The North-South Gap by 02298B57


									                 The North-South Gap

                               Dr. Clayton Thyne
                       PS 235-001: World Politics
                                     Spring 2009

                          Goldstein & Pevehouse,
                       International Relations, 8/e

                           Student notes version
                                     State of the South
• World’s poor region states called:
   – Third world countries, less developed countries (LDCs),
     underdeveloped countries (UDCs), or developing countries
• Scholars do not agree on

• About a billion people live in abject poverty – no access
  to basic nutrition and health care
   – Concentrated in ____________________
   – Two decades ago, similar situation in _______________, but average
     income per person there has increased
   – Every 6 seconds…

   – 5 million children…
                      State of the South
• Millennium Development Goals
  – Sets targets for basic needs measures
    to be achieved by ________
• The 5 regions of the global South
  differ on poverty reduction, income
  level, and growth.
Figure 12.1
                          Basic Human Needs
• Food, shelter, and other necessities

• Education allows a new generation to meet over basic
  needs and more through the demographic transition.

                                            Basic Human Needs
•   Children suffer from hunger in the global South.

•   Health care


• Safe water

     –   Importance of NGOs:
• Shelter

•   War is a leading obstacle to the…

•   Disasters
Figure 12.2
Figure 12.4
                                            World Hunger
• Of all the basic needs of people in the global South, the
  most central is food.
   – Malnutrition:

   – Hunger:

   – 820 million people (1 in 8 worldwide) are …

• Rural communities and farming
   – Colonialism disrupted…

   – Shift to commercial farming (cash crops); displacement of
     subsistence farmers from the land.

   – Impact of international food aid on…
               Rural and Urban Populations
• The displacement of subsistence farmers leads
  to massive population shift.
  – Urbanization:
• Capital accumulation is concentrated in ______.
• Influx of people can cause difficulties.
     • Slums
• Land reform
          Women in Developing Countries
• Economic accumulation in poor countries is closely tied
  to the status of women in those societies.

• Hold inferior social status to men in the countries of the
  South (more so than in the North)

• Discrimination against girls is widespread in education
  and literacy.

• Work of international agencies to help women
                      Migration and Refugees
• Millions of people from the global South have
  crossed international borders, often illegally, to
  reach the North.
• The home state – no obligation to…

• Migration produces complex patterns of…

• Most industrialized states try to limit immigration from
                        Migration and Refugees
• Migrants are distinguished from refugees
   – Refugees are people fleeing to find …

• Number of refugees in 2006 was…

• Kurds in Turkey –

• Palestine -

• Economic impact

• Nationalism:
              Theories of Accumulation: Capitalism

• Capital:
• Capitalism
   – Based on liberal economics stressing …

   – System of private ownership of capital that relies on …

   – Views the global South as …

   – Cycle of accumulation depends on …

   – Concentrates __________________
   – No state is purely capitalistic
   – Principles of capitalism underlie the global economy with its great
     disparities of wealth
                Theories of Accumulation: Socialism

• Socialism – concerned with the …

   – Sees the North-South divide as more of a …

   – Believes capitalists exploit …

   – Generally endorses the use of the …

   – Does not exist anywhere in pure form.

   – In theory, central planners are supposed to use resources in a rational
     way that maximizes overall efficiency.
       • Russia and Eastern Europe:
       • China:
       • Privatization
• Does not mean socialism is dead: New mixes of socialism and
  capitalism are being created.
  Theories of Accumulation: The World-System
• The global system of regional class divisions has been
  seen by some IR scholars as a world-system, or a
  capitalist world economy.
   – View is _____________ in orientation; global level of analysis
   – Class divisions regionalized
       • Third world regions …
       • Industrialized regions …
       • Class struggle between the two
   – Semiperiphery:

• Actual patterns of world trade support the world-system
  theory to some extent
   – But the shift of export-oriented manufacturing from the
     industrialized countries to Asia reflects globalization
Table 12.3
• Imperialism structured world order
  starkly around the …
• At the same time, imperialism
  depends on the …
                            World Civilization
•   North America
•   Europe
•   China and Japan
•   Latin America
•   Africa
•   Arab caliphate and the Middle East
•   Europe
     History of Imperialism 1500-2000
• European imperialism
  – 15th century, with the development of oceangoing
    sailing ships in which a small crew could transport a
    sizable cargo over a long distance
  – Decimated indigenous populations
• Decolonization
• 19th century
• 20th century
Figure 12.6
                      Effects of Colonialism
• Being colonized had a devastating effect on a
  people and culture.

  – White domination seen as normal after …

  – Negative economic implications
  – Positives of colonization
  – Anti-colonial movements
Figure 12.7
                  Postcolonial Dependency
• Accumulation in the global South did not take off
  once colonialism was overthrown.
  – Left few people with the experience to …

  – Economies had been narrowly developed.

  – Inherited borders that were drawn in …

  – Government corruption of …
Figure 12.8
                    Postcolonial Dependency
• Dependency theory
  – Dependency as a situation in which …

  – A dependent country must borrow capital to …

• Types of non-colonial dependency
  – Enclave economy

  – Nationally controlled production by …

  – Penetration of national economies by …
                 Revolutionary Movements
• Political revolutions seek to change the …

• Social revolutions seek changes in the …
• Cold War years: communist insurgency
  – Chinese revolution
  – Latin America
• By early 1990s, communist third world
  revolutions seemed to have …
        Post-revolutionary Governments
• Even though revolutionaries advocate the broad
  distribution of wealth, they tend to find after
  taking power that centralizing accumulation is
  more practical.
  – Gives the state more control of …
  – New elite may begin to look like …
• Impact of …
• Marxist strategies have …

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