey, was completed by the MDEQ
at three locations along the creek. (Appendix 2 - A Biological Survey of Big Black Creek). Fish and
macroinvertebrate data, physical habitat parameters, and water and sediment samples were collected.
Fish community data indicated the creek was not supporting its coldwater designation due to the absence
of trout. Macroinvertebrate communities were rated as excellent at the two downstream sites (Mill Iron
and Wolf Lake road/stream crossings) and acceptable at the Barnes road/stream crossing, although
macroinvertebrate sampling was limited to the few areas offering available substrate. Habitat quality was
rated fair at all three sites due to excessive sand accumulations and lack of cobble/gravel substrate;
however, high quality riparian areas were present. Water samples suggested that the creek was meeting
state water quality standards, yet sediment samples showed elevated concentrations of copper, arsenic,
and phthalates (plasticizer chemicals). Sediment contaminants did not appear to be affecting water
chemistry.

Black Creek (2001)

The MDEQ staff collected macroinvertebrate data, physical habitat parameters, and water and sediment
samples at eight locations along Black Creek in 2001. Survey results were compiled in a report completed
in 2002 (Appendix 3 - A Biological and Chemical Survey of Black Creek). Because it was believed that
the fish community had not changed since the 1996 survey, fish data were not collected.
Macroinvertebrate communities were rated acceptable at the three sites sampled (Mill Iron, Wolf Lake,
and Maple Island road/stream crossings), although macroinvertebrate sampling was limited to the few
areas offering available substrate. Habitat quality was rated fair at four sites and good at two sites. Deep
sand deposits and a lack of cobble/gravel substrate were noted. Water samples indicated the creek was
meeting state water quality standards, with the exception of one site located at the M-46 road/stream
crossing, which had elevated total phosphorus and mercury concentrations. Sediment samples contained
concentrations of lead, zinc, and arsenic. Phthalates were not found in contrast to the high concentrations
seen in samples collected in 1996.




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Little Black Creek

Fish and macroinvertebrate data, physical habitat parameters, and water and sediment samples were
collected at three to eight locations along Little Black Creek by the MDEQ in 2001. Survey results were
compiled in a report completed in 2002 (Appendix 4 - A Biological and Chemical Assessment of
Little Black Creek). According to the report, the fish community of Little Black Creek was rated poor due to
the absence of trout and sculpin and the limited numbers of fish found at the three sites sampled. The
macroinvertebrate community was rated poor at two downstream sites, due to degraded conditions, and
acceptable at one upstream site. Habitat quality varied from fair to good; the removal of riparian
vegetation, excessive sand accumulations, and lack of cobble/gravel substrate were noted. Water
samples, collected from six sites, indicated the presence of ions, metals, and VOCs; however, levels were
not above state water quality standards (WQS). Sediment chemistry samples were contaminated with
high concentrations of various metals and organic chemicals over a large stretch of the creek’s total
length. The report concluded that the sediment concentrations of metals and organic chemicals are likely
impacting the biological community.

Mona Lake

In a report on Mona, White, and Muskegon Lakes, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
assessed historical macroinvertebrate (bottom-dwelling organisms) and sediment contaminant data
collected by the MDNR from 1972 to 1980 (Appendix 5 - Mona, White, and Muskegon Lakes Report). The
report states that Mona Lake’s water quality had improved slightly between 1972 and 1975, following
wastewater diversion from the Muskegon County Wastewater Treatment Facility. Between 1972 and
1980, marked reductions in surficial sediment contaminants occurred; however, concentrations of heavy
metals in sediments near the mouth of Little Black Creek remained high. Nutrient loads also remained
high during this time period and indirectly created extended periods of severe anoxia (total lack of
oxygen). Due to degraded conditions, Mona Lake was not able to support a diverse or abundant
macroinvertebrate community according to the report. Implementation of practices to reduce loading of
heavy metals, nutrients, and oils from the Little Black Creek Watershed was recommended.




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2.2       WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS

Mona Lake

The Mona Lake Watershed Stewardship Assessment was completed by the Lake Michigan Forum
(Forum) in October 2003 (Appendix 6 - Mona Lake Watershed Stewardship Assessment). The Forum
selected the Watershed for this assessment to “identify opportunities for creating a permanent ethic of
environmental stewardship among leaders and the general public in the local watershed.” Existing
stewardship activities in the Watershed were compared against a “best-case stewardship scenario.”
Focus groups, interviews, and document review were used to develop recommendations to address the
following concerns: sediment toxicity, fish consumption advisories, storm water runoff, hydrocarbons,
excessive nutrients, industrial emissions, and hazardous waste. Recommendations were organized under
the following six categories:


     Existing Laws and Planning Efforts
     Legacy Pollution and Remediation Efforts
     Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization
     Storm Water Management and NPS Pollution
     Conservation and Diversity
     Community Engagement


Specific recommendations are targeted toward leaders and decision-makers in the Watershed, as well as
non-government organizations. The assessment encourages local stakeholders to review and prioritize
recommendations to create an implementation strategy.

Mona Lake

A watershed assessment of Mona Lake, titled Preliminary Watershed Assessment: Mona Lake
Watershed, was prepared by the Annis Water Resources Institute of Grand Valley State University
(AWRI-GVSU) in 2003 for the Community Foundation for Muskegon County (Appendix 7 - Preliminary
Watershed Assessment: Mona Lake Watershed). The assessment evaluated aquatic and terrestrial
habitats and contamination sites to identify areas of significant change and degradation within the
Watershed. The following activities were completed by AWRI-GVSU between 2002 and 2003:


     Analysis of environmental resources in the watershed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
     Analysis of Mona Lake’s water quality
     Assessment of nutrient limitation in Mona Lake using nutrient bioassays
     Analysis of water quality at all tributary and storm drain inflows to Mona Lake


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   Development of a hydrologic model for the Mona Lake Watershed
   Characterization of contaminated sediments in Little Black Creek, Cress Creek, and Mona Lake
   Identification of contaminant sources in Little Black Creek
   Survey of fish and macroinvertebrate communities at selected locations


The assessment of the Watershed revealed the presence of several pollutants including excessive
sedimentation, excessive nutrients, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, toxic substances, pathogens, and
thermal pollution. Final conclusions of the assessment, reported in the executive summary, are listed
verbatim in the seven sections below:


   The GIS analysis revealed that, between 1978 and 1997/98, agricultural land use (mostly cropland)
    declined by 32.4%, natural cover (mostly open field) increased by 5.4%, and developed use (mostly
    commercial and residential) increased by 18%. These changes are reflected in a strong gradient of
    percent impervious surface in the Watershed, with the largely agricultural subbasins near the top of
    the Watershed having low percentages of impervious surface (<5%) and the more developed
    subbasins near Mona Lake having high percentages of impervious surface (>20%).


   The water quality of Mona Lake has shown improvement since the early 1970’s, although nutrient
    concentrations, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, are still far above WQS and impair the ecological
    integrity of the lake. Diversion of wastewater to the Muskegon County Wastewater Management
    System was responsible for the reductions in phosphorus and nitrogen in Mona Lake. In addition,
    phosphorus and ammonia concentrations remain much greater in the bottom waters than the surface
    waters, especially during times of anoxic conditions, suggesting internal loading is an important
    source of nutrients to Mona Lake.

   Nutrient bioassays revealed that algal biomass and productivity were limited by: Phosphorus (P),
    Nitrogen (N). P or N+P in spring, N or N+P in summer, and neither in fall. This is in contrast to studies
    conducted in 1972, when N was clearly the limiting nutrient in Mona Lake. The reduction in
    phosphorus levels over the past 30 years has resulted in this response change, but additional
    bioassays should be conducted to confirm the 2003 results.




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   Nutrient concentrations and loads in the inflows to Mona Lake indicate that the Watershed is
    contributing relatively high levels of total phosphorus, ammonia, and fecal coliforms. Distinct seasonal
    patterns were not apparent, although concentrations of some constituents did increase after storm or
    rain events, as might be expected for chemicals that adsorb to particles. Although some of the storm
    drains contribute high concentrations of stressors at certain times of the year, the overall loads from
    these drains are small (due to low discharges on an annual basis). Hence, they may affect
    Mona Lake on a localized basis (near their discharge point), but it is unlikely that they are having
    severe lake-wide impacts. Black Creek is the largest contributor, by mass, of materials to Mona Lake;
    even though the concentrations in Black Creek are comparable to other inflows, its high discharge
    results in the greatest loads.


   A GIS-based hydrologic model was developed for the Watershed. The model couples the watershed
    modeling system (for watershed delineation) to Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling
    System (for hydrologic modeling) to derive output. Modeling results indicated that most of the water
    entering Mona Lake comes from: Black Creek (80%), Little Black Creek (5.6%), Cress Creek (5.3%),
    and Ellis Drain (3.0%). According to the overall water budget analysis, more than 70% of the stream
    flows originated from the base flow for all subbasins in the Watershed.


   Sediments were found to be highly contaminated with cadmium, chromium, lead, polynuclear
    aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) compounds, benzo(a)pyrene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in
    Little Black Creek. Samples collected from Cress Creek failed to find contaminant levels of concern.
    Results provided preliminary evidence that contaminated sediments are being transported within
    Little Black Creek and within Mona Lake as well. Contaminant concentrations at one station in
    Mona Lake are higher now than in 1980. Additional sampling is needed to confirm these results.


   The fish and macroinvertebrate survey indicated that Black Creek and Little Black Creek are impaired
    systems. Macroinvertebrates were impacted both by poor quality habitat and poor water quality, as
    pollution tolerant taxa dominated in most sites. Sculpin dominated the fish community in Black Creek,
    suggesting that water temperature and water quality are sufficient to sustain populations of cold-water
    fish. In contrast, the fish collected in Little Black Creek were indicative of warmer water, as the most
    common taxa were creek chub, stickleback, and mudminnow.

The assessment also provides recommendations to address land use trends, nutrient and sediment
loading, and contaminated sediments. Recommendations include best management practices (BMPs),
public education initiatives, policy changes, and additional research projects.




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2.3     HEALTH CONSULTATION

Little Black Creek

The draft of the health consultation prepared for Little Black Creek (Appendix 8 - Little Black Creek Health
Consultation) was submitted for public comment on July 29, 2005, by the Michigan Department of
Community Health (MDCH). The MDCH wrote the health consultation under a cooperative agreement
with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry (ATSDR). An ATSDR health consultation is a verbal or written response from ATSDR to a
specific request for information about health risks related to a specific site, a chemical release, or the
presence of hazardous material.

The health consultation written for Little Black Creek states that the creek’s sediments contain elevated
levels of metals, PAHs, VOCs, and PCBs. The concentrations of these pollutants exceed the state’s
generic clean-up criteria for residential soils; yet it was determined that these pollutants do not pose an
apparent current or future public health hazard. In regard to specific heavy metals, the consultation states
that lead, cadmium, and “other contaminants” in the sediments of Little Black Creek do not pose an
apparent current or future public health hazard.

