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					Firm Behavior, Competitive Advantage & Sustainable Development: Linkages, Parallels & Contradictions                       1


                                      Conference Program
Sunday, 17 June
                                                                                                               Marriott Hotel
  15:00 – 18:30      Conference Registration
  18:00              Welcome Reception

  18:45              “Costa Rica: An Inside View”
                         Moderator: Alberto Trejos Zuniga, Dean, INCAE
                         Panelists: Eduardo Ulibarri, Editor, La Nacion, Costa Rica
                                    Rene Castro Salazar, Visiting Professor, INCAE
                                    Anabel Gonzalez, Vice Minister of Foreign Trade for Costa Rica
                                    Alonzo Arroyo, Partner, KPMG, Costa Rica

Monday, 18 June
                                                                                                               Marriott Hotel
  7:30 – 12:00       Conference Registration
  8:00 – 9:45        General Session

                     Welcome Remarks
                                      Dilip Mirchandani, Director, EAM International / Rowan University, USA
                                      Roberto Artavia Loria, Rector, INCAE

                     “The Academy of Management’s Global Journey: At the Crossroads”
                                      Rick Mowday, Former President, AOM / University of Oregon, USA

                     Keynote Address
                                      Oscar Arias Sanchez, Former President of Costa Rica &
                                           1987 Nobel Peace Prize Recipient

  9:45 – 10:15       Break

  10:15              General Session (cont’d) – “A Ground-Level View of Competitive Advantage &
                     Sustainable Development”
                         Chair:     Daniel F. Twomey, Fairleigh Dickinson University, USA
                         Moderator: Federico Golcher, Area Partner, Financial Advisory Services, KPMG Latin
America
                         Panelists: Victor Balcazar, General Manager, Citibank
                                    Randall Chinchilla, Corporate Affairs Manager, GBS/Procter & Gamble de
                                          Costa Rica
                                    Jack Hovarth, Site Leader & General Manager, GBS Procter & Gamble de
                                          Costa Rica
                                    Jorge E. Villalobos, General Manager, Unisys de Centro America S.A.
                     Panelists will describe the realities of doing business in Central America including social and economic
                     problems and needs. They will share their philosophy of management, what does and does not work, and a
                     unique program designed to benefit the host country/community by forwarding social justice, economic
                     viability, and ecological sustainability.
2                    Managing in a Global Economy IX  Eastern Academy of Management & INCAE  Costa Rica, June 2001

    11:45           “Crossing Borders: Challenges for Teaching & Learning in a
                    Global Economy”
                                      Marta B. Calas, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, USA
                                      Melissa W. Barringer, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, USA
                                      D. Anthony Butterfield, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, USA
                                      Robert Marx, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, USA
                                      Linda Smircich, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, USA
                                      Robert Schwartzwald, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, USA
                                      Luis Marentes, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, USA
                    This symposium focuses on contemporary challenges for teaching, learning, and scholarship under
                    conditions of globalization. The three parts will address specific aspects of these challenges and are joined
                    by a common concern – the need to „cross borders‟ physically, intellectually, and institutionally if these
                    challenges are to be met.

    13:00 – 14:30   Lunch

    14:30 – 16:00   Concurrent Sessions

      Panel M 1.1   “The Ethics of Cyberveillance in a Global Context”
                       Chair:     Don Hellreigel, Texas A&M University, USA
                       Moderator: Jeffery Thompson, Miami University, USA
                       Panelists: Brizio Biondi-Morra, President, INCAE
                                  Irene Chow, Chinese University of Hong Kong
                                  Richard N. Dino, University of Connecticut, USA
                                  Eleanor O‟Higgins, University College Dublin, Ireland
                                  Ali bin Khalifa Al Khalifa, University of Bahrain
                    Whether one calls it „cyberveillance,‟ „cybermonitoring,‟ „cybersnooping,‟ or „cyberspying,‟ one thing is clear,
                    the computer activities of employees are increasingly being monitored by their companies. What are the
                    ethical implications of this practice? Are local customs, mores, and values in various parts of the world being
                    violated?

    Session M 1.2   “Strategic Alliances”
                       Facilitator: Tarek Hatem, University of Cairo, Egypt

                        Determinants of Stability of Strategic Alliances
                                 Rangamohan V. Eunni, Boston University, USA
                                 Tomas Kohn, Boston University, USA
                                 U. Srinivasa Rangan, Babson College, USA
                          In contrast to survival and longevity frequently used to measure the success of traditional inter-firm
                          cooperative arrangements such as joint ventures, might stability be a superior measure of
                          performance of strategic alliances? What factors affect alliance stability?

                        The Globalisation of Telecommunications & The Internationalisation of
                         KPN (Netherlands)
                                 Haico A. Ebbers, Nyenrode University, The Netherlands
                                 Emanuela Todeva, South Bank University, UK
                          The demand for telecommunication services has increased rapidly during the last decade. Due to fast
                          developing technologies and worldwide deregulation, competition has increased, especially in the
                          area of international business services. This new environment creates many challenges to telecom
                          companies and the need to reconsider their internationalization process.

