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VISION - 2025

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									CISH Perspective Plan                VISION - 2025




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                          ICAR



                        INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
     Perspective Plan                    VISION - 2025




                                     CENTRAL INSTITUTE FOR SUBTROPICAL HORTICULTURE
                                              Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107
                              Tel.: (0522) 2841022, 2841023, 2841024, 2841026, 2841173, 2841082, 2841083, 2440591
                                                Fax : (0522) 2841025, E-mail : director@cish.ernet.in
                                                             Website : www.cishlko.org
CISH



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                          ICAR



                        INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
Central Institute For Subtropical Horticulture
Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107
Tel.: (0522) 2841022, 2841023, 2841024, 2841026, 2841173, 2841082, 2841083, 2440591
Fax : (0522) 2841025
E-mail : director@cish.ernet.in
Website : www.cishlko.org




Published by
Dr. B.M.C. Reddy
Director



Compiled and edited by
Dr. B.M.C. Reddy
Dr. R.M. Khan
Dr. A.K. Misra
Dr. Ram Kishun
Dr. R.P. Shukla

Correct Citation
CISH - Perspective Plan Vision-2025
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
Rehmankhera, Lucknow



August, 2007




Printed at : Army Printing Press, 33 Nehru Road, Cantt Sadar, Lucknow-226 002 Tel : 0522-2481164
                                      FOREWORD

                            Indian agriculture must continuously evolve to remain ever
                      responsive to manage the change and to meet the growing and
                      diversified needs of different stakeholders in the entire production to
                      consumption chain. In order to capitalize on the opportunities and to
                      convert weaknesses into opportunities, we at the ICAR attempted to
                      visualize an alternate agricultural scenario from present to twenty years
                      hence. In this endeavour, an in-depth analysis of the Strengths,
                      Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) was undertaken to
place our research and technology development efforts in perspective so that we succeed
in our pursuit of doing better than the best. Accordingly, the researchable issues are identified,
strategies drawn and programmes indicated to have commensurate projects and relevant
activities coinciding with the launch of the 11th Five Year Plan.
      Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow has placed major emphasis
on the collection, evaluation, characterization, conservation and utilization of germplasm,
crop improvement through conventional and biotechnological approaches to develop
suitable varieties and rootstocks and generation of crop production and post-harvest
technologies in sub-tropical fruits. The issues have been clearly identified and strategies
drawn to fulfill the mandates of the Institute. The new initiative proposed by the Institute
include developing dwarfing rootstocks tolerant to abiotic streses, introgression of wilt
resistance in guava, identification of fruit varieties with antioxidant properties, overcoming
the problem of malformation in mango and bio-control of biotic stresses. Suitable linkages
with the national and international institutions suggested by the Institute will prove highly
beneficial in achieving its objectives.
      It is expected that realizing the Vision embodied in the document would further ensure
that the Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow continues to fulfill its mandate
to make Indian agriculture locally, regionally and globally competitive. The efforts and
valuable inputs provided by my colleagues at the ICAR Headquarters and by the Director
and his team at the Institute level for over an year to develop Vision 2025 deserve
appreciation.



                                                                    (MANGALA RAI)
                             Secretary, Department of Agricultural Research & Education
                                                                                     and
                               Director General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research
                                              Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road, Krishi Bhawan,
February, 2007                                                 New Delhi 110 001, India
                                    PREFACE