Indeterminate threats to the public’s health were determined in the consultation. Although it was
concluded that skin and oral exposure to mercury concentrations in the sediment poses no public health
threat, the potential for mercury to enter the food chain and be consumed by local residents was a
concern. Therefore, the effect of mercury levels on human health was indeterminate as concluded in the
consultation. Furthermore, human exposure to contaminants deposited to floodplain soils from
Little Black Creek during flood events was found to pose an indeterminate public health hazard. The
consultation states that no data for surficial soils in floodplain areas have been collected and
recommends that this information be acquired to determine if a health hazard exists.

Public comment on this report was taken through September 30, 2005, and a final health consultation
report will be issued once public comments have been addressed.




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2.4      TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD REPORTS

Total Maximum Daily Loads in Development

The MDEQ is responsible for identifying water bodies within the State of Michigan that are not meeting
WQS. WQS are state rules established to protect surface waters of the State. Section 303(d) of the
federal Clean Water Act and the EPA require states to develop Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for
surface waters that do not meet WQS. A TMDL is used as an acronym to describe the process used to
determine how much of a pollutant load a waterbody can assimilate. To identify these waterbodies, a
study is completed to determine the amount of a pollutant that can be placed into a waterbody from point
sources and NPS and still meet WQS, including a margin of safety. Waterbodies not meeting WQS are
placed on the nonattainment list published as part of a 303(d) report.

Within the Watershed, two waterbodies have been placed on the nonattainment list published as part of
the Water Quality and Pollution Control in Michigan: 2004 Sections 303(d) and 305(b) Integrated Report.
Pollutants of concern in these waterbodies include PCBs. After approval from the EPA, the state will be
required to take corrective action to meet WQS by the designated “TMDL year.”

     Black Creek
      County: Muskegon
      Size: 13 miles
      Location: Tributary to Mona Lake
      Problem: Fish consumption advisory for PCBs
      TMDL Year: 2010

     Mona Lake
      County: Muskegon
      Size: 695 acres
      Location: Tributary to Lake Michigan
      Problem: Fish consumption advisory for PCBs
      TMDL Year: 2009




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Established TMDLs

Little Black Creek was previously listed on the MDEQ’s non-attainment list for having a poor fish and
macroinvertebrate community rating. Corrective actions were required by 2003, and the MDEQ completed
a biota TMDL for submittal to the EPA in September 2003 (Appendix 9 - Biota TMDL for
Little Black Creek). The TMDL document states that the degraded water quality and habitat quality
conditions of Little Black Creek are due to excessive sediment and unstable hydrology. Furthermore, the
report states that contaminants (i.e., oils, grease, heavy metals, PAHs, and PCBs) have been introduced
from the following sources:


   Marathon Petroleum refinery site
   Keating Avenue storm sewer
   Peerless Plating site
   Pickling operations
   Municipal sanitary/industrial wastewater pump station at Getty Road
   Former Muskegon Heights Wastewater Treatment Plant
   Municipal Landfill upstream of Broadway Avenue
   Webb Chemical Company
   Merriam Street Storm Sewer downstream of Airline Road

The TMDL document recommends management of the riparian zone to reduce soil erosion and sediment
loading to Little Black Creek. BMPs to minimize erosion, as well as control and stabilize storm water
runoff, are recommended to minimize habitat impairments.

Black Creek, although currently listed on the non-attainment list for development of a TMDL for PCBs by
2010, was also previously listed on the non-attainment list due to 1) a fish consumption advisory for PCBs
and 2) a poor fish community rating. Corrective actions to address these concerns were required by 2003,
and the MDEQ completed a biota TMDL for submittal to the EPA in August 2003 (Appendix 10 - Biota
TMDL for Black Creek). The TMDL document states that the degraded water quality and habitat quality
conditions of Black Creek are due to excessive sediment and unstable hydrology. Excessive sediment,
from 1 to 4 feet deep in some locations, covers potentially spawning substrates crucial to the successful
reproduction of trout, a coldwater species. Black Creek’s hydrology has been modified by extensive
dredging, channelization, and the construction of the Muskegon County Wastewater Treatment Facility.
The implementation of practices to reduce soil erosion and sedimentation and manage storm water runoff
is recommended.




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2.5     NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM PHASE II
        STORM WATER PROGRAM OUTFALL SCREENING

Industrial and municipal point sources are generally well regulated across the country and are no longer a
large threat. Municipal storm water, however, remains a pollutant source that has been unregulated in the
past, but is currently the focus of new regulations mandated from the EPA. Programs are being
implemented in municipalities to remedy municipal storm water pollution.

The communities that are required to participate in the National Pollutant Discharges Elimination System
(NPDES) Phase II Storm Water Program that incorporate portions of the Watershed include the
City of Muskegon, City of Roosevelt Park, City of Muskegon Heights, City of Norton Shores,
Muskegon Charter Township, Egelston Township, Fruitport Charter Township, Sullivan Township, and
Spring Lake Township. The Muskegon County Administration, Muskegon County Drain Commissioner,
and Muskegon County Road Commission are also participating in the NPDES Phase II Storm Water
Program. All of these permittees are required to obtain storm water permits through the NPDES Phase II
Storm Water program. These communities have recognized the importance of monitoring and reducing
storm water runoff to the streams and drains in their communities and have initiated an Illicit Discharge
Elimination Plan (IDEP) through the watershed-based Phase II permit.

The initial IDEP was implemented in summer 2003, completing the investigation of 417 storm water
outfalls in the urbanized areas of Mona Lake and Muskegon Lake Watersheds. If dry- weather flow was
present, water quality sampling with field kits was conducted to detect the presence of pollutants. If
intermittent dry-weather flow was suspected, the outfall was flagged for follow-up investigation. Only two
outfalls in the Watershed were suspected of discharging pollutants. One outfall was flagged for follow-up
due to high conductivity levels, algae, and a musty odor. The second outfall was flagged for follow-up due
to elevated conductivity levels. The appropriate municipality will be responsible for finding the source of
the discharge and correcting or eliminating the illicit connection.

The small number of illicit discharges found in the Watershed is confirmation that Municipal Separate
Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s) are not a significant contributor to the water quality problems in Mona
Lake. NPS, the diffuse runoff from upland and impervious areas, continues to be the most significant
contributor of pollution to surface waters and must be addressed through the holistic watershed
management planning effort that is able to identify NPS pollution.




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2.6       SUPERFUND SITES ON THE NATIONAL PRIORITIES LIST

The National Priorities List is an EPA-published list of environmentally-contaminated sites, which pose an
immediate or significant public health threat to the local community. These sites are eligible for extensive,
long-term cleanup action under the Superfund program. The Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 provides a federal "Superfund" to clean up uncontrolled or
abandoned hazardous waste sites, as well as accidents, spills, and other emergency releases of
pollutants and contaminants into the environment. The Superfund Sites located in the Watershed as of
October 1, 2003, are listed below:

     BOFORS NOBEL, INC.
      CERCLIS ID: MID006030373
      LOCATION: The 85-acre site is 6 miles east of downtown Muskegon in Egelston Township, and
      includes a currently-operating specialty chemical production facility (Lomac, Inc.).
      THREATS AND CONTAMINANTS: 27 different organic compounds are present in lagoon sludges,
      underlying soils, and groundwater. The compounds of main concern are:                  methylene chloride,
      benzene, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, aniline, azobenzene, benzidine, and toluene; Soils and Lagoon
      Sludge: methylene chloride, benzene, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, aniline, azobenzene, and benzidine.
      The site is bounded on the south by Big Black Creek, which receives the site groundwater discharge.


     PEERLESS PLATING CO.
      CERCLIS ID: MID006031348
      LOCATION: The 1- acre abandoned electroplating facility is located in Muskegon.
      THREATS AND CONTAMINANTS: The shallow groundwater and soil onsite contain heavy metals,
      including cadmium; volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, benzene, and xylene;
      and cyanide. Sediments in streams on the site are contaminated with cadmium, arsenic, and lead.
      Little Black Creek flows to the southeast and empties into Mona Lake, two miles downstream from the
      site.

     SCA INDEPENDENT LANDFILL
      CERCLIS ID: MID000724930
      LOCATION: The 100-acre site is located in Muskegon County.
      THREATS AND CONTAMINANTS:                 Groundwater, surface water, and wetlands are primarily
      contaminated with ammonia and manganese and isolated detections of other inorganic and organic
      contaminants. The landfill is located in a swampy area about 1/8 mile south of Black Creek.




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   THERMO-CHEM, INC.
    CERCLIS ID: MID044567162
    LOCATION:       The site is located in Egelston Township, approximately five miles east of the
    City of Muskegon.
    THREATS AND CONTAMINANTS:              Site operations resulted in high concentrations of volatile,
    semivolatile, and inorganic contamination of soils and groundwater. Black Creek is near the southern
    border of the site.




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CHAPTER 3 - DESIGNATED USES OF THE MONA LAKE WATERSHED

3.1     DESIGNATED USES

Designated uses are defined as recognized uses of water established by state and federal water quality
programs. All waters of the State of Michigan must meet eight designated uses (Table 6) according to
Public Act 451 of 1994, Chapter I, Part 31, Part 4.


 Table 6 - Designated Uses for Surface Waters in the State of Michigan
                Designated Use                                          General Definition
 Agricultural use                                     Livestock watering, irrigation, and crop spraying
                                                      Surface waters meet human cancer and noncancer
 Public water supply at point of intake
                                                      values set for drinking water
 Navigation                                           Navigation of inland waters
 Warmwater or coldwater fishery                       Supports warm or cold water species
                                                      Supports other indigenous animals, plants, and
 Other indigenous aquatic life and wildlife
                                                      macroinvertebrates
 Partial body contact recreation                      Supports boating, wading, and fishing activities
 Total body contact recreation                        Supports swimming activities
 (between May 1 and October 31)                       (between May 1 and October 31)
 Industrial water supply                              Water utilized in industrial or commercial applications

These designated uses provide a starting point for discussion about the goals for the Mona Lake
Watershed (Watershed). It was determined by the Muskegon Area Storm Water Committee that the
surface waters of the Watershed were not used as a public water supply or for industrial purposes. Also,
the use of the Watershed for navigation and agricultural uses was considered met. The remaining four
designated uses were evaluated to determine if they are being impaired or threatened by pollutants.

Designated uses that are impacted by pollutants exceeding the State’s Water Quality Standards (WQS)
are said to be impaired. Designated uses that are threatened by pollutants that currently meet the State’s
WQS, but may not in the future, are said to be threatened. The Water Quality Standards Nonattainment
List for Waterbodies requiring TMDLs, developed by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
(MDEQ), was used to determine which waterbodies in the watershed are impaired. The status of each
designated use of waterbodies in the Watershed is listed in Table 7.