                        Shaping the Competition & Building Competitive Advantage in the Global
                         Telecommunication Industry: The Case of British Telecommunications Plc
                                  Emanuela Todeva, South Bank University, UK
                                  Robin John, South Bank University, UK
                          What drivers shape the global telecommunication industry and act as sources of competitive
                          advantage for traditional telecommunication operators? Our analysis is based on a case study of
                          British Telecommunications PLC and the cooperative relationships formed by them in response to the
                          increasingly dynamic and competitive environment.

                        The Role of Costs in International Joint Ventures
Firm Behavior, Competitive Advantage & Sustainable Development: Linkages, Parallels & Contradictions                             3

                                      Ali bin Khalifa Al Khalifa, University of Bahrain
                                      Eggert Peterson, University of Bahrain
                           An examination of the various operational and environmental costs associated with the decision to
                           internationalize to see how managers‟ perception of the importance of these costs is influenced by
                           experiential factors.

  Session M 1.3      “Conflict & Collaboration Across Borders: Gaining Understanding
                     Experientially” (conducted in two parts as M 1.3 & then M 2.4)
                         Chair:       Sandra Morgan, University of Hartford, USA


                          A Framework for Fostering Effective International Teams Experientially
                                   William P. Ferris, Western New England College, USA
                                   Dale Finn, University of New Haven, USA
                                   Susan M. Schor, Pace University, USA
                                   James A.F. Stoner, Fordham University at Lincoln Center, USA
                           How can effective „international teams‟ consisting of different nationalities be developed? Session
                           participants will engage in an experiential exercise to show how culturally diverse teams can, and
                           usually do, generate greater synergy than homogeneous teams when the task involves developing
                           knowledge about differences in cultural norms, customs, and habits.

                          Understanding & Transcending Team Member Differences:
                           A Felt-Experience Exercise
                                    Sanjiv S. Dugal, University of Rhode Island, USA
                                    Matthew Eriksen, University of New Haven, USA
                           This felt-experience exercise facilitates self-understanding through an understanding of the „other.‟ It
                           reveals the images in our head that drive our perceptions, conceptions, and interpretations of the
                           world and others. It may be used as a diversity exercise or as a basic building block for a community
                           of inquiry.

                         Discussant:        David C. Baldridge, University of Connecticut, USA

  16:00 – 16:30      Break

  16:30 – 18:00      Concurrent Sessions

     Panel M 2.1     “Global Automobile Alliances”
                         Chair:       Heinz Weihrich, University of San Francisco, USA

                          Merging Daimler with Chrysler Through the Tows Matrix
                                   Kai-Uwe Seidenfuss, Executive Director, Daimler-Chrysler-Mitsubishi Motors,
                                        Singapore
                                   Bernard Wagemann, Bavarian University of Applied Science, Germany
                           A situational analysis of Chrysler and Daimler-Benz before the merger applying the TOWS Matrix
                           followed by a discussion of their combined strengths and weaknesses as a merged Daimler-Chrysler
                           company showing alternative post-merger strategies.

                          Consolidations & Alliances in Global Automobile Manufacturing
                                   Refik Culpan, Pennsylvania State University in Harrisburg, USA
                           Several consolidations and alliances in the automobile manufacturing industry are examined to
                           uncover problems in implementation of such strategies, and advantages that can be gained by
                           building competencies.
4                    Managing in a Global Economy IX  Eastern Academy of Management & INCAE  Costa Rica, June 2001

     Session M 2.2 “Change, Learning & Leading”
                     Facilitator: Claudia Harris, North Carolina Central University, USA

                        Leadership for Sustainable Advantage: A Comparison of Methods for
                         Introducing New Knowledge at the Top
                                  Marta A. Geletkanycz, Boston College, USA
                         This study empirically examines two approaches to incorporating new knowledge and perspectives at
                         the executive-team level. Findings show that the most popular methods – executive mobility and
                         external orientation – yield dramatically different effects on long-term performance. Implications for
                         strategic leadership and competitive advantage in an era of dynamic change are discussed.

                        Strategy & National Economic Development: The Causes of the Irish
                         Economic Resurgence
                                  Richard C. FitzPatrick, Manhattan College, USA
                                  Lawrence P. Huggins, Manhattan College, USA
                         The Republic of Ireland‟s recent economic success has become the envy of the European Union,
                         prompting the characterization, “The Celtic Tiger.” What is the strategic basis of this upsurge? The
                         economic boom is almost a textbook application of strategy formulation and implementation.

                        Sustainable Development: Challenges for the Global Manager
                                  Terence P. Curran, Siena College, USA
                         Sustainable development deserves the global manager‟s attention. With origins in UN reports and
                         national policy declarations, it provides an umbrella for a wide variety of environmental concerns.
                         Specific concerns are outlined for the U.S. and South Korea. Problems and solutions are reviewed,
                         and issues for the global manager are presented.