                           Horticultural crops in comparison to field crops despite
                      being input intensive are highly remunerative. Following a
                      planned policy interventions during the late eighties, horticulture
                      sector got a tremendous flip resulting in appreciable increase in
                      respect of area and production in a host of horticultural crops.
                      However, with the advent of WTO regime, shrinkage in
                      cultivable land on account of rapid urbanization coupled with
                      escalating cost of inputs, country in general and farming fraternity
in particular are supposed to shed the age old complacency in favour of aggressive
entrepreneurial mode.
      As a consequence of the emerging warning signals, the role of Indian Council
of Agricultural Research (ICAR) as a premier agency related to the country’s broader
planning of agricultural research policy frame work and its execution through the
network of its crop based research institutes has come into more limelight. It is in
this context that an exhaustive exercise concerning the revision of Vision-2020 has
been taken up as a mid-term appraisal. The programmes evolved and presented
here on the mandated crops including mango, guava, papaya and jamun are the
outcome of heuristic marathon exercises and interactive sessions held at various
stages at the Institute under the broad policy guidelines as well as periodic
interventions of ICAR. The programmes developed are based on nine broad theme
areas including (1) Management of genetic resources, (2) Enhancing productivity of
subtropical fruits, (3) Sustaining productivity under adverse conditions, (4) Reducing
cost of production and increasing profitability, (5) Enhancing nutritive value, food
and environmental safety, (6) Sustaining productivity under biotic stress conditions,
(7) Minimization of postharvest losses in subtropical fruits, (8) Product diversification,
value addition and enhancement of nutritive value of processed fruit products and
(9) Economics of production of subtropical fruits, and aim to consolidate the gains
and chart out a new course of action to offer economically viable and ecologically
sustainable technologies conforming to stringent international norms and make
agriculture and horticulture in particular as the most sought after venture in the years
to come.



                                                                    (B.M.C. REDDY)
                                                                       Director, CISH
             EXPLANATION TO THE ABBREVIATIONS

DAMD     -   Directed Amplification of Minisatellite Region DNA
DNA      -   De-oxy Ribonucleic Acid
RAPD     -   Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
ASM      -   Available Soil Moisture
IPM      -   Integrated Pest Management
FYM      -   Farm Yard Manure
MBCD     -   Mango Bacterial Canker Disease
TLC      -   Thin Layer Chromatography
PRSV     -   Papaya Ring Spot Virus
PaLCV    -   Papaya Leaf Curl Virus
CFB      -   Corrugated Fibre Board
WTO      -   World Trade Organization
IPNM     -   Integrated Plant Nutrient Management
G.I.S.   -   Geographical Information System
R.T.S.   -   Ready to Serve
PGPR     -   Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
PPF      -   Photosynthetic Photon Flux
MOU      -   Memorandum of Understanding
NBPGR    -   National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resource
SAUs     -   State Agricultural Universities
ICAR     -   Indian Council of Agriculture Research
CARI     -   Central Agricultural Research Institute
NEH      -   North East Hill (Region)-ICAR Complex
IARI     -   Indian Agricultural Research Institute
CSSRI    -   Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
PDBC     -   Project Directorate of Biological Control
NCIPM    -   National Centre for Integrated Pest Management
UPSIDC   -   U.P. State Industrial Development Corporation
U.S.A.   -   United States of America
U.K.     -   United Kingdom
U.P.     -   Uttar Pradesh
MP       -   Madhya Pradesh
IASRI    -   Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute
NCAEPR   -   National Centre for Agriculutral Economics and Policy Research
NRCPB    -   National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology
AICRP    -   All India Coordinated Research Project
NAGS     -   National Active Germplasm Site
NATP     -   National Agricultural Technology Project
                                      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