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  Table 7 - Met, Impaired, or Threatened Designated Uses of Mona Lake Watershed
               Designated Use                               Met, Impaired, or Threatened
  Agricultural use                             Met
  Navigation                                   Met
  Coldwater fisheries                          Impaired for Little Black Creek and Black Creek
                                               Impaired for Little Black Creek
  Other indigenous aquatic life and wildlife
                                               Threatened for Black Creek
  Partial body contact recreation              Threatened for entire Watershed
  Total body contact recreation
                                               Threatened for entire Watershed
  (between May 1 and October 31)
  Industrial water supply                      Not a Use
  Public water supply                          Not a Use

Coldwater Fisheries

A coldwater fishery is considered to have summer temperatures below 60° farenheit and able to support
natural or stocked populations of trout, salmon, whitefish, or cisco (lake herring). Little Black Creek and
Black Creek are designated coldwater streams within the Watershed (Michigan Department of Natural
Resources, 2002). According to the biota Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) developed for
Little Black Creek and Black Creek, these waterways are not supporting a coldwater fishery, as both
creeks are reported to have a poor fish community rating. In addition, the MDEQ is in the process of
developing a second TMDL for Black Creek due to WQS exceedances for polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs). Possible PCB effects on fish include impaired reproductive, endocrine, and immune system
function, increased lesions, and tumors. Therefore, Little Black Creek and Black Creek are not meeting
their designated uses as a coldwater fishery, and this use is considered impaired for both waterways.

Other Indigenous Aquatic Life and Wildlife

In addition to fish, other aquatic life and wildlife in the ecosystem should be considered in all management
strategies. A stable and healthy habitat supports populations of wildlife that provide outdoor recreational
opportunities (sport fishing, bird watching, and hunting). Healthy habitats have water conditions that are
capable of supporting native plant and animal species. Near-shore habitats in the Great Lakes are
extremely important to aquatic life and wildlife that depend on coastal habitat for feeding, spawning, and
shelter.




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According to the biota TMDL developed for Little Black Creek, this waterway does not support its aquatic
life use due to poor stream quality resulting from excessive sediment and unstable hydrology. In addition,
Annis Water Resources Institute-Grand Valley State University (AWRI-GVSU) researchers found
macroinvertebrate populations of Little Black Creek and Black Creek impacted by degraded habitat
quality and poor water quality, as pollution tolerant species dominated at most sites (2003). The MDEQ
has not given Black Creek a poor macroinvertebrate rating; therefore, its aquatic life use is considered
threatened rather than impaired. A poor macroinvertebrate rating was established for Little Black Creek,
resulting in impaired aquatic life use.

Total and Partial Body Contact Recreation

Water quality must meet standards of less than 300 count per 100 milliliter (ml) in a sample of
Escherichia coli (E. coli) for areas to be safe for total body contact recreation, such as swimming, from
May 1 to October 31 (MDEQ, 1999). Water-related activities, like fishing and boating, that do not require
full body immersion, are referred to as partial-body contact recreation. Water quality must meet standards
of less than 1,000 count/100 ml of E. coli for this type of recreational use (MDEQ, 1999).

The MDEQ is not currently in the process of developing a TMDL for any waterway or waterbody in the
Watershed due to elevated levels of E. coli. However, the Watershed was found to be contributing fecal
coliforms to Mona Lake. Fecal coliforms, like E. coli, are harmless bacteria that indicate the presence of
pathogenic microbes that can cause disease. Between June 2002 and August 2003, AWRI-GVSU
researchers took samples from all inflows and all outflows to Mona Lake. Of the 14 sites that were
sampled, all sites exceeded 200 colonies/100 ml of water sampled on at least one date, with the
exception of the site located on the Mona Lake navigation channel. The 200-colony standard was the
MDEQ standard prior to 1996, close to the current total body contact standard of 300 colonies/100 ml
sampled.

Several sites, including the site at Little Black Creek, had average values that exceeded the 200-colony
standard. The site on Black Creek had an average of 150 colonies/100 ml of water sampled. Because the
MDEQ has not developed TMDLs for Little Black Creek, Black Creek, or Mona Lake due to elevated
levels of E. coli, the partial and total-body contact recreational uses for these surface waters are
considered threatened rather than impaired.


3.2     IMPAIRMENTS TO DESIGNATED USES

Impairments to the designated uses of the Mona Lake Watershed, both point source and nonpoint source
(NPS) pollutants, are summarized in this section and listed in Table 8.




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3.2.1 POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

Prior to 1900, the lumbering era began to decline and was beginning to be replaced by heavy industry.
Factories that located to Muskegon County polluted Mona Lake with heavy metals and toxic chemicals
still present today.

In 1972, the U.S. Congress passed the federal Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA established the basic
structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States. The CWA made it
unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a
permit was obtained under its provisions. Point source pollution is defined by U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) as “any discernible, confined, and discrete conveyance, such as a pipe, ditch,
channel, tunnel, conduit, discrete fissure, or container and includes vessels or other floating craft from
which pollutants are or may be discharged.”

Today, point source discharge facilities are required to hold a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) wastewater discharge permit. However, Mona Lake is still polluted with industrial
wastes from past point source pollution.

For a list of controlled point source discharges located in Muskegon County, see Appendix 11 - NPDES
Permitted Discharges.


3.2.2 NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION

The majority of point source pollution has been successfully eliminated from impairing Michigan’s water
resources; however, water quality impairments still exist. Unlike discharges from wastewater treatment
plants and industrial wastewater discharge, lingering impairments come from many diffuse sources called
NPS pollution. NPS pollution results from rain or snowmelt moving over or through the ground and picking
up pollutants and depositing them in lakes, rivers, streams, and groundwater.

NPS pollution affects water quality and impairs water resource use in many different ways. Storm water
runoff may contain nutrients that cause excessive plant growth. Toxics, such as pesticides, can interfere
with aquatic organisms. Sediment can fill small pools and rocky areas that fish depend upon for spawning
or feeding.




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 Table 8 - Pollutants of the Mona Lake Watershed
                                                                                                   Mona Lake
      Pollutant               Mona Lake          Little Black Creek        Black Creek
                                                                                                   Watershed
 Sediment               Known                   Known                  Known                    Known
 Heavy Metals           Known                   Known                  Known                    Known

 Toxic Substances       Known - PCBs            Known - PCBs,          Known - PCBs             Known
                                                VOCs
 Hydrocarbons           Known - PAHs            Known - PAHs           Not a current problem    Known
 Nutrients              Known                   Known                  Known                    Known
 Pathogens              Unknown                 Known                  Known                    Known
 Thermal Pollution      Not a current problem   Known                  Not a current problem    Known
 Unstable Hydrology     Not a current problem   Known                  Known                    Known
 Notes:
 PCBs = polychlorinated biphenyls
 VOCs = volatile organic compounds
 PAHs = polyaromatic hydrocarbons

Sediment

Inorganic fine sediments are naturally present to some extent in all streams, but are considered pollutants
at excessive levels. Precipitation, including secondary events such as floods and melting snow packs, will
transport sediment from eroded uplands to nearby water bodies. In addition, channel movement will scour
streambanks and streambeds and contribute additional amounts of inorganic sediment. Because storm
events increase stream velocity, more sediment is added by channel movement during rainfall events.
Sediment can be suspended, causing turbidity, or deposited on the streambed, causing a loss of benthic
productivity and fish habitat. The deposit of an excessive amount of sediment in a stream will cover
spawning habitat, clog fish gills, and generally degrade the aquatic habitat of fish and macroinvertebrate
species. Human activities related to agriculture, forestry, mining, and urban development contribute
excessive amounts of sediment that often overwhelms the “assimilative capacity” of a stream
(Cairns, 1977) and affects aquatic life.

Heavy Metals

Heavy metals are defined as any metallic chemical element that has a relatively-high density and is toxic
or poisonous at low concentrations. Examples of heavy metals include mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd),
arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb).




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As trace elements, some heavy metals (i.e., copper, selenium, zinc) are essential to maintain the
metabolism of the human body. However, at higher concentrations they can lead to poisoning. Heavy
metal poisoning could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air
concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals can enter a water
supply by industrial and consumer waste, or even from acidic rain breaking down soils and releasing
heavy metals into streams, lakes, rivers, and groundwater.

Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate. Bioaccumulation means an increase in
the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time, compared to the chemical's
concentration in the environment. Compounds accumulate in living things any time they are taken up and
stored faster than they are broken down (metabolized) or excreted.

Toxic Substances

The MDEQ defines toxic substances as “a substance, except for heat, that is present in sufficient
concentration or quantity that is or may be harmful to plant life, animal life, or designated uses”
(R 323.1044 1100 of Part 4, Part 31 of PA 451, 1994, revised April 2, 1999). For the purposes of this
document, toxic substances include all toxics besides heavy metals, which have been defined as a
separate pollutant. Toxic substances can affect the reproductive health of aquatic life and may pose a
health risk to recreational users who use a water body for partial/total body contact recreational uses or
consume its fish. Toxic substances can include, but are not limited to: synthetic organic contaminants
such as pesticides, herbicides, and volatile organic contaminants such as xylenes, toluene, and benzene.
The foregoing contaminants are designated as drinking water contaminates by the EPA (EPA, 2002).

Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons are defined as organic compounds (as acetylene or butane) containing only carbon and
hydrogen and often occurring in petroleum, natural gas, coal, and bitumens (asphalt and tar are the most
common forms of bitumen). The presence of hydrocarbons in a waterbody can result from the input of
road runoff containing automotive petroleum products, illicit dumping of used motor oil into storm drains,
or discharge from industrial sites. Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUSTs) are another major source
of hydrocarbons that can enter into groundwater reserves and eventually seep into surface waters. Within
the City of Muskegon, there are 99 “open” sites containing LUSTs (http://www.deq.state.mi.us/lustcs/).
These 99 open LUST sites have had a release occur from an underground storage tank system, but have
not yet had corrective actions completed to meet the appropriate land use criteria.




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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of more than one hundred organic compounds
composed of two or more carbon rings derived from benzene. They are emitted into the environment from
both natural and anthropogenic (human) sources. PAHs, although present in low concentrations virtually
everywhere, occasionally reach elevated concentrations as the result of prolonged industrial activities
involving burning or by releases of materials such as creosote-based wood preservatives. PAHs are a
concern because some of them can cause cancers in humans and are harmful to fish and other aquatic
life. Sources of industrial emissions include:

●   Coal and oil-fired power plants
●   Waste incinerators
●   Coke and asphalt production
●   Aluminum smelting
●   Carbon black production
●   Wood preservation

Nutrients

Nutrients are rated as the second most important factor, next to siltation, adversely affecting the nation’s
fishery habitat (Judy et al., 1984). Excessive nutrients, carried by storm water runoff, can cause dense
algal growths known as an algal bloom. After the elevated nutrient source has been depleted, the algal
bloom will die and decompose, reducing dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. If DO levels reach levels intolerant
to fish species, a fish kill may result. If DO levels are consistently low, a shift toward more tolerant aquatic
species will arise, reducing species diversity within the stream. Nitrogen and phosphorus have been
identified as the two most common nutrients to enter surface waters. Polluted runoff can result from a
variety of sources related to agricultural and urban land use practices.

Pathogens

The presence of coliforms, E. coli or fecal coliform, within a water body indicates the possible presence of
microbial pathogen contamination. Coliforms are mostly harmless bacteria that live in soil, water, and the
intestinal tracts of humans and warm-blooded animals. Pathogens are microbes that cause disease and
include several types of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and other organisms. The extent to which total
coliforms are present in surface waters can indicate general water quality and the likelihood that the water
is contaminated with microbial pathogens. Improperly installed, operated, or maintained septic systems
and waste water treatment sites can contribute pathogens from humans to surface waters, posing a
potential health risk to recreational users. Runoff from animal pastures and improper disposal of pet
waste also contribute animal pathogens to nearby water bodies.