                        The Challenge of Energy Management & Sustainable Development
                         in Latin America
                                   Allan Cahoon, University of Calgary, Canada
                         Global energy development is often perceived as challenging the conventional view of corporate
                         social responsibility and sustainable development. What are the unique challenges faced in promoting
                         such practices in Latin America?

    Session M 2.3   “Impact of HRM Practices on Employee Retention, Satisfaction, Performance
                    & Coping with Change”
                       Facilitator: Richard T. Barth, University of Northern British Columbia, Canada

                        Working in the Best Firms: What Does it Mean for Minorities, Women &
                         Turnover Rates?
                                  Turgut Guvenli, Minnesota State University, USA
                                  Rajib Sanyal, The College of New Jersey, USA
                         Which are the „best‟ firms to work for? Are all „best‟ firms the same? In this paper, we report that there
                         is great variation among firms with respect to size and industry, as well as the employment of women
                         and minorities.

                        Managing Change in Organizations: Strategy for Competitive Advantage
                                 Alesa Svetic, GEA College of Entrepreneurship, Slovenia
                         Many Slovenian managers do not yet understand the importance of strategy for implementing
                         increased operational efficiency. This session shows how to design a strategy for restructuring
                         activities through planning, implementation, and coping with change.

                        Employee Involvement in Unionized Settings: Determinants of Worker Support
                                 Cedric E. Dawkins, Ashland University, USA
                         Previous research has examined links between demographic and attitudinal variables and support for
                         Employee Involvement programs. Employee involvement, however, occurs within the context of
                         stakeholder group interaction. Consequently, what the various groups think about how the other will
                         react to change impacts their support.
Firm Behavior, Competitive Advantage & Sustainable Development: Linkages, Parallels & Contradictions                              5

                          Work At Night: A Study on Job Satisfaction in European Maritime
                           Pilotage
                                    Annett H. Cascorbi, University of the Federal Armed Forces, Germany
                                    Michel E. Domsch, University of the Federal Armed Forces, Germany
                           This empirical international study examines job satisfaction in European maritime pilotage. The
                           differences between the organizational systems according to national law and physical as well as
                           social impacts of the job profile on the individual are described. Recommendations regarding
                           organizational action parameters for job satisfaction are made.

  Session M 2.4      “Conflict & Collaboration Across Borders: Gaining Understanding
                     Experientially” (conducted in two parts, first as M 1.3 & now M 2.4)
                         Chair:       Sandra Morgan, University of Hartford, USA

                          Universal RaceCars, AG: An Experiential Exercise
                                    Kimberly A. Eddleston, University of Connecticut, USA
                                    John F. Veiga, University of Connecticut, USA
                                    David D. Palmer, University of Connecticut, USA
                                    Rowena Ortiz-Walters, University of Connecticut, USA
                           Universal RaceCars is a role-play exercise that requires groups of students to develop short- and
                           long-term strategies for dealing with changing business situations within a multinational company.
                           Each group represents an independent business unit that operates in a separate country with distinct
                           patterns of social and business culture.

                          Research-Teaching Link: A Conflict Management Exercise
                                   Uzoamaka P. Anakwe, Pace University, USA
                           This exercise adapts a research survey for use in the classroom. The survey consists of qualitative
                           and quantitative components examining relevant aspects of conflict management. Students work in
                           small groups and a class discussion follows. This type of exercise works well in reinforcing the conflict
                           management concept in students‟ minds.

                         Discussant:         David C. Baldridge, University of Connecticut, USA

  20:00              General Session – “Leveraging Costa Rica’s Ecological Resources
                     Through Eco-Tourism”
                                      Michael Kaye, President, Costa Rica Expeditions
                                      Gustavo Segura, Manager, Lapa Rios Eco-Hotel

Tuesday, 19 June
  7:30 – 8:30        Registration (Marriott Hotel)
  8:30 – 12:30       Corporate Visits

                        Metrozone Export Free Zone (pre-registered participants)
                         Metrozone is a leading Free Zone and Industrial Park located near Heredia in Costa Rica. It
                         offers an on-site customs office, import and export services, customs brokerage, construction
                         services, personnel recruitment, and many other general services. Firms located within the
                         industrial park enjoy exemption of import tariffs, sales and consumer taxes, income tax (for a
                         number of years) and some other tax incentives. Metrozone currently hosts operations from
                         several industries including electronics, medical products, medical services, and other
                         services. Some firms operating in Metrozone are Reliability Inc., Photocircuits Corp., Sawtec
                         Inc., Sara Lee Corp., Lasersight Technology Inc., Federal Express, and BTicino (Legrand).
6                       Managing in a Global Economy IX  Eastern Academy of Management & INCAE  Costa Rica, June 2001

                        Intel (pre-registered participants)
                         Intel Costa Rica consists of an industrial complex for the assembly and testing of electronic
                         components that required an initial investment of more than $300 million and employs more
                         than 1,850 Costa Ricans. The complex has two manufacturing plants with state-of-the-art
                         assembling and testing technology. In the CR1 plant, the Pentium II, Celeron and Pentium III
                         microprocessors are manufactured. In the CR3 plant, the encapsulating of the microprocessor
                         is conducted using different technologies. Intel Corporation conducted a comprehensive
                         research process in several countries around the world before deciding to install the A6/T6
                         project (microprocessors assembly and testing) in Costa Rica. The well known political and
                         democratic stability of Costa Rica, its high education indices, and its efforts to bring foreign
                         investment that support economic and technological development were among the reasons
                         why Intel selected Costa Rica.