      Attainment of self sufficiency on food security front has been the hallmark of the scientific approach
envisioned under National Agricultural Research System of the country. However, the significant headway
made on the industrial front and an increase in per capita income calls for a focused thrust on the nutritional
security of the ever growing population. Fruits not only constitute the core component of nutritional security
mediated through enriched diet but also offer added bonus as natural therapeutics. In terms of fruit production,
India shares 9.1 per cent of the total world fruit basket. However, despite being the largest global producer of
mango having 38.38 per cent share with an annual production of 10.02 million tonnes from an area of 1.58
million hectares, the productivity continues to remain comparatively low (6.4 MT/ha). The picture in other
fruit crops too, by and large, remains the same and requires to be ameliorated through augmenting research
efforts for attaining the desired goal of higher productivity.
     Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture has mandate to undertake basic, strategic and applied
research on subtropical fruits, namely, mango, guava, papaya, aonla, bael, jamun and other underutilized fruits
with special emphasis on mango. The research programme of the Institute aims at increasing the productivity,
quality and utilization of its mandated fruits by developing strategies and reliable technologies for resolving
problems encountered by the farmers desiring cultivation of these fruit crops.
      The successful cultivation of quality production in mango, guava, papaya, aonla, bael, etc., is hampered
by a number of factors. Since its inception, the Institute has made significant headways in spite of encountering
problems, there are still certain areas which require consistent efforts to provide long lasting and economically
feasible solutions. Collection of a large number of germplasm, identification of Elaichi, a resistant cultivar
against mango floral malformation, development of red coloured mango variety ‘Ambika’ for export purpose
and high yielding regular bearing clone Dashehari – 51 of mango, identification of resistant root stock against
guava wilt, development of red pulp and high yielding guava cvs Lalit and Shweta for domestic and export
purposes, judicious pruning for rejuvenation of old and unproductive mango, guava and aonla orchards,
initiation of work on standardization of various forms of organic / biodynamic farming systems, identification
of causal organism of guava wilt and bioagent for its management, etc., are some of the areas where in the
Institute has contributed significantly.
      However, despite putting the best efforts, there are certain glaring gaps which require fresh impetus,
probed extensively and require an input from basic sciences. Proper rootstocks for mango and guava are yet
to be identified. Mango malformation, alternate bearing and guava wilt too required to be studied with
multidisciplinary dimension approach. Malformation and alternate bearing are the important problems adversely
affecting the production of mango. Efficient control of fruit fly is not available to the farmers. Guava varieties
/ rootstocks resistant to wilt, papaya varieties tolerant to frost and resistant to ring spot and leaf curl virus are
to be developed and transferred to the farmers. Varieties with high yields, having long shelf life and good
processing quality are yet to be developed. Micropropagation techniques for mango, guava, aonla, bael and
jamun have to be standardized. Similarly viable integrated pest and disease management programmes for
major pests and diseases of mandate fruits too have to be standardized. While a lot of work in the field of
molecular biology of mango and papaya is being carried out in some advanced countries, it is in its inception
stage in India. This Institute, being a premier centre, has to keep pace with the ongoing developments in other
centres in these frontier areas.
    Keeping in view the challenges ahead and taking into account opportunities and its strength, Institute has
drawn the following programmes to attain the desired goals :
     Collection of world germplasm of mango, guava, papaya, aonla and bael, its characterization and
     cataloguing.
     Developing varieties with desired traits pertaining to qualitative and quantitative characters of mandate
     fruits.
     Genetic engineering to isolate and transfer desired genes in the mandate crops.
     Standardizing in vitro techniques for mass multiplication of mango, guava, papaya and bael.
     Developing density planting system in mango, guava and aonla.
     Developing integrated nutrient and water management system.
     Integrating organic / biodynamic production systems for developing Jaivik production package of mandate
     crops and their explanation.
     Developing dwarfing rootstock and refining nursery management system specific to respective crops.
     Identification of mango and guava rootstocks for problematic soils.
     Refining of integrated management schedules for diseases viz, powdery mildew, anthracnose, MBCD in
     mango, wilt in guava, insect pests viz. mealy bug, hopper, fruit fly in mango, viral diseases and nematode
     pest in papaya.
     Developing mass production protocols for bioagents.
     Developing integrated post harvest management schedules.
     Managing the jelly seed formation in mango.
     Developing protocols for value addition and waste utilization.
     Evaluating the technologies for marketing and Transfer of Technology systems.
      With the development of high yielding, superior quality, disease and pest resistant varieties and production
technology of mandate fruits, the productivity of these fruits can be increased. Development of red coloured
varieties of mango and guava will increase their export and fetch much required foreign exchange. Development
of integrated postharvest management systems will lead to better utilization of fruits after harvest and help in
boosting their domestic as well as export markets.
                                        CONTENTS