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Thermal Pollution

Thermal pollution can result from the input of heated liquids from industrial discharges or hot impervious
surfaces such as parking lots, roads, or rooftops. A significant lack of streamside vegetation and ditching
practices will also lead to thermal pollution due to direct exposure of surface waters to the sun. A
significant reduction in water levels from water withdrawals will also cause a stream to be more easily
heated by the sun. Dark sediment particles absorb heat, increasing the temperature of surface water as
well. Thermal pollution is harmful to cold water species (such as brook trout) because warm water holds
less dissolved oxygen than coldwater, which may lower the dissolved oxygen level beyond the species’
tolerance level.

Unstable Hydrology

Harmful changes in a stream’s flow regime (such as increased peak flows and decreased attenuation)
can increase sediment pollution, cause flooding, and damage aquatic habitat. Hydrology can be defined
as the science of water, its properties, phenomena, and distribution over the earth's surface. The
hydrologic cycle describes the movement of water cycling between the atmosphere and earth through the
processes of condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, and evaporation. Precipitation will infiltrate
into the soil as groundwater or run off the land into a nearby water body or waterway as surface water.
Impervious surfaces (such as parking lots, roads, and rooftops) associated with urban development and
loss of wetlands disrupt this natural cycle. Storm water runoff that would normally infiltrate into the soil will
run off impervious surfaces and erode streambanks due to its greater force and may cause flooding due
to its greater volume. Loss of wetlands further intensifies this situation due to the fact that loss of storage
capacity will contribute to greater surface runoff volume.


3.2.3 PRIORITY SUBWATERSHEDS OF THE MONA LAKE WATERSHED

Subwatersheds of the Watershed were prioritized into three groups for each watershed pollutant
(Table 9). First priority subwatersheds are considered to be the most impacted by the pollutant listed in
column 1. For example, in regard to pathogens, Little Black Creek is considered a first priority for
implementation efforts, while Black Creek is considered a second priority. Mona Lake is not listed
because pathogens have not been identified as a concern. Implementation efforts should focus on
first-priority subwatersheds before targeting second- and third-priority subwatersheds.




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 Table 9 - Priority Subwatersheds of the Mona Lake Watershed
             Pollutant                       First Priority            Second Priority         Third Priority

 Sediment                          Little Black Creek, Black Creek    Mona Lake            -
 Heavy Metals, Toxic               Little Black Creek                 Mona Lake            Black Creek
 Substances, and Hydrocarbons
 Nutrients                         Black Creek                        Little Black Creek   Mona Lake

 Pathogens                         Little Black Creek                 Black Creek          -

 Thermal Pollution                 Little Black Creek                 -                    -

 Unstable Hydrology                Little Black Creek, Black Creek    -                    -


3.3       SOURCES AND CAUSES OF IMPAIRMENTS

In order to address current watershed pollutants and prevent future pollution problems from occurring, the
sources and causes of each pollutant, identified as impacting designated uses, were identified (Table 10).
Sources and causes of a pollutant should be considered when selecting best management practices
(BMPs).




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        Table 10 - Sources and Causes of Pollutants Impacting Designated Uses
            Designated Use of                                     Watershed Pollutants
                Watershed                    Status of Use           Impacting Use               Sources and Causes of Pollutant
        Coldwater fishery           Impaired for Black Creek and Sediment (k)            Agricultural and urban runoff
                                    Little Black Creek
                                                                                         Construction sites
                                                                                         Lack of agricultural BMPs
                                                                                         Road/stream crossings
                                                                                         Storm sewer discharges
                                                                                         Streambanks
                                                                                         Unstable hydrology
                                                                  Heavy metals (k)       Industrial emissions
                                                                                         Past industrial waste dumping
                                                                  Toxic substances (k)   Improper pesticide/herbicide management
                                                                                         Industrial emissions
                                                                                         Past industrial waste dumping
                                                                                         Road salt runoff
                                                                  Hydrocarbons (k)       Illicit dumping into storm drains
                                                                                         Industrial emissions
                                                                                         Leaking underground storage tanks
                                                                                         Past industrial waste dumping
                                                                                         Urban runoff
                                                                  Nutrients (k)          Agricultural and urban runoff
                                                                                         Animal waste
                                                                                         Failing septic systems
                                                                                         Fertilizer runoff



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        Table 10 - Sources and Causes of Pollutants Impacting Designated Uses
            Designated Use of                                     Watershed Pollutants
                Watershed                  Status of Use             Impacting Use                  Sources and Causes of Pollutant
                                                                                            Lack of agricultural BMPs
                                                                                            Yard waste dumping
                                                                   Thermal pollution (k)    Impervious surfaces
                                                                                            Removal of bank vegetation
                                                                                            Sedimentation
                                                                   Unstable hydrology (k)   Channelization
                                                                                            Floodplain development and destruction
                                                                                            Impervious surfaces
                                                                                            Storm sewer discharge quantity and velocity
                                                                                            Wetland destruction
        Other aquatic life            Impaired for Little Black    Sediment (k)             Agricultural and urban runoff
                                      Creek
                                                                                            Construction sites
                                      Threatened for Black Creek                            Lack of agricultural BMPs
                                                                                            Road/stream crossings
                                                                                            Storm sewer discharges
                                                                                            Streambanks
                                                                                            Unstable hydrology
                                                                   Heavy metals (k)         Industrial emissions
                                                                                            Past industrial waste dumping
                                                                   Toxic substances (k)     Improper pesticide/herbicide management
                                                                                            Industrial emissions
                                                                                            Past industrial waste dumping



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        Table 10 - Sources and Causes of Pollutants Impacting Designated Uses
            Designated Use of                                     Watershed Pollutants
                Watershed                  Status of Use             Impacting Use              Sources and Causes of Pollutant
                                                                                         Road salt runoff
                                                                  Hydrocarbons (k)       Illicit dumping into storm drains
                                                                                         Industrial emissions
                                                                                         Leaking underground storage tanks
                                                                                         Past industrial waste dumping
                                                                                         Urban runoff
                                                                  Nutrients              Agricultural and urban runoff
                                                                                         Animal waste
                                                                                         Failing septic systems
                                                                                         Fertilizer runoff
                                                                                         Lack of agricultural BMPs
                                                                                         Yard waste dumping
                                                                  Thermal pollution      Impervious surfaces
                                                                                         Removal of bank vegetation
                                                                                         Sedimentation
                                                                  Unstable hydrology     Channelization
                                                                                         Floodplain development and destruction
                                                                                         Impervious surfaces
                                                                                         Storm sewer discharge quantity and velocity
                                                                                         Wetland destruction




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        Table 10 - Sources and Causes of Pollutants Impacting Designated Uses
             Designated Use of                                      Watershed Pollutants
                 Watershed                   Status of Use             Impacting Use               Sources and Causes of Pollutant
        Total body contact recreation Impaired for entire watershed Heavy metals (k)       Industrial emissions

        Partial body contact                                                               Past industrial waste dumping
        recreation                                                Toxic substances (k)     Improper pesticide/herbicide management
                                                                                           Industrial emissions
                                                                                           Past industrial waste dumping
                                                                                           Road salt runoff
                                                                                           Improper pesticide/herbicide management
                                                                  Hydrocarbons (k)         Illicit dumping into storm drains
                                                                                           Industrial emissions
                                                                                           Leaking underground storage tanks
                                                                                           Past industrial waste dumping
                                                                                           Urban runoff
                                                                  Pathogens (k)            Animal waste
                                                                                           Failing septic systems
                                                                                           Lack of agricultural BMPs
        Agriculture                   Met                         N/A                      N/A
        Industrial use                Not a use                   N/A                      N/A
        Navigation                    Met                         N/A                      N/A
        Public water supply           Not a use                   N/A                      N/A




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CHAPTER 4 - GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The overall goal established for the Mona Lake Watershed (Watershed) is to restore and improve its
designated uses. In order to achieve this overall watershed goal, six long-term goals have been
established and are listed below:

1. Prevent soil erosion and reduce sedimentation in Mona Lake and its tributaries.
2. Reduce concentrations of heavy metals, toxic substances, and hydrocarbons.
3. Reduce nutrient loading of Mona Lake and its tributaries giving particular attention to sources of
    phosphorus.
4. Prevent pathogens from entering surface waters flowing to Mona Lake.
5. Reduce sources of thermal pollution to Little Black Creek.
6. Stabilize stream flows to moderate hydrology and increase base flow.

Short-term objectives were created by examining the long-term goals and determining how they would be
best met. All goals and objectives are intended to address the current Watershed conditions and improve
water quality over time. Goals and objectives are described in Table 11 based on their relationship with
the Watershed’s designated uses.




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     Table 11 - Goals and Objectives of the Mona Lake Watershed

                Long-Term Goals                 Pollutants of     Sources and Causes                          Short-Term Objectives
                                                  Concern

     Prevent soil erosion and reduce          Sediment            Agricultural and urban   ●   Offer training to planning departments, road commissions,
     sedimentation in Mona Lake and its                           runoff                       building/permitting officials, and contractors so that soil
     tributaries                                                                               erosion control BMPs are considered an integrated part of
                                                                  Construction sites           the site planning and design process.

                                                                  Lack of agricultural     ●   Develop and implement residential/commercial storm water
                                                                  BMPs                         education programs in urban areas to reduce volume and
                                                                                               velocity of runoff.
                                                                  Road/stream
                                                                  crossings                ●   Implement shoreline protection and restoration practices in
                                                                                               riparian areas.
                                                                  Storm sewer
                                                                  discharges               ●   Increase knowledge and use of soil erosion reduction and
                                                                                               runoff control techniques on agricultural and urban land.
                                                                  Streambanks
                                                                                           ●   Survey road-stream crossings and prioritize sites for future
                                                                  Unstable hydrology           improvement.

                                                                                           ●   Reduce the volume and velocity of storm water runoff
                                                                                               entering surface waters in urban and developing areas.

                                                                                           ●   Additional state and local funding for enforcement of SESC.




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     Table 11 - Goals and Objectives of the Mona Lake Watershed

               Long-Term Goals                  Pollutants of     Sources and Causes                           Short-Term Objectives
                                                  Concern

     Reduce concentrations of heavy metals,   Heavy metals,       Industrial emissions    ●   Develop and implement residential/commercial storm water
     toxic substances, and hydrocarbons       toxic                                           education programs in urban areas to reduce volume and
                                              substances,         Past industrial waste       velocity of runoff and discourage dumping into storm drains.
                                              and                 dumping
                                              hydrocarbons                                ●   Increase knowledge about benefits of integrated pest
                                                                  Improper                    management and the safe use of pesticides/herbicides
                                                                  pesticide/herbicide         among property owners.
                                                                  management
                                                                                          ●   Increase the number of small- and medium-size producers
                                                                  Road salt runoff            who complete chemical storage and handling assessments,
                                                                                              particularly in areas with high water tables, porous soils, and
                                                                  Illicit dumping into        those near surface or sensitive water resources.
                                                                  storm drains
                                                                                          ●   Promote hazardous waste collection programs.
                                                                  Leaking underground
                                                                  storage tanks           ●   Minimize effects of DPW and road commission waste,
                                                                                              chemical, and salt storage areas and control road salt
                                                                  Urban runoff                runoff.