                        Atlas Appliance Company (pre-registered participants)
                         Atlas is an appliance manufacturer, founded in Costa Rica in the 1960s. It took advantage of
                         the creation of the Central American Common Market and soon expanded regionally to
                         become the leader in its segment. In the 1990s, it invested heavily in state-of-the-art
                         technology for flexible manufacturing. Since 1995, it has entered markets outside Central
                         America that include the Caribbean, South America, and Mexico. In 1996, Electrolux acquired
                         twenty percent of the company stock as part of a broad partnership that included access to
                         the former‟s technology and supplier base. Atlas recently acquired La Indeca, a Salvadorian
                         company that was the second largest appliance manufacturer in the region.

    12:30 – 13:30   Lunch (Marriott Hotel)
    13:30           Free Time

Wednesday, 20 June
    8:30 – 12:00    Corporate Visits

                        Cafe Britt (all participants)
                                       Pablo Vargas, General Manager
                                       Steve Aronson, Founder
                         Cafe Britt was founded in 1985 as the first gourmet coffee roaster in Costa Rica. Before Cafe
                         Britt, it was virtually impossible to find a memorable cup of coffee in our Costa Rica. The fact
                         was all the best coffee was being exported. Today, Cafe Britt is well known and recognized as
                         Costa Rica‟s #1 gourmet coffee. Theirs is the coffee served to diplomats, and is most often
                         chosen for special events throughout the country. Nearly every fine restaurant, hotel, and
                         tourist attraction is proud to serve Cafe Britt, which is processed from the most exquisite
                         coffee cherries, harvested, milled, sun-dried, and roasted right here in Costa Rica. On the
                         award-winning Cafe Britt Coffee Tour you will discover the secret of what transforms a ripe
                         coffee fruit into a delicious cup of gourmet coffee. Professional actors guide you through the
                         production stages from tending the trees to the careful handpicking at harvest time. You will
                         observe and participate in the traditions and history of coffee! Your tour will conclude with a
                         first hand experience of how the pros distinguish a fine coffee by taste and smell.
                                                                                                         INCAE Campus
    12:00 – 13:30   Lunch
Firm Behavior, Competitive Advantage & Sustainable Development: Linkages, Parallels & Contradictions                        7

  13:30              Welcome to INCAE
                                      Alberto Trejos Zuniga, Dean, INCAE
                                      Eduardo L. Montiel, Professor, INCAE, Nicaragua

                     General Session – “Central America: Challenges and Opportunities for
                     Sustainable Development”
                                      Arturo Condo, INCAE Center for Latin American Development, Costa Rica
                                      Alberto Trejos Zuniga, Dean, INCAE
                                      Lawrence Pratt, INCAE Center for Latin American Development, Costa Rica

                     “INCAE at the Forefront of Research in Latin America”
                                      INCAE Center for Latin American Development Faculty, Costa Rica

                     “Coffee & Costa Rica: Evolution & Innovation”
                                      Luis Lopez, INCAE Center for Latin American Development, Costa Rica
                                      Arturo Condo, INCAE Center for Latin American Development, Costa Rica
                                      Steve Aronson, Café Britt, Costa Rica

  15:00              “Emergence of Costa Rican High Technology Industry: A Case
                     Demonstrating the Relationship Between Sustainable Economic
                     Development & Competitive Advantage”
                                      Joel Harmon, Fairleigh Dickinson University, USA
                                      Rosemarie Twomey, Fairleigh Dickinson University, USA
                                      Mauricio Naranjo, G.M., Cisco Systems, Costa Rica
                                      Joe Bellah, G.M., Abbott Labs, Costa Rica
                                      Rodrigo Ayala, G.M., Microsoft, Costa Rica

  16:15 – 16:45      Break

  16:45 – 18:00      Concurrent Sessions

  Session W 1.1      “Corporate Governance & the Role of the Board of Directors”
                         Facilitator: James L. Darroch, York University, Canada

                          Corporate Governance & Corporate Social Performance
                                    Jean B. McGuire, Concordia University, Canada
                                    Marie-France Turcotte, University of Quebec in Montreal, Canada
                                    Sandra Dow, University of Quebec in Montreal, Canada
                           Does corporate governance promote shareholder interests over those of a wider range of
                           stakeholders? We found corporate governance has little impact, and little relationship between firm
                           ownership and incentive compensation, on firm social performance, but high CEO salaries showed a
                           positive relation to the index of social concerns.