1.   PREAMBLE                                                    1
     1.1   Mission                                               1
     1.2   Vision                                                1
2.   MANDATE                                                     1
3.   GROWTH                                                      1
     3.1   Infrastructure                                        1
           3.1.1     Laboratories-cum-Administrative Complex     1
           3.1.2.    Library                                     2
           3.1.3.    Field                                       2
           3.1.4.    Residential Complex                         2
           3.1.5.    Miscellaneous Facilities                    2
     3.2   Budget                                                2
     3.3   Manpower                                              2
4.   SALIENT RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS                               3
5.   IMPACT ASSESSMENT                                          13
     5.1   Growth                                               13
     5.2   Input-Output Assessment                              14
     5.3   Gaps and Shortcomings                                16
     5.4   Lessons Learnt, Suggestions and Options for Future   17
6.   SCENARIO AND SWOT ANALYSIS                                 19
     6.1   Scenario                                             19
     6.2   SWOT analysis                                        21
           6.2.1     Strength                                   21
           6.2.2     Weakness                                   23
           6.2.3     Opportunities                              24
           6.2.4     Threats                                    24
7.   PERSPECTIVE                                                25
8.   ISSUES AND STRATEGIES                                      26
     8.1   Strengthening of Ongoing Research Areas              26
     8.2   New Initiatives                                      32
9.    PROGRAMME AND PROJECTS ON TIME SCALE FOR FUND           35
      REQUIREMENTS
10.   LINKAGE, COORDINATION AND EXECUTION ARRANGEMENTS        39
      10.1   Linkages                                         39
      10.2   Coordination and Execution Arrangements          42
11.   CRITICAL INPUTS                                         43
      11.1   Funds                                            43
      11.2   Manpower                                         43
      11.3   Human Resource Development and Planning          43
12.   RISKS ANALYSIS BASED ON SWOT                            44
13.   PROJECT REVIEW, REPORTING AND EVALUATION ARRANGEMENTS   45
14.   RESOURCE GENERATION                                     45
15.   OUTCOME OF INSTITUTION WITH TRADE, INDUSTRIES           46
      AND FARMERS
16.   EXPORT POTENTIAL AND MARKETABILITY OF RESEARCH OUTPUT   48
      AND ITS IMPACT IN WTO REGIME
17.   UTILITY OF RESEARCH OUTCOME TO FARMERS AND END USERS    48
18.   ANTICIPATED CONSTRAINTS                                 48
19.   SCIENTIFIC DIVISIONS                                    49
1. PREAMBLE
     The Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow was initially set up as Central Mango Research
Station on 4th September, 1972 under the aegis of Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore by the
Indian Council of Agricultural Research to conduct research on various aspects of mango cultivation.
Subsequently, it was upgraded to the level of a full-fledged Institute on 1st June, 1984 and was named as
Central Institute of Horticulture for Northern Plains. On 14th June, 1995, it was renamed as Central Institute
for Subtropical Horticulture with modified mandate. The Institute has two farms, viz. (i) The first is located at
Rehmankhera about 30 km from Lucknow in the vicinity of Malihabad, the famous mango belt of Uttar
Pradesh and home of Dashehari and other choicest varieties of mango. The farm at Rehmankhera spreads
over an area of 132.5 ha. (ii) The other farm comprising an area of 13.2 ha. is situated in Lucknow on
Lucknow-Rae Bareli Road. The Institute has the world’s largest collection of mango germplasm with 726
accessions. Crop improvement including biotechnology, crop protection, post harvest management and social
sciences including transfer of technology of mandate fruits are the major areas of research in the Institute.
      The headquarters of All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Subtropical Fruits are also located at
this Institute.

1.1 Mission
     Augmenting the share of agriculture sector in GDP of the country and its export basket.

1.2 Vision
     To conduct basic and applied research in frontier areas for development of cost effective and viable
technologies.