                                                                                          ●   Eliminate illicit discharges.

                                                                                          ●   Work with the MDEQ to address LUSTs and impacts from
                                                                                              past industrial discharges.




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     Table 11 - Goals and Objectives of the Mona Lake Watershed

                Long-Term Goals                 Pollutants of     Sources and Causes                           Short-Term Objectives
                                                  Concern




     Reduce nutrient loading of Mona Lake     Nutrients           Agricultural and urban   ●   Increase property owner awareness about the value of
     and its tributaries giving particular                        runoff                       properly designed, installed, and maintained septic systems,
     attention to sources of phosphorus                                                        particularly in areas with high water tables, porous soils, and
                                                                  Animal waste                 those near surface water and storm sewers.

                                                                  Failing septic systems   ●   Develop and implement residential/commercial storm water
                                                                                               education programs in urban areas to reduce volume and
                                                                  Fertilizer runoff            velocity of runoff.

                                                                  Lack of agricultural     ●   Increase the number of small- and medium-size producers
                                                                  BMPs                         that have CNMPs.

                                                                  Yard waste dumping       ●   Reduce the volume and velocity of storm water runoff
                                                                                               entering surface waters in urban and developing areas by
                                                                                               encouraging storm water infiltration.

                                                                                           ●   Increase knowledge and use of soil erosion reduction and
                                                                                               runoff control techniques on agricultural and urban land.

                                                                                           ●   Work with golf courses and parks departments to encourage
                                                                                               proper fertilizer management and yard waste disposal.



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     Table 11 - Goals and Objectives of the Mona Lake Watershed

               Long-Term Goals                  Pollutants of     Sources and Causes                            Short-Term Objectives
                                                  Concern

                                                                                           ●   Promote residential soil testing, education about fertilizer
                                                                                               use, and encourage proper yard waste disposal.

                                                                                           ●   Revise local weed and phosphorus limiting ordinances in
                                                                                               urban areas to encourage the reduction of lawn areas and
                                                                                               the use of natural landscaping and native plants.

                                                                                           ●   Upgrade or replace failing or faulty OSDSs.

     Prevent pathogens from entering surface   Pathogens          Failing sewage lift      ●   Upgrade failing county sewage lift station pump systems.
     waters flowing to Mona Lake                                  stations
                                                                                           ●   Increase property owner awareness about the value of
                                                                  Animal waste                 properly designed, installed, and maintained septic systems,
                                                                                               particularly in areas with high water tables, porous soils, and
                                                                  Failing septic systems       those near surface water and storm sewers.

                                                                  Lack of agricultural     ●   Find illicit connections in urban areas, such as illegal storm
                                                                  BMPs                         sewer hookups, and prevent illicit discharges from entering
                                                                                               surface waters.

                                                                                           ●   Develop and implement residential/commercial storm water
                                                                                               education programs in urban areas.

                                                                                           ●   Increase the development of CNMPs.

                                                                                           ●   Reduce the volume and velocity of storm water runoff
                                                                                               entering surface waters in urban and developing areas by
                                                                                               encouraging storm water infiltration.

                                                                                           ●   Upgrade or replace failing or faulty OSDSs.

                                                                                           ●   Eliminate illicit discharges.



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     Table 11 - Goals and Objectives of the Mona Lake Watershed

                Long-Term Goals                 Pollutants of     Sources and Causes                        Short-Term Objectives
                                                  Concern

                                                                                        ●   Find sources from agricultural areas and implement BMPs
                                                                                            to prevent contamination of surface waters and increase the
                                                                                            knowledge and use of runoff control techniques on
                                                                                            agricultural land.

                                                                                        ●   Reduce amount of pet waste entering surface waters.

     Reduce sources of thermal pollution to   Thermal             Impervious surfaces   ●   Implement shoreline protection and restoration practices in
     Little Black Creek                       pollution                                     riparian areas.
                                                                  Removal of bank
                                                                  vegetation            ●   Reduce the volume and velocity of storm water runoff
                                                                                            entering surface waters in urban and developing areas by
                                                                  Sedimentation             encouraging storm water infiltration.

     Stabilize stream flows to moderate       Unstable            Channelization        ●   Follow recommendations from hydrologic models.
     hydrology and increase base flow         hydrology
                                                                  Floodplain            ●   Discourage irrigation in certain areas where base flow must
                                                                  development and           be maintained.
                                                                  destruction
                                                                                        ●   Protect floodplains and mitigate impacts.
                                                                  Impervious surfaces
                                                                                        ●   Establish storm    water   management criteria for      new
                                                                  Storm sewer               developments.
                                                                  discharge quantity
                                                                  and velocity          ●   Encourage LID practices.

                                                                  Wetland destruction   ●   Reduce the volume and velocity of storm water runoff
                                                                                            entering surface waters in urban and developing areas by
                                                                                            encouraging storm water infiltration.

                                                                                        ●   Develop and implement residential/commercial storm water
                                                                                            education programs in urban areas to reduce volume and
                                                                                            velocity of runoff.


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     Table 11 - Goals and Objectives of the Mona Lake Watershed

               Long-Term Goals                  Pollutants of     Sources and Causes                     Short-Term Objectives
                                                  Concern
     Notes:                                                                  LUSTs = leaking underground storage tanks
     BMPs = best management practices                                        OSDSs = onsite sewage disposal systems
     SESC = soil erosion and sediment control                                LID = low impact development
     DPW = Department of Public Works                                        CNMP = Certified Manure Management Plan
     MDEQ = Michigan Department of Environmental Quality




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CHAPTER 5 - IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY

5.1     BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS

Best management practices (BMPs) are land management practices that treat, prevent, or reduce water
pollution and are classified into three groups: structural, vegetative, and managerial. Structural BMPs are
physical improvements that require construction during installation. Examples of structural BMPs include
check dams, detention basins, and rock riprap. BMPs that utilize plants to stabilize soils, filter runoff, or
slow water velocity are categorized as vegetative BMPs. Managerial BMPs involve changing operating
procedures to lessen water quality impairments. Conservation tillage and adoption of ordinances are
examples of these types of BMPs.

In some cases, a BMP will not fall into any of the three categories described above. Educational
programs are one such example. Information and Education (I&E) strategies are a necessary component
of all Watershed Management Plans. An I&E strategy can be used to inform the public and motivate them
to take action. Without I&E, land owners, residents, and municipal officials would not have an
understanding of why BMPs are necessary.

The Muskegon Area Storm Water Committee discussed, reviewed, and recommended potential BMPs for
the Mona Lake Watershed (Watershed). BMPs were chosen after considering sources and causes of
watershed pollution and their impacts on designated uses. The final set of BMPs recommended for the
Watershed is listed in Table 12. Implementation of these practices will make progress toward meeting
long-term goals and short-term objectives. It should be noted that BMP treatments may not work on all
locations; therefore, it will be necessary to visit potential installation sites before final plans are made for
implementation. In addition to physical conditions of the site, willingness of the property owner should be
considered when selecting BMP implementation sites. A BMP should not be installed if the property
owner has not been made a cooperative partner in the decision-making process.


5.2     COST/BENEFIT OF AND COMMITMENTS TO IMPLEMENTING BEST
        MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Committing to actions without understanding the cost of the action can cause problems when it comes
time for implementation. For this reason, proposed actions have been flagged as having minimal (<$500),
moderate ($500 to $5,000), or high (>$5,000) costs to help permittees determine what can feasibly be
implemented. These cost categories are included in column three of Table 12. Actual costs for BMP
implementation will vary according to site conditions. Generally, costs will be lower when multiple BMPs
are installed simultaneously.



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It is also important for permittees to consider the benefits of each action as some actions are more
beneficial than others. Actions with the most benefit should be considered before actions with a lesser
benefit. Therefore, recommendations have been flagged as having a minimal, moderate, or high benefit in
terms of either social awareness or water quality improvements (Table 12). Actions identified as most
beneficial are those considered the most effective at preventing, treating, or reducing water pollution.

Prior to making final commitments in the storm water pollution prevention initiative, permittees are
required to make initial commitments to implementing actions. These initial commitments are also
included in Table 12.


5.3     METHODS OF EVALUATION

In order to assess the effectiveness of each proposed action at reducing water pollution, an evaluation
process is necessary. Evaluation methods have been selected for each proposed action to determine its
success at preventing, reducing, and treating water pollution (Table 12). I&E efforts will be evaluated on
their effectiveness at informing and educating the public, as well as inspiring individuals to take action.
Evaluation methods can be classified as qualitative or quantitative in nature.

Qualitative evaluation is an assessment process that measures how well something was done.
Qualitative measurements that are recommended can be used to measure the success of stakeholder
participation and community involvement in improving the quality of life in the watershed. For example,
the number of individuals attending a training session and receiving a certificate could be a measure of
the program’s success. These types of measurements are considered interim measures of success,
those that mark milestones rather than environmental improvements.

Quantitative evaluation is an assessment process that measures how much of something was done or
changed. Quantitative measurements are further defined by categories of indirect and direct indicators.
Indirect indicators are those that measure practices and activities that could indicate water quality
improvements, but do not actually measure water quality. For example, estimating the pollutant reduction
that a practice will achieve is stating that a certain amount of that pollutant will be prevented from entering
the stream, but not necessarily improving water quality. Direct environmental indicators measure water
quality through scientific investigation. Sediment load reduction could be measured by secchi disks, and
nutrient load reductions could be measured through chemical analysis of the water. Macroinvertebrate
surveys are also direct indicators of water quality, since some insects are very sensitive to change in a
stream’s health.




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Evaluation methods can also be categorized as methods to measure watershed activities or methods to
measure water quality results. Watershed activities can be measured as a way to show what the
permittee has implemented to carry out storm water controls. Examples of activity measurements include
the number of brochures distributed, number of workshop participants, or number of watershed
presentations. In addition, water quality results can be measured as a way to show how implemented
activities have affected the watershed. Examples of result measurements include direct assessment of
the resource, tracking pollution removal or prevention, and social surveys. Measurements of watershed
activities and water quality results are included in Table 12.