                          Cooperative vs. Wholly-Owned Foreign Entry: The Influence of the Board of
                           Directors
                                     Roger J. Kashlak, Loyola College, USA / The University of Auckland, New
                         Zealand
                                     Hugh D. Sherman, Ohio University, USA
                                     Maheshkumar P. Joshi, St. Joseph’s University, USA
                           We first investigate the relationship between board of director characteristics and international
                           expansion in information-based industries, and then the linkage between board characteristics and
                           cooperative and wholly-based foreign activities. Differences in board characteristics are found for
                           firms choosing cooperative foreign expansion as opposed to those choosing wholly-owned expansion.
8                    Managing in a Global Economy IX  Eastern Academy of Management & INCAE  Costa Rica, June 2001

                       Corporate Governance in the Emerging Markets: The Case of Board of
                        Directors in Venezuela from 1997 to 1999
                                 Maximiliano González F., Tulane University, USA / IESA, Venezuela
                        The composition of boards of directors in a small sample of Venezuelan companies are characterized
                        in our study. Evidence suggests that Venezuela‟s firm performance, representing an emerging
                        economy, is in large part effected in the same way by board composition as in the more developed
                        economies.

    Session W 1.2   “Global Management: Similarities & Differences”
                      Facilitator: Martin J. Gannon, University of Maryland, USA

                       Cultural Myths in Stories about Human Resource Development: Analyzing the Cross-
                        Cultural Transfer of American Models to Germany & The Côte d’Ivoire
                                  Carol D. Hansen, Georgia State University, USA
                        Cross-cultural transferability of human resource development assumptions in the form of myths to a
                        foreign setting are examined. The reaction of German and Ivorian business communities to the myths
                        that shape American HR models of employee and organizational development form a descriptive
                        basis for practice with theoretical implications.

                       An International Comparison of Managerial Values & HR Decision-Making: How
                        are Canadian Managers Different from Irish & Australian Managers
                                 Sudhir K. Saha, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
                                 David O‟Donnell, The Intellectual Capital Research Institute of Ireland
                                 Thomas N. Garavan, University of Limerick, Ireland
                                 Stan Mensik, Curtin University of Technology, Australia
                        How similar or different are Canadian, Australian, and Irish managers when they go about making
                        managerial decisions about human resources? What are their managerial beliefs and values? Are
                        they related to the HR decisions they make?

                       Executive & MBA Perceptions of the Importance of Skills for Managing in the
                        Global Economy & Related Course Offerings: Do They Match?
                                 Eileen E. Kaplan, Montclair State University, USA
                                 Carl Rodrigues, Montclair State University, USA
                        International company executives and MBA students were surveyed to determine what international
                        skills are necessary for long-term survival and success in the global economy. International business
                        offerings were then examined in twelve MBA programs to ascertain whether they are consistent with
                        the perceptions of the executives and students.

                       Who Wants To Be An Entrepreneur? A Comparative Study of Poland &
                        The United States
                                 Jane K. Giacobbe-Miller, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, USA
                                 Melissa W. Barringer, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, USA
                                 Daniel J. Miller, Central Connecticut State University, USA
                        Using data collected from entrepreneurs and managerial employees in the United States and Poland,
                        this study examines the factors theoretically related to entrepreneurial job choice. Combined sample
                        findings suggest these choices are related to family entrepreneurial history, risk propensity, locus of
                        control, values, age, and sex.

      Panel W 1.3   “Issues in e-Commerce”
                      Facilitator: dt ogilvie, Rutgers University, USA

                       An Integrative & An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching e-Commerce
                                 Shohreh A. Kaynama, Towson University, USA
                                 Sharma Pillutla, Towson University, USA
                        This session discusses the planning and implementation of an e-Commerce course using the Internet
                        to create a dynamic teaching environment. The course was developed by a team-based approach
                        using a web-based tool called Course Info™ to enhance communication and collaboration and
                        provide a more accurate assessment of learning effectiveness.
Firm Behavior, Competitive Advantage & Sustainable Development: Linkages, Parallels & Contradictions                              9

                          Legal Aspects of e-Commerce
                                    K.A. Ogilvie, Esq., USA
                           This presentation will cover various legal aspects of e-commerce including jurisdictional issues, the
                           legal enforceability of e-commerce transactions, including authenticity and reliability issues, and
                           domain name disputes.

                          Electronic Value Chain Governance Structures
                                    Howard S. Rasheed, University of South Florida, USA
                           This presentation develops a model for internet-based electronic commerce using transaction cost
                           economic theory and resource-based theory to explain how a firm‟s resources and exchange
                           attributes affect interorganizational governance structure for specific value chain functions.

                          A New Look at e-Commerce Business Models
                                   dt ogilvie, Rutgers University, USA
                           A discussion of e-Commerce business models from a creativity and complexity theory perspective.

  18:00              Return to Marriott

Thursday, 21 June
  8:30 – 10:00       Concurrent Sessions

           Th 1.1    “Globalization, Strategy & Sustainable Development”
                         Facilitator: Barbara A. Ribbens, Western Illinois University, USA

                          Global Competitiveness, Firm Behavior & Sustainable Development: A
                           Behavioral Perspective
                                    Daniel F. Twomey, Fairleigh Dickinson University, USA
                           When will the most powerful global businesses become part of the solution rather than part of the
                           problem? Businesses cannot help solve world problems with the competitive perspective that
                           contributed to those problems! This paper offers a new perspective that enhances firm
                           competitiveness and its leadership in sustainable development.

