Research Methods

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					Chapter 2


Research Methods


                   1
Scientific Method
  • Formulating a research question
  • Framing the research question in the form of a
    hypothesis
  • Testing the hypothesis
  • Drawing conclusions




                                                 2
Goals and methods
  • Inference
     – Conclusion or opinion
  • Variables
     – Quantities or qualities that vary or may vary




                                                       3
Goals and methods
  • Penile strain gauge
    – Device for measuring sexual arousal in men
  • Vaginal photoplethysmograph
    – Device for measuring sexual arousal in
      women




                                               4
Operational Definitions
  • Operational definition
    – Definition of a construct or variable in terms
      of the methods used to measure it




                                                       5
Populations and Samples
  • Population
    – Complete group of organisms or events
  • Sample
    – Part of a population




                                              6
Sampling Methods
  • Random sample
    – Every member of a popular has an equal
      chance of participating
  • Probability sample
    – Sample in which the probability that any
      particular member will be included in the
      sample is known



                                                  7
Sampling Methods
  • Stratified random sample
    – Known subgroups in a population are
      represented in proportion to their numbers
      in the population




                                                   8
Methods of Observation
  • Case-study method
    – Carefully drawn, in-depth biography of an
      individual or a small group of individuals




                                                   9
Methods of Observation
  • Survey method
    – Detailed study of a sample obtained by
      interviews and questionnaires




                                               10
Survey Method
  • Reliability
    – Consistency or accuracy of a measure
  • Validity
    – Degree to which a particular test measures
      the constructs or traits that it purports to
      measure




                                                     11
Survey Method
  •   Kinsey reports
  •   NHSLS study
  •   Playboy Foundation survey
  •   Janus Report
  •   Magazine surveys




                                  12
Limitations of the Survey Method
  •   Volunteer bias
  •   Faulty estimation
  •   Social-desirability response bias
  •   Exaggeration
  •   Denial
  •   Differences in meanings of terms




                                          13
Observational Research
  • Naturalistic observation
    – Organisms are observed in their natural
      environments




                                                14
Observational Research
  • Ethnographic-observation method
     – Describes specific cultures, especially
       preliterate societies
  • Participant-observation method
     – Observers interact with the people they
       study as they collect data
  • Laboratory-observation method
     – Masters and Johnson


                                                 15
Limitations of Observational Research

  • Observer effect
    – Distortion of individuals’ behavior caused by
      their awareness that they are being
      observed




                                                 16
Correlational Method
  • Correlation
    – Statistical measure of the relationship
      between two variables
  • Correlational coefficient
    – Statistic that expresses the strength and
      direction of the relationship between two
      variables



                                                  17
Correlational Method




                       18
Limitations of the Correlational Method

   • Correlation is NOT causation




                                          19
Experimental Method
  • Experiment
     – Scientific method that seeks to confirm
       cause-and-effect relationships by
       manipulating variables
  • Treatment
     – Intervention that is administered to
       participants



                                                 20
Experimental Method
  • Independent variable
     – Condition that is manipulated so that its
       effects can be observed
  • Dependent variable
     – Measured results of an experiment
     – Believed to be a function of the independent
       variables



                                                 21
Experimental Method
  • Experimental group
    – Group of study participants who receive a
      treatment
  • Control group
    – Group of study participants who do not
      receive the experimental treatment




                                                  22
Experimental Method
  • Why is random assignment important?
  • Selection factor
    – Bias that may operate in research when
      people are allowed to determine whether
      they will receive a treatment




                                                23
Experimental Method
  • Experimentation with animals




                                   24
Ethics in Sex Research
  •   Pain and stress
  •   Confidentiality
  •   Informed consent
  •   Use of deception




                         25

				
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posted:11/26/2011
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