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       Table 12 - Implementation Activities
          Long-term Goals               Short-term Objectives                Cost/Benefit                   Evaluation Method                                                       Best Management Practices                                                       Commitment
                                                                                                                                                             Within 3 Years - 2008                                 Within 8 Years - 2013

                                  Offer training to planning             Moderate cost and a   Number of attendees at each training session    Create a contact list of planning departments,          Hold workshops in each township/city               SESC enforcement agencies
       Prevent soil erosion and   departments, road commissions,         moderate social       Follow-up survey of attendees to determine if   road commissions, building/permitting officials,                                                           MS4 communities
       reduce sedimentation in    building/permitting officials, and     awareness benefit     practices have been integrated                  contractors, and SESC enforcement agencies
       Mona Lake and its          contractors so that soil erosion                                                                                                                                                                                        Road commission
                                                                                                                                               Develop list of soil erosion control BMPs to
       tributaries                control BMPs are considered an                                                                               promote at workshops                                                                                       DPWs
                                  integrated part of the site planning
                                  and design process                                                                                           Develop materials for presentations

                                  Develop and implement                  Minimal cost and a    Evaluation methods outlined in PEP              Implement PEP activities slated for 2005 to 2008        Implement PEP activities slated for 2008 to        MS4 communities
                                  residential/commercial storm water     minimal social                                                                                                                2013                                               Health department
                                  education programs in urban areas      awareness benefit
                                  to reduce volume and velocity of                                                                                                                                                                                        Road commission
                                  runoff                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DPWs

                                  Implement shoreline protection and     Moderate cost and a   Evaluation methods outlined in PEP              Create contact list of riparian property owners,        Follow up with contacts made through               MS4 communities
                                  restoration practices in riparian      high water quality    Number of demonstration sites implemented       garden centers, lawn care companies, and                mailings and technical assistance                  Conservation district
                                  areas                                  improvement benefit                                                   nurseries in targeted areas                             Establish demonstration sites                      Land conservancy
                                                                                                                                               Prioritize riparian properties to be targeted by        Develop and adopt a stream buffer ordinance
                                                                                                                                               geography, hydrology, natural features and                                                                 Nature conservancy
                                                                                                                                               sediment loading                                        Implement PEP activities slated for 2008 to        NRCS
                                                                                                                                                                                                       2013
                                                                                                                                               Create implementation schedule for                                                                         Drain commissioner
                                                                                                                                               demonstration sites based on prioritization                                                                Nurseries
                                                                                                                                               Implement PEP activities slated for 2005 to 2008                                                           Garden centers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Watershed organizations
                                  Increase knowledge and use of soil     High to moderate      Number of attendees at field walks and farmer   Identify and prioritize erosion sites on agricultural   Implement BMPs, such as filter strips, on          NRCS
                                  erosion reduction and runoff control   cost and high to      meetings                                        land using pollution reduction calculations             agricultural land in high priority areas           Road commission
                                  techniques on agricultural and         moderate water        Record personal contacts made                   Host field walks and farmer meetings                    Encourage road commissions and
                                  urban land                             quality improvement                                                                                                                                                              Conservation districts
                                                                                               Number and locations of BMPs implemented        Publish articles in agricultural newspapers             departments of public works to implement a
                                                                         benefit                                                                                                                       regular street sweeping schedule                   MSUE
                                                                                               Before and after photos of sites where BMPs     Make personal contacts with producers                                                                      County farm bureau
                                                                                               installed                                                                                               Install urban sediment controls such as oil/grit
                                                                                                                                                                                                       separators                                         Cities, townships, and villages
                                                                                               Reduction in the amount of sediment loading
                                                                                               per site
                                                                                               Amount of material collected through street
                                                                                               sweeping
                                  Survey road-stream crossings and       High to moderate      Number of road stream crossings surveyed        Train staff and volunteers to assess crossings          Implement improvements to high priority            Road commissions
                                  prioritize sites for future            cost and high to      Prioritized list of crossings needing           Survey 10% of total crossings each year                 crossings                                          DPWs
                                  improvement                            moderate water        improvements                                                                                            Complete survey of crossings
                                                                         quality improvement                                                   Develop a prioritized list of crossing needing                                                             MDEQ
                                                                         benefit               Number of high priority sites improved          improvements                                                                                               Watershed organizations
                                                                                               Reduction in the amount of sediment loading                                                                                                                Drain commissioners
                                                                                               per site
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MS4 communities




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       Table 12 - Implementation Activities
          Long-term Goals               Short-term Objectives               Cost/Benefit                     Evaluation Method                                                      Best Management Practices                                                   Commitment
                                                                                                                                                              Within 3 Years - 2008                               Within 8 Years - 2013

                                                                        High cost and high      Number of communities adopting ordinances        Develop model storm water ordinance                  Adopt storm water ordinance                      MS4 communities
                                  Reduce the volume and velocity of     water quality           Number of conservations easements                Develop model wetland protection ordinance           Adopt wetland protection ordinance               Developers
                                  storm water runoff entering surface   improvement benefit     established
                                  waters in urban and developing                                                                                 Develop model ordinances to encourage LID            Adopt regionally consistent ordinances for LID   Drain commissioners
                                  areas                                                         Number construction projects incorporating       Identify and prioritize opportunities to implement   Implement LID techniques in high priority        Land conservancy
                                                                                                LID techniques or other BMPs                     LID techniques                                       areas
                                                                                                Stream monitoring during storm events to         Identify natural areas that help control runoff      Protect natural areas through adoption of
                                                                                                measure flow, volume, and velocity                                                                    ordinances and establishment of conservation
                                                                                                                                                 Protect urban wetlands by addressing unstable        easements
                                                                                                                                                 hydrology and implementing storm water               Implement storm water runoff controls
                                                                                                                                                 controls such as rain gardens, porous pavement,
                                                                                                                                                 and retention/detention ponds
                                  Additional state and local funding    Minimal cost and high   Amount of funding                                Create list of potential funding sources             Increase overall funding allocations for SESC    County enforcing agents
                                  for enforcement of SESC               water quality                                                            Identify program needs                               program                                          Municipal enforcing agents
                                                                        improvement benefit
                                                                                                                                                 Apply for funding                                                                                     MDEQ (technical assistance)
                                                                                                                                                 Review current fee schedule
                                  Develop and implement                 Minimal cost and a      Evaluation methods outlined in PEP               Implement PEP activities slated for 2005 to 2008     Implement PEP activities slated for 2008 to      MS4 communities
       Reduce concentrations of   residential/commercial storm water    minimal social                                                                                                                2013
       heavy metals, toxic        education programs in urban areas     awareness benefit
       substances, and            to reduce volume and velocity of
       hydrocarbons               runoff and discourage dumping into
                                  storm drains
                                  Increase knowledge about benefits     Minimal cost and a      Number of attendees at workshops                 Hold workshops on IPM and landscape                  Increase in number of producers with IPM         NRCS
                                  of integrated pest management and     minimal to moderate     Number of brochures distributed (PEP Activity)   management for property owners                       plans                                            Conservation districts
                                  the safe use of                       social awareness                                                         Distribute brochure on the effects of lawn and
                                  pesticides/herbicides among           benefit                 Number of IPM plans implemented                                                                                                                        MSUE
                                                                                                                                                 garden products on the environment (PEP
                                  property owners                                                                                                activity)                                                                                             MS4 communities

                                  Increase the number of small and      Moderate cost and a     Number of farms completing assessments           Prioritize farms in need of chemical storage and     Complete assessments on high priority farms      MSUE groundwater technicians
                                  medium size producers who             high water quality                                                       handing assessments                                                                                   NRCS
                                  complete chemical storage and         improvement benefit
                                  handling assessments, particularly                                                                                                                                                                                   Conservation districts
                                  in areas with high water tables,
                                  porous soils, and those near
                                  surface or sensitive water
                                  resources
                                  Promote hazardous waste               Minimal cost and a      Amount of hazardous substances collected by      Implement PEP activities slated for 2003 to 2008     Implement PEP activities slated for 2008 to      MS4 communities
                                  collection programs                   minimal social          the county household hazardous waste             Distribute brochures and provide online              2013                                             County DPW
                                                                        awareness benefit       collection program                               information to promote the county household          Continue to distribute brochures on the county
                                                                                                Evaluation methods noted in the PEP              hazardous waste collection program                   household hazardous waste collection
                                                                                                                                                                                                      program
                                  Minimize effects of DPW and road      Moderate cost and a     Number of runoff control BMPs installed          Work with DPWs and road commission to                Implement runoff control BMPs where              Road commission
                                  commission waste, chemical, and       moderate to high        Number of practices implemented to control       manage dumpsters, street sweeping waste, and         necessary                                        DPW
                                  salt storage areas and control road   water quality benefit   waste, chemical, and salt storage areas and      catch basin cleaning waste
                                  salt runoff                                                                                                                                                                                                          MS4 communities
                                                                                                control road salt runoff                         Work with DPWs and road commission to
                                                                                                                                                 address chemical and salt storage areas and
                                                                                                                                                 calibrate salt application equipment
                                  Eliminate illicit discharges          Moderate cost and a     Number of communities adopting IDEP              Adopt and enforce IDEP ordinance                     Enforce ordinance                                MS4 communities
                                                                        high water quality      ordinance
                                                                        improvement benefit



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       Table 12 - Implementation Activities
           Long-term Goals                 Short-term Objectives                 Cost/Benefit                     Evaluation Method                                                       Best Management Practices                                                       Commitment
                                                                                                                                                                   Within 3 Years - 2008                                 Within 8 Years - 2013

                                     Work with the MDEQ to address           High cost and a high    Number of sites with completed remedial         Use hydrological assessments and water quality          Work with MDEQ and the EPA to complete             MDEQ
                                     leaking underground storage tanks       water quality           actions                                         monitoring to help prioritize remedial actions          remedial actions in watersheds impacted            EPA
                                     and impacts from past industrial        improvement benefit                                                                                                             heavily with heavy metals, toxic substances,
                                     discharges                                                                                                                                                              and hydrocarbons                                   MS4 Communities