                          The Convergence of Sustainable Development & Globalization: Influences on
                           Strategy Implementation in the Wine Industry
                                    Linda W. Ross, Rowan University, USA
                           To what extent has sustainable development become part of environmental strategies by the U.S.
                           wine industry? What are the drivers for adoption of strategies fostering sustainable development? Our
                           analysis of trends in globalization of the wine industry suggests implications for the promotion of
                           sustainable environmental strategy.

                          In Search of Culturally Sensitive Approaches to Sustainability
                                    Drew L. Harris, Longwood College, USA
                           Ecological sustainability proclamations, programs, and agreements made at international and national
                           levels often fail at implementation, perhaps from cultural insensitivity. This paper uses Hofstede‟s
                           dimensions of culture and The Natural Step, a successful Swedish-based sustainability effort, to
                           develop a framework for assessing and developing sustainability efforts sensitive to national culture.

                          New Applicants for the EU and the Problem of Ecological Standards
                                    Bernard Wagemann, Bavarian University of Applied Science, Germany
                           An overview of the general political, economic, financial, and ecological criteria for countries applying
                           to the EU. The financial and economic risks resulting from vast ecological investments and the
                           resulting lower competitiveness this may cause will be examined.
10                   Managing in a Global Economy IX  Eastern Academy of Management & INCAE  Costa Rica, June 2001

     Panel Th 1.2   “International HR: State-of-the-Art in Research & Practice”
                       Chair:     Carol D. Hansen, University of Georgia, USA
                       Panelists: Heather Hopfl, University of Northumbria & The Bolton Institute, UK
                                  Christine Lotze, Philosophy.1B, USA
                                  Kaveh Naficy, Philosophy.1B, USA
                                  Sudhir K. Saha, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
                    As organizations internationalize, the issue of how to develop and manage the needs and expectations of
                    multinational personnel is critical to maintaining competitive advantage. How can organizations effectively
                    prepare their people to deliver a consistent level of service and quality globally? We address this issue from
                    research and practice perspectives.

          Th 1.3    “Multinationals, Competitive Strategy & Bargaining Relationships”
                       Facilitator: Theodore Peridis, York University, Canada

                        Multiple Competitive Strategies & Firm Performance: Further Evidence
                                   Moses Acquaah, University of North Carolina in Greensboro, USA
                                   Masoud Yasai-Ardekani, University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, USA
                          This study examines incremental performance benefits of pursuing multiple or combination
                          competitive strategies. Our findings support Porter‟s argument that low-cost and differentiation are
                          incompatible. The results indicate the incremental contribution to performance of combining
                          differentiation-based and low-cost strategy is negative, and thus, the pursuit of both results in lower
                          performance than the pursuit of low-cost strategy alone.

                        Centralized or Decentralized MNC’s: Some Arguments Reviewed
                                   Michel A.E. Vandenput, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                          In this presentation, we will review several different approaches multinational firms can use to decide
                          whether they should implement centralization or decentralization when redesigning their structures.

                        MNC-Government-NGO Bargaining in Infrastructure Privatization: A
                         Stakeholder/Agency Approach to International Business-Government
                         Relations Research
                                  Jonathan P. Doh, American University, USA
                                  Hildy Teegen, George Washington University, USA
                          How has the emergence of NGOs affected corporate strategy, public policy, and business-
                          government relations? Recent experience in several countries suggests that NGOs are an
                          increasingly important factor in ensuring privatization success or averting failure. We argue for
                          development of a new theoretical direction to incorporate NGOs into the business-government
                          bargaining process.

          Th 1.4    “Cross-Cultural Dynamics at the Individual, Group & Organizational Levels”
                       Facilitator: TBA

                        The Implications of Inter-Group Inequality for Cross-Cultural Management
                         Research
                                  Alison M. Konrad, Temple University, USA
                                  Gerald Ross, III, Temple University, USA
                          We will present a comprehensive review of the 1995-2000 literature in cross-cultural management and
                          attempt to make the case that this literature should attend more closely to the dynamics of inter-group
                          inequality. Our goal is for cross-cultural management research to give greater voice to the concerns of
                          historically disadvantaged groups.

                        Politeness & the Clash of Interaction Orders in Cross-Cultural Communication
                                  David A. Morand, Pennsylvania State University in Harrisburg, USA
                          Cross-cultural variation in politeness behaviors comprise an important dimension of cross-cultural
                          organizational behavior. Research shows cultures have evolved differential norms for treating face
                          which are at the heart of many cross-cultural communication problems. A conceptual framework will
                          be presented with suggestions for organizational theorists and managers interested in cross-cultural
                          communication.
Firm Behavior, Competitive Advantage & Sustainable Development: Linkages, Parallels & Contradictions                               11

                          Information & Effort Exchange in Multi-Cultural Teams:
                           Cultural Diversity’s Impact on Team Member Exchange & Performance
                                     Kimberly A. Eddleston, University of Connecticut, USA
                                     Rowena Ortiz-Walters, University of Connecticut, USA
                           What factors impact team member information and effort exchange in multicultural groups and what
                           are the effects of these exchanges on performance? Results demonstrate that increases in team
                           information and effort exchange positively impact performance and that such increases are more
                           important to the performance of culturally heterogeneous teams.