2. MANDATE
L    To undertake basic and applied research for developing technologies to enhance productivity and utilization
     of subtropical fruits with special emphasis on mango.
L    To act as a national repository of subtropical fruits including mango.
L    To act as a centre for training and for up-gradation of scientific manpower in fruit crops.
L    To collaborate with national and international agencies for achieving the objectives.
L    To provide consultancy.
3. GROWTH

3.1 Infrastructure

3.1.1 Laboratories-cum-Administrative Complex
     The construction of laboratory-cum-administrative building has been completed and all the laboratories
along with its administration and library has been shifted to Rehmankhera campus. All laboratories are almost
adequately equipped with the equipments to carry out the present research programmes.
    Lab-cum-administrative building also has a furnished Technology Information Centre for the benefit of
farmers and other dignitaries. The building also has a canteen for the welfare of staff. The construction of
Auditorium is also completed and is being furnished.

                                                        1
3.1.2 Library
      Institute has a well organised library which plays an important role as centre for information related to
Institute’s mandate. Library has a collection of 2994 scientific and technical books and 7237 back volumes of
Journals on subtropical fruits. The library is subscribing 110 National and International Journals (61 National
and 49 International Journals).
     The library provides reprography service of scientific literature. It also has a user friendly reference
collection system Hort CD-ROM and Agris CD-ROM. LAN facility is also available here. Library has also
procured LS EASE Software of Libsys and is being automated regularly.
3.1.3 Field
      The experimental farm of the Institute spreads over an area of 132.5 ha at Rehmankhera and 13.2 ha at
its Rae Bareli Road Campus, Lucknow. The Institute has plantations of mango, guava, papaya, litchi, aonla
and bael for conducting experiments. Work on germplasm collection of under-utilized fruits has also been
initiated. Mango germplasm collection of the Institute is the world’s largest repository comprising 727 accessions
with 4 species collected from indigenous and exotic sources. Institute also has germplasm collection of 96
guava accessions, including 7 Psidium species, 35 of litchi, 14 of aonla and 41 of bael accessions.

3.1.4 Residential Complex
     The Institute has a well furnished Training Hostel for participants of different Human Resource Development
Programmes being run by the Institute. It has 47 residential quarters–21 at Rae Bareli Road Campus and 26
at Rehmankhera for its staff.

3.1.5. Miscellaneous Facilities
     The Institute has a well laid out underground irrigation system, tubewells and drinking water facilities.
Institute has communication and transport facilities. A metalled road runs across the blocks II and III at
Rehmankhera. Besides, the Institute has FPO licence and well equipped fruit processing facilities such as
spray and freeze drying, bulk preparation of juices and pulp, grading and packaging line for mango.
3.2 Budget
 Plan period                             Plan               Non-Plan            Others               Total
                                                                                                (Rs. in Lakhs)
 VI (1.6.1984 to 31.3.85)               25.07                 18.00               -                 43.07
 VII                                   141.35                187.87               -                329.22
 VIII                                  700.00                797.85             32.95             1530.80
 IX                                    688.72               1748.72            185.00             2622.44
 X                                    1218.00               2595.00            455.59             4268.59
 % increase (X over IX)                176.85                148.39            246.26              162.77
3.3 Manpower
Plan period              Scientific    Technical Administrative                        Auxiliary
VI                           23           33           21                                 44
VII                          48           41           23                                 53
                                                                            (Including 11 post of Auxiliary)
VIII                         44            59                 25                          47
IX                           44            59                 25                          47
X (Sanctioned)               46            70                 30                          94
% Increase (5 over 1)        100           112                43                          114

                                                        2
4. SALIENT RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS

Crop Improvement

Mango
L   A promising mango hybrid CISH-M-1, a cross between Amrapali and Janardhan Pasand, which is a
    regular bearer having yellow colour with red blush, firm flesh and scanty fibre has been released as
    ‘Ambika’. It has good potential for domestic and export markets.
L   CISH-M-2, a cross-developed with Dashehari and Chausa, is dark yellow in colour with firm flesh and
    scanty fibre. It is a late season variety and has good commercial value.
L   Two mango hybrids, viz. H-39 and H-1084 have also been found promising.
L   Mango cv. Elaichi has been found free from floral malformation and now it is being used in breeding
    programme.
L   A south Indian processing cv. Bangalora (Totapuri) has been found regular bearing and high yielding
    under Lucknow conditions and is being recommended for its cultivation in northern India.