                                     Increase property owner awareness       High cost and a high    Number of realtors and homeowners               Develop mailing list from tax bills, deleting those     Establish long-term program to distribute          Association of Realtors
       Reduce nutrient loading       about the value of properly             water quality           participating in workshops                      with water and sewer services                           copies of the Septic System Owner’s                Health Department
       of Mona Lake and its          designed, installed, and maintained     improvement benefit     Number of homeowners receiving guidebooks       Distribute Septic System Owner’s Guidebook to           Guidebook to new homeowners with septic
       tributaries with particular   septic systems, particularly in areas                                                                                                                                   systems                                            MS4 communities
                                                                                                     Number of failed OSDSs found during             appropriate homeowners
       attention to sources of       with high water tables, porous soils,
       phosphorus.                   and those near surface water and                                inspections                                     Hold workshops for homeowners on proper
                                     storm sewers.                                                                                                   septic system maintenance                               Develop time-of-sale septic system
                                                                                                                                                     Hold workshops for realtors to introduce material       inspections
                                                                                                                                                     and establish distribution networks
                                     Develop and implement                   Minimal cost and a      Evaluation methods outlined in PEP              Implement PEP activities slated for 2005 through        Implement PEP activities slated for 2008 -         MS4 communities
                                     residential/commercial storm water      minimal social                                                          2008                                                    2013
                                     education programs in urban areas       awareness benefit
                                     to reduce volume and velocity of
                                     runoff
                                     Increase the number of small and        Moderate to high cost   Number of producers with approved CNMPs         Identify and prioritize agricultural operations in      Develop CNMPs for high priority operations         NRCS
                                     medium size producers that have         and a high water        Reduction in amount of nutrients entering the   need of CNMPs                                                                                              Conservation districts
                                     certified nutrient management plans     quality improvement     waterways, based on pollution reduction
                                                                             benefit                                                                                                                                                                            MSUE
                                                                                                     calculations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                MDA
                                     Reduce the volume and velocity of       High cost and high      Number of communities adopting ordinances       Develop model storm water ordinance                     Adopt storm water ordinance                        MS4 communities
                                     storm water runoff entering surface     water quality
                                     waters in urban and developing                                  Number of conservations easements               Develop model wetland protection ordinance              Adopt wetland protection ordinance                 Developers
                                                                             improvement benefit     established
                                     areas by encouraging storm water                                                                                Develop model ordinances to encourage LID               Adopt regionally consistent ordinances for LID     Drain commissioners
                                     infiltration                                                    Number construction projects incorporating      Identify and prioritize opportunities to implement      Implement LID techniques in high priority          Land conservancy
                                                                                                     LID techniques or other BMPs                    LID techniques                                          areas
                                                                                                     Stream monitoring during storm events to        Identify natural areas that help control runoff         Protect natural areas through adoption of
                                                                                                     measure flow, volume, and velocity                                                                      ordinances and establishment of conservation
                                                                                                                                                     Protect urban wetlands by addressing unstable
                                                                                                                                                     hydrology and implementing storm water                  easements
                                                                                                                                                     controls such as rain gardens, porous pavement,         Implement storm water runoff controls
                                                                                                                                                     and retention/detention ponds
                                     Increase knowledge and use of soil      High to moderate        Number of attendees at field walks and farmer   Identify and prioritize erosion sites on agricultural   Implement BMPs, such as filter strips, on          NRCS
                                     erosion reduction and runoff control    cost and high to        meetings                                        land using pollution reduction calculations             agricultural land in high priority areas           Conservation districts
                                     techniques on agricultural and          moderate water          Record personal contacts made                   Host field walks and farmer meetings                    Encourage road commissions and
                                     urban land                              quality improvement                                                                                                                                                                MSUE
                                                                                                     Number and locations of BMPs implemented        Publish articles in agricultural newspapers             departments of public works to implement a
                                                                             benefit                                                                                                                         regular street sweeping schedule                   County farm bureau
                                                                                                     Before and after photos of sites where BMPs     Make personal contacts with producers                                                                      Cities, townships, and villages
                                                                                                     installed                                                                                               Install urban sediment controls such as oil/grit
                                                                                                                                                                                                             separators                                         Road commission
                                                                                                     Reduction in the amount of sediment loading
                                                                                                     per site
                                                                                                     Amount of material collected through street
                                                                                                     sweeping
                                     Work with golf courses and parks        Minimal cost and a      Number of brochures distributed                 Distribute brochures to golf courses and parks          Schedule meetings with golf courses and            MS4 communities
                                     departments to encourage proper         moderate social                                                         departments on the impacts of improper fertilizer       parks departments to encourage proper
                                     fertilizer management and yard          awareness benefit                                                       management and yard waste disposal                      fertilizer management and yard waste disposal
                                     waste disposal                                                  Exit survey responses from meetings




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       Table 12 - Implementation Activities
          Long-term Goals               Short-term Objectives                 Cost/Benefit                     Evaluation Method                                                       Best Management Practices                                                   Commitment
                                                                                                                                                                 Within 3 Years - 2008                               Within 8 Years - 2013

                                  Promote residential soil testing,       Minimal cost and a      Evaluation methods outlined in PEP               Implement PEP activities slated for 2005 to 2008      Implement PEP activities slated for 2008 to      MS4 communities
                                  education about fertilizer use, and     minimal social          Number of website hits                           Distribute brochures and provide online               2013                                             MSUE
                                  encourage proper yard waste             awareness benefit                                                        information on improper yard waste disposal on        Continue to distribute brochures on proper
                                  disposal                                                                                                         the environment                                       yard waste disposal and MSUE’s soil testing
                                                                                                                                                   Distribute brochures and provide online               program
                                                                                                                                                   information to promote MSUE’s soil testing            Wishlist for the Future:
                                                                                                                                                   program                                               County-wide ordinance requiring the use of
                                                                                                                                                                                                         low phosphorous fertilizers
                                  Revise local weed and phosphorus        High cost and a high    Number of ordinances reviewed                    Review existing ordinances                            Revise and adopt ordinances                      MS4 communities
                                  limiting ordinances in urban areas      water quality           Number of ordinances needing revision            Schedule meetings with planning officials and
                                  to encourage the reduction of lawn      improvement benefit                                                      commissions to provide educational materials on
                                  areas and the use of natural                                    Number of planning officials and commissions
                                                                                                  receiving educational materials                  the benefits of reducing lawn areas and the use
                                  landscaping and native plants                                                                                    of natural landscaping and native plants; discuss
                                                                                                  Number of ordinances revised and adopted         revisions to existing ordinances
                                  Upgrade or replace failing or faulty    High cost and a high    Adoption of revised county OSDS ordinance        Review existing county OSDS ordinance                 Revise existing OSDS county ordinance to         MS4 communities
                                  onsite sewage disposal systems          water quality           Number of nutrient removal technologies          Schedule meetings with county health                  allow for inspection of systems and the          Health department
                                                                          improvement benefit     implemented                                      department to discuss possible revisions to the       assessment of fines for noncompliance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MDEQ
                                                                                                                                                   county OSDS ordinance                                 Implement accepted nutrient removal
                                                                                                                                                   Work with county health department and MDEQ           technologies for treatment
                                                                                                                                                   on expanding use of nutrient removal                  Wish list for the future:
                                                                                                                                                   technologies such as constructed wetlands for         County-wide ordinance requiring inspection of
                                                                                                                                                   treatment                                             wells and septic systems every three years
                                                                                                                                                                                                         and before a home's sale can be completed
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Install sanitary sewers in communities where
                                                                                                                                                                                                         soils are unsuitable for septic systems and
                                                                                                                                                                                                         where septic systems are utilized
                                  Increase property owner awareness       High cost and a high    Number of realtors and homeowners                Develop mailing list from tax bills, deleting those   Establish long-term program to distribute        Association of Realtors
       Prevent pathogens from     about the value of properly             water quality           participating in workshops                       with water and sewer services                         copies of the Septic System Owner’s              Health Department
       entering surface waters    designed, installed, and maintained     improvement benefit     Number of homeowners receiving guidebooks        Distribute Septic System Owner’s Guidebook to         Guidebook to new homeowners with septic
       flowing to Mona Lake       septic systems, particularly in areas                                                                                                                                  systems                                          MS4 communities
                                                                                                  Number of failed OSDSs found during              appropriate homeowners
                                  with high water tables, porous soils,                                                                                                                                  Develop time-of-sale septic system
                                  and those near surface water and                                inspections                                      Hold workshops for homeowners on proper
                                                                                                                                                   septic system maintenance                             inspections
                                  storm sewers
                                                                                                                                                   Hold workshops for realtors to introduce
                                                                                                                                                   material and establish distribution networks
                                  Find illicit connections in urban       Moderate to high cost   Evaluation methods outlined in PEP               Implement PEP activities slated for 2005 to 2008      Implement PEP activities slated for 2008 to      MS4 communities
                                  areas, such as illegal storm sewer      and a moderate to       Number of calls to the telephone hotline to      Establish a telephone reporting system for            2013                                             Health department
                                  hookups, and prevent illicit            high water quality      report an illicit discharge or connection (PEP   residents to report illicit discharges and            Implement the IDEP to identify and address
                                  discharges from entering surface        improvement benefit     activity)                                        connections to the storm sewer (PEP activity)         illicit discharge and connections to the storm
                                  waters                                                                                                                                                                 sewer.
                                                                                                  Number of illicit connections disconnected       Implement the IDEP to identify and address illicit
                                                                                                  Number of illicit discharges addressed           discharge and connections to the storm sewer

                                  Develop and implement                   Minimal cost and a      Evaluation methods outlined in PEP               Implement PEP activities slated for 2005 - 2008       Implement PEP activities slated for 2008 to      MS4 communities
                                  residential/commercial storm water      minimal social                                                                                                                 2013
                                  education programs in urban areas       awareness benefit
                                  Increase the development of             Moderate to high cost   Number of producers with approved manure         Identify and prioritize areas in need of manure       Develop manure management plans in high          NRCS
                                  certified manure management             and a high water        management plans                                 management plans                                      priority sites                                   Conservation Districts
                                  plans                                   quality improvement     Reduction in number of livestock with access
                                                                          benefit                                                                                                                                                                         MSUE
                                                                                                  to waterways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MDA


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       Table 12 - Implementation Activities
          Long-term Goals               Short-term Objectives                Cost/Benefit                    Evaluation Method                                                       Best Management Practices                                                   Commitment
                                                                                                                                                              Within 3 Years - 2008                                Within 8 Years - 2013

                                                                         High cost and a high    Number of upgraded sewage lift stations        Identify and prioritize failing sewage lift stations   Upgrade failing sewage lift stations             Muskegon County
                                  Upgrade failing county sewage lift     water quality                                                                                                                                                                  Wastewater Treatment Facility
                                  station pump systems                   improvement benefit
                                                                         Low to moderate cost    Number of plastic bags used for proper waste   Provide plastic bags and waste receptacles at          Place signage in parks to encourage proper       MS4 communities
                                  Reduce the amount of pet waste         and a moderate          disposal                                       parks for proper pet waste disposal                    pet waste disposal                               Health department
                                  entering surface waters                water quality           Number of signs placed in parks                                                                       Adopt pet waste ordinances
                                                                         improvement
                                                                                                 Adoption of ordinances
                                                                         High cost and high      Number of communities adopting ordinances      Develop model storm water ordinance                    Adopt storm water ordinance                      MS4 communities
                                  Reduce the volume and velocity of      water quality           Number of conservations easements              Develop model wetland protection ordinance             Adopt wetland protection ordinance               Developers
                                  storm water runoff entering surface    improvement benefit     established
                                  waters in urban and developing                                                                                Develop model ordinances to encourage LID              Adopt regionally consistent ordinances for LID   Drain commissioners
                                  areas by encouraging storm water                               Number construction projects incorporating     Identify and prioritize opportunities to implement     Implement LID techniques in high priority        Land conservancy
                                  infiltration                                                   LID techniques or other BMPs                   LID techniques                                         areas
                                                                                                 Stream monitoring during storm events to       Identify natural areas that help control runoff        Protect natural areas through adoption of
                                                                                                 measure flow, volume, and velocity                                                                    ordinances and establishment of conservation
                                                                                                                                                Protect urban wetlands by addressing unstable
                                                                                                                                                hydrology and implementing storm water                 easements
                                                                                                                                                controls such as rain gardens, porous pavement,        Implement storm water runoff controls
                                                                                                                                                and retention/detention ponds
                                  Upgrade or replace failing or faulty   High cost and a high    Adoption of revised county OSDS ordinance      Review existing county OSDS ordinance                  Revise existing OSDS county ordinance to         MS4 communities
                                  onsite sewage disposal systems         water quality           Number of nutrient removal technologies        Schedule meetings with county health                   allow for inspection of systems and the          Health department
                                                                         improvement benefit     implemented                                    department to discuss possible revisions to the        assessment of fines for noncompliance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MDEQ
                                                                                                                                                county OSDS ordinance                                  Implement accepted nutrient removal
                                                                                                                                                Work with county health department and MDEQ            technologies for treatment
                                                                                                                                                on expanding use of nutrient removal                   Wish list for the future:
                                                                                                                                                technologies such as constructed wetlands for          County-wide ordinance requiring inspection of
                                                                                                                                                treatment                                              wells and septic systems every three years
                                                                                                                                                                                                       and before a home's sale can be completed
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Install sanitary sewers in communities where
                                                                                                                                                                                                       soils are unsuitable for septic systems and
                                                                                                                                                                                                       where septic systems are utilized
                                  Eliminate illicit discharges           Moderate cost and a     Number of communities adopting IDEP            Adopt and enforce IDEP ordinance                       Enforce IDEP ordinance                           MS4 communities
                                                                         high water quality      ordinance
                                                                         improvement benefit