                          Demography, Identity & Organizational Commitment
                                  Jorge A. Gonzalez, University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, USA
                           What is the relationship between demographic diversity and organizational commitment? Based on
                           social identity theory, the influence of perceived diversity climate and demographic identity centrality in
                           this relationship is explored and organizational identification is discussed as a mediating variable
                           between diversity and organizational commitment.

  10:00 – 10:30      Break

  10:30 – 12:00      Concurrent Sessions

    Panel Th 2.1     “A Prototype of a Multi-Media, Multi-Campus Collaborative Distance Learning
                     Course”
                         Chair:     Mzamo Mangaliso, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, USA
                         Moderator: Zengie Mangaliso, Westfield State College, USA
                                    Ben Kahn, Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts, USA
                                    Nancy Ovitsky, Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts, USA
                                    Bradford Knipes, Westfield State College, USA
                                    Mary T. Rogers, Framingham State College, USA

           Th 2.2    “Sustainable Development & Emerging Economies”
                         Facilitator: Emanuela Todeva, South Bank University, UK

                          Transnational Subsidiary Evolution & Host Country Development:
                           The Maquiladora Example
                                    John D. Sargent, The University of Texas Pan America, USA
                           Recent literature has reviewed MNC subsidiaries‟ evolution over time. Three primary drivers have
                           been identified as the head office, the local host country environment, or subsidiary managers. We
                           argue that entrepreneurial subsidiary managers have been the primary drivers responsible for the
                           positive changes in the profile of Mexico‟s maquiladora industry.

                          Sustainable Societies: Searching for the Ideal Web of Sustainability
                           for the Marshall Islands
                                     Barbara A. Ribbens, Western Illinois University, USA
                                     Gordon Rands, Western Illinois University, USA
                           Using an open systems derived web-like model of sustainability for organizational applications by
                           Starik and Rands (1995), we scale this concept up to a societal level. To illuminate these
                           relationships, we identify a set of ideal goals for the Marshall Islands society to develop a sustainable
                           web of relationships.

                          Madagascar: A Study of a Developing Nation
                                  Claudia Harris, North Carolina Central University, USA
                           Madagascar‟s history, natural environment, agricultural methods, culture, and economy will be
                           described in comparison with the general characteristics of developing nations. Suggestions will then
                           be made for economic development in Madagascar, given its unique characteristics.
12                 Managing in a Global Economy IX  Eastern Academy of Management & INCAE  Costa Rica, June 2001

        Th 2.3    “Privatization, Logistics, Economic Development & Organization Change”
                    Facilitator: Dilip Mirchandani, Rowan University, USA

                     Estimating Willingness to Pay for Water Services & Profitability in Small Water
                      Projects: A Case Study of Four Communities in El Salvador, Central America
                                Felipe Perez-Pineda, INCAE, Nicaragua
                      The contingent valuation method is used to estimate the value people place on improved water quality
                      and sanitation. The high willingness to pay for these services suggests that medium-sized water
                      supply projects in El Salvador are profitable from the private perspective, and therefore, may likely be
                      attractive for potential investors.

                     Logistics Practices: Characterization from the Venezuelan Experience
                               Angel Diaz Matalobos, ESC-ISLI, France
                               Candido Perez Costela, IESA, Venezuela
                      An empirical analysis identifying key characteristics and logistics opportunities in Venezuela is
                      presented in this session. One finding is that conservative approaches to logistics in a protected
                      market whose environment is changing faster than preferred by the responsible actors limits the
                      application of modern logistics practices.

                     Radical Organizational Changes: The Example of Services Multinationals in
                      Transition Economies
                               Bertrand Venard, ESSCA, France
                      Many service enterprises are currently trying to expand their activities to a global level. We will explain
                      why “destabilized” employees in services companies refuse radical organizational change, which is
                      being carried out by their new multinationals.

 Session Th 2.4   Works in Progress Interactive Session
                    Chair:       Alison M. Konrad, Temple University, USA

        Th 2.5       Arab Women Entrepreneurs: Oxymoron or Emerging Reality?
                             Kathleen Dechant, University of Connecticut, USA
                             Ebithaj Al-Ali, University of Bahrain
                                                                                            st
                      Entrepreneurialism has been named a defining trend of the 21 century global business arena.
                      Women have become a vital part of this growing trend. Can Arab women be included among those
                      who can successfully carve out careers as business owners?

                     An Investigation of Cross-Cultural Differences in the Effective Implementation
                      of ProMES
                               Anthony R. Paquin, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA
                               Maria L. Sanchez-Ku, Texas A&M University, USA
                      Organizations expanding internationally are finding that productivity strategies and interventions that
                      have been successful within their national boundaries have proven less effective in other countries.
                      We review the degree of success the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES)
                      has had in different settings.