                                                                         Moderate to high cost   Number of agricultural areas in need of BMPs   Identify and prioritize agricultural areas in need     Implement BMPs on agricultural land in high      NRCS
                                  Find sources from agricultural         and a high water        to control animal waste runoff                 of BMPs to control animal waste runoff                 priority areas                                   Conservation districts
                                  areas and implement BMPs to            quality improvement     Number of producers attending workshops        Hold workshops for producers to distribute
                                  prevent contamination of surface       benefit                                                                                                                                                                        MSUE
                                                                                                 Number of personal contacts made with          information on runoff control techniques
                                  waters and increase the knowledge                                                                                                                                                                                     County farm bureau
                                  and use of runoff control                                      producers                                      Make personal contacts with producers
                                  techniques on agricultural land                                Number and locations of BMPs implemented
                                                                                                 Before and after photographs of sites where
                                                                                                 BMPs installed




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       Table 12 - Implementation Activities
           Long-term Goals                 Short-term Objectives               Cost/Benefit                    Evaluation Method                                                      Best Management Practices                                                    Commitment
                                                                                                                                                                Within 3 Years - 2008                               Within 8 Years - 2013

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MS4 communities
       Reduce sources of             Implement shoreline protection and    Moderate cost and a    Evaluation methods outlined in PEP               Create contact list of riparian property owners,     Follow up with contacts made through             Conservation district
       thermal pollution to Little   restoration practices in riparian     high water quality     Number of demonstration sites implemented        garden centers, lawn care companies, and             mailings and technical assistance
       Black Creek                   areas                                 improvement benefit                                                     nurseries in targeted areas                                                                           Land conservancy
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Establish demonstration sites
                                                                                                                                                   Prioritize riparian properties to be targeted by                                                      Nature conservancy
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Develop and adopt a stream buffer ordinance
                                                                                                                                                   geography, hydrology, natural features and                                                            NRCS
                                                                                                                                                   sediment loading                                     Implement PEP activities slated for 2008 to
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2013                                             Drain commissioners
                                                                                                                                                   Create implementation schedule for                                                                    Nurseries
                                                                                                                                                   demonstration sites based on prioritization
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Garden centers
                                                                                                                                                   Implement PEP activities slated for 2005 to 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Watershed organizations
                                                                           High cost and high     Number of communities adopting ordinances        Develop model storm water ordinance                  Adopt storm water ordinance                      MS4 communities
                                     Reduce the volume and velocity of     water quality          Number of conservations easements                Develop model wetland protection ordinance           Adopt wetland protection ordinance               Developers
                                     storm water runoff entering surface   improvement benefit    established
                                     waters in urban and developing                                                                                Develop model ordinances to encourage LID            Adopt regionally consistent ordinances for LID   Drain commissioners
                                     areas by encouraging storm water                             Number construction projects incorporating       Identify and prioritize opportunities to implement   Implement LID techniques in high priority        Land conservancy
                                     infiltration                                                 LID techniques or other BMPs                     LID techniques                                       areas
                                                                                                  Stream monitoring during storm events to         Identify natural areas that help control runoff      Protect natural areas through adoption of
                                                                                                  measure flow, volume, and velocity                                                                    ordinances and establishment of conservation
                                                                                                                                                   Protect urban wetlands by addressing unstable        easements
                                                                                                                                                   hydrology and implementing storm water               Implement storm water runoff controls
                                                                                                                                                   controls such as rain gardens, porous pavement,
                                                                                                                                                   and retention/detention ponds
                                     Follow recommendations from           Moderate cost and a    Number of storm water controls installed         Use hydrological assessments to address              Use hydrological assessments to address          Consultants
       Stabilize stream flows to     hydrologic models                     high water quality     Results of hydrographs if model run again        unstable hydrology issues by installing storm        unstable hydrology issues by installing storm    Drain commissioners
       moderate hydrology and                                              improvement benefit    after practices installed                        water controls                                       water controls
       increase base flow                                                                                                                                                                                                                                MDEQ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MS4 communities
                                     Discourage irrigation in certain      Minimal to moderate    Number of farms irrigating in areas where flow   Identify areas where flow must be maintained         Implement irrigation schedule where              NRCS
                                     areas where base flow must be         cost and moderate to   must be maintained                               where irrigation is also occurring                   recommended                                      Conservation District
                                     maintained                            high water quality                                                      Contact agricultural producers irrigating in these
                                                                           improvement benefit                                                                                                                                                           MDA
                                                                                                                                                   areas and provide educational materials
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MDEQ

                                     Protect floodplains and mitigate      High cost and a high   Adoption of new or revised floodplain
                                     impacts                               water quality          ordinances                                       Complete floodplain delineations                     Adopt/enhance floodplain ordinance to protect    FEMA
                                                                           improvement benefit                                                                                                          areas                                            Cities, townships, and villages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         County planning departments
                                     Establish storm water management      Moderate cost and a    Ease and frequency of use of storm water
                                     criteria for new developments         high water quality     management criteria                              Adopt storm water management criteria for new        Incorporate storm water management criteria      MS4 communities
                                                                           improvement benefit                                                     developments                                         in new developments                              Drain commissioner
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         County planning department
                                                                                                                                                   Provide workshops on storm water management
                                                                                                                                                   criteria for new developments
                                     Encourage LID practices               Moderate cost and a    Number of communities adopting ordinances        Develop model ordinances to encourage LID            Adopt regionally consistent ordinances for LID   MS4 communities
                                                                           high water quality     Number of construction projects incorporating                                                         Implement LID techniques                         Developers
                                                                           improvement benefit    LID techniques                                   Identify and prioritize opportunities to implement                                                    Drain commissioners
                                                                                                  Stream monitoring during storm events to         LID techniques
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Land conservancy
                                                                                                  measure flow, volume, and velocity




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       Table 12 - Implementation Activities
          Long-term Goals               Short-term Objectives               Cost/Benefit                  Evaluation Method                                                   Best Management Practices                                                  Commitment
                                                                                                                                                        Within 3 Years - 2008                               Within 8 Years - 2013
                                  Reduce the volume and velocity of     High cost and high    Number of communities adopting ordinances    Develop model storm water ordinance                  Adopt storm water ordinance                      MS4 communities
                                  storm water runoff entering surface   water quality
                                  waters in urban and developing                              Number of conservations easements            Develop model wetland protection ordinance           Adopt wetland protection ordinance               Developers
                                                                        improvement benefit   established
                                  areas by encouraging storm water                                                                         Develop model ordinances to encourage LID            Adopt regionally consistent ordinances for LID   Drain commissioners
                                  infiltration                                                Number construction projects incorporating   Identify and prioritize opportunities to implement   Implement LID techniques in high priority        Land conservancy
                                                                                              LID techniques or other BMPs                 LID techniques                                       areas
                                                                                              Stream monitoring during storm events to     Identify natural areas that help control runoff      Protect natural areas through adoption of
                                                                                              measure flow, volume, and velocity                                                                ordinances and establishment of conservation
                                                                                                                                           Protect urban wetlands by addressing unstable        easements
                                                                                                                                           hydrology and implementing storm water               Implement storm water runoff controls
                                                                                                                                           controls such as rain gardens, porous pavement,
                                                                                                                                           and retention/detention ponds
                                  Develop and implement                 Minimal cost and a    Evaluation methods outlined in PEP           Implement PEP activities slated for 2005 to 2008     Implement PEP activities slated for 2008 to      MS4 communities
                                  residential/commercial storm water    minimal social                                                                                                          2013
                                  education programs in urban areas     awareness benefit
                                  to reduce volume and velocity of
                                  runoff




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CHAPTER 6 - SUSTAINABILITY

6.1     MUSKEGON AREA STORM WATER COMMITTEE

Several communities within the Mona Lake Watershed (Watershed) joined those of the Muskegon Lake
Watershed and the Lower Grand River Watershed to form the Muskegon Area Storm Water Committee
(MASWC) in order to begin controlling direct discharges into the surface waters of the state. In 2004, the
MASWC began coordination with the Mona Lake Watershed Council (Council) to develop the Mona Lake
Watershed Management Plan (WMP). The Mona Lake WMP will provide the MASWC with the necessary
information to implement recommendations to meet short-term objectives and long-term goals in
accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Phase II Storm Water Program.


6.2     MONA LAKE WATERSHED COUNCIL

According to their website, the Council works to “restore, protect, and maintain, for future generations, the
Watershed as a viable natural resource and to inspire attitudes, awareness, behavior, and knowledge
through the use of science and education.” The Council, formed in May 2003, received a grant from the
U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) in August 2004. This grant, authorized through Section 319 of
the Clean Water Act, is administered by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. The two-year
grant will fund the development of a management plan for the Watershed that meets EPA 319
requirements.

In addition to the Watershed project, the Council is also involved in the Little Black Creek Public Health
Outreach project. The Council has partnered with the Lake Michigan Federation in order to educate
residents about the health concerns associated with contaminated sediments in Little Black Creek.




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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Annis Water Resources Institute of Grand Valley State University (AWRI-GVSU). December 2003.
Preliminary Watershed Assessment: Mona Lake Watershed. 161 pp.

Cairns, J., Jr. 1977. Aquatic Ecosystem Assimilative Capacity. Fisheries. 2(2): 5 through 7, 24.

City of Muskegon. April 1997. City Of Muskegon Master Land Use Plan. 216 pp.

Judy, R.D., Seeley, P.N., Murray, T.M., Svirsky, S.C., Whitworth, M.R., and Ischinger, L.S. 1984. 1982
National Fisheries Survey, Volume 1. Technical report: initial findings. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
FWS-OBS-84/06.

Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR). 2002. Designated Trout Streams for the State of
Michigan. FO-210:03.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), Surface Water Quality Division. Administrative
Rules, Part 4. Water Quality Standards. Filed with the Secretary of State on March 17, 1999. 58 pp.

United States Census Bureau. June 17, 2002. Demographic Profiles: 1990 and 2000 Comparison Tables.
http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2002/dp_comptables.html

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1968. Soil Survey Muskegon County Michigan.
U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2002. 305(b) Lists/Assessment Unit Information Year 2002.
2002 National Assessment Database. Updated August 16, 2005. http://64.233.187.104/search

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). November 26, 2002. Drinking Water Contaminants.
http://www.epa.gov/safewater/hfacts.html

United States Geological Survey (USGS). 1992. National Land Cover Dataset. http://www.usgs.gov




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