                    Discussants:    Miles K. Davis, George Washington University, USA
                              Heidi Vernon, Northeastern University, USA

        Th 2.6       An Analysis of Aggression From & Satisfaction With Performance Appraisal
                      Practices in a Multi-Cultural Organization
                               Deanna Geddes, Temple University, USA
                               Adiara N. Kone, Temple University, USA
                      We analyze the relationship between aggressive behaviors of employees after receiving negative
                      performance appraisals and attempt to determine if employees perceive a low rating as influenced by
                      differences in demographics between themselves and their manager.
Firm Behavior, Competitive Advantage & Sustainable Development: Linkages, Parallels & Contradictions                         13

                          The Effects of Entrepreneurial Education on Psychological Attributes &
                           Academic Performance
                                    Howard S. Rasheed, University of South Florida, USA
                           Does entrepreneurship education contribute to the development of entrepreneurial characteristics
                           among young people? Does it contribute to improved student academic performance? It is expected
                           that the findings of this study will help establish best practices in instructional materials program
                           modality and exemplary entrepreneurship education.

                         Discussants:   D. Anthony Butterfield, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, USA
                                   David A. Morand, Pennsylvania State University in Harrisburg, USA

  12:00 – 13:30      Lunch

  13:30 – 15:00      Concurrent Sessions

    Panel Th 3.1     “Crossing Borders in our Classrooms & in Ourselves”
                         Chair:     Joan Weiner, Drexel University, USA
                         Panelists: William P. Ferris, Western New England College, USA
                                    Ellen Greenberg, American University in Bulgaria
                                    Chris Poulson, California State Polytechnic University in Pomona, USA
                                    Carlos Sequeira, INCAE Center for Latin American Development, Costa Rica
                                    James A.F. Stoner, Fordham University at Lincoln Center, USA

           Th 3.2    “Leveraging Information Technology for Growth, Development & Control”
                         Facilitator: Eduardo L. Montiel, INCAE, Nicaragua

                          Framing Information Technology as an Organizational Issue in a Developing
                           Country
                                    Uzoamaka P. Anakwe, Pace University, USA
                                    Murugan Anandarajan, Drexel University, USA
                                    Magid Igbaria, Claremont Graduate University, USA / Tel Aviv University, Israel
                                    Alan B. Eisner, Pace University, USA
                           We present IT as an organizational issue by examining the relationship between management
                           support, task structure, and microcomputer usage in Nigeria and review the obstacles of IT associated
                           with developing economies.

                          Information Management of ISO 9001: A DSS Framework
                                    Alireza Lari, Fayetteville State University, USA
                                    Shohreh A. Kaynama, Towson University, USA
                           What is the role of information management in the ISO 9001 implementation? We propose a
                           conceptual design of a DSS model to streamline operations, automate collection of information, and
                           improve efficiency. Our model intends to assist managers in taking proper corrective and preventive
                           actions for continuous improvement.

                          Strategic Choices in Electronic Supply Chain Management:
                           The Case of the Chemical Industry
                                     John W. Clarry, The College of New Jersey, USA
                           How are chemical firms creating electronic supply linkages? This paper examines the different
                           choices of networks based on strategies, product, and parent nationality.
14                 Managing in a Global Economy IX  Eastern Academy of Management & INCAE  Costa Rica, June 2001

         Th 3.3   “Operating in National & Global Work Settings”
                    Facilitator: David D. Palmer, University of Connecticut, USA

                     Comparing Business Cultures: Thailand & The United States
                              F. Gerard Adams, Northeastern University, USA
                              Heidi Vernon, Northeastern University, USA
                      How do the cultural perspectives of business people in Thailand and in the United States compare?
                      The questionnaire upon which our study is based uses Hofstede‟s five categories, but extends it to
                      make distinctions among shared social values and beliefs, individual preferences, and behavioral
                      practices in a corporate setting.

                     Empowering the Downtrodden: Is the Value of the Black Economic
                      Empowerment Movement in South Africa Recognized by Investors?
                             Todd M. Alessandri, University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, USA
                             Sylvia S. Black, University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, USA
                             William E. Jackson, III, University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, USA
                      One South African movement has been Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) where firms sell equity
                      stakes to black investors. Yet, it is unclear whether investors reward this Corporate Social
                      Responsibility (CSR). We examine the abnormal returns upon announcement of BEE deals. We find
                      capital markets are rewarding firms for CSR contrary to research suggesting no relationship between
                      CSR and financial performance.

                     Attitudes Toward Women in Management in the Arab Gulf Region
                                Darryl B. Lanoue, Eckerd College, USA
                      Are there gender differences in attitudes towards women in management in the Arab Gulf states?
                      How do they compare to those observed in western countries?

 18:00            Buses Depart Marriot for Closing Dinner
 19:00            Closing Dinner at the Museo de los Ninos (Children’s Museum)
                                Entertainment by the Asociacion Folklorica Castro Madriz

				
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