                Ambika                                 CISH-M-2                        Hybrid-39




                         H-1084                                              Elaichi


                                                   3
Guava
L   The Institute has 110 accessions of guava and 7 Psidium spp. in its field gene bank.
L   Eighty-two accessions of guava were characterized for fruit characteristics.
L   Two open pollinated seedling selections of coloured guava, namely, CISH-G-3 and CISH-G-4 have
    been released by the Institute for commercial cultivation in the name of Lalit and Shweta, respectively.
    In case of Lalit, fruits are attractive, saffron yellow coloured with red blush, medium sized, firm and pink
    flesh with good blend of sugar and acid. It gives 24 per cent higher yield than popular variety Allahabad
    Safeda. Pink colour in the beverage made from the pulp of this variety remains stable for more than a
    year during storage. Jelly made from Lalit is of high quality. Shweta has subglobose fruits with few soft
    seeds, high TSS (140Brix) and attractive pink blush. It has good yield potential.
L   DNA isolations from 22 genotypes (varieties, selections & accessions) and their assessment using RAPD
    and DAMD primers revealed the genetic distance among the genotypes which could be grouped as per
    their geographic origin.




                        Lalit                                                    Shweta

Bael
L   Institute has 54 accessions of bael for further identification of promising varieties.
L   Varieties CISH-B-1 and CISH-B-2 of bael were selected from the seedling population.




                    CISH B-1                                                    CISH B-2


                                                       4
Aonla
L   The Institute has 14 cultivars of aonla in its germplasm collection.

Papaya
L   Twenty-four germplasm/varieties of papaya were collected from different places for evaluation against
    frost and virus infection.
L   Nineteen varieties were evaluated against viral diseases under field and laboratory conditions. Almost all
    the varieties were found susceptible.

Litchi
L   Thirty-five accessions of litchi were maintained and catalogued for leaf and shoot characters and eleven
    for flowering bahaviour.

Grape
L   Two cultivars, viz. Flame Seedless and Pusa Navrang
    were found more suitable for commercial cultivation
    under north Indian conditions.

Banana
L   One hundred ten accessions were collected and
    maintained.
L   Plantain varieties Chakkel, Chinia, Kothia and Bersain
                                                                   Flame Seedless            Pusa Navrang
    were found suitable for commercial cultivation, while
    Dakhnisagar, Kothia, Chakkel and Chinia were
    found suitable for chips.                                              Kullan
L   Kullan (ABB) accessions of banana were continuously
    found cold tolerant having short crop cycle and good
    fruit quality.

Underutilized fruits
L   Surveys were made in the states of Uttar Pradesh,
    Haryana, Maharashtra and Gujarat and 54 accessions
    of jamun were identified and collected on the basis of
    tree and fruit quality attributes.                                              Kullan
L   Nine accessions of khirnee were identified on the basis of physicochemical characteristics of fruits.
L   Veneer grafting during July gave 75 per cent success in khirnee.
L   Surveys were made in different parts of Uttar Pradesh and 8 accessions of mahua were identified and
    collected. Studies on reproductive biology were also undertaken. Success to the tune of 80 per cent was
    recorded with veneer method of grafting followed by cleft in the month of July.
L   Five accessions of tamarind were identified and collected during surveys of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya
    Pradesh.


                                                       5
L   Seventeen accessions of woodapple were collected from U.P. and M.P. and evaluated for physicochemical
    attributes.
L   Twenty-five superior genotypes of karonda were collected and planted in the field for evaluation.
L   Surveys were made in U.P. and M.P. areas and 8 accessions of chironji were identified and collected.

Crop Production

Mango
L   Model nursery having a separate mother block with poly and net house facilities have been established
    for the multiplication of elite clones of mango.
L   Rejuvenation technique for old and unproductive mango trees have been developed and standardized.




                                      Rejuvenation of Mango Orchard

L   A spacing of 5 x 5m with 400 plants ha-1 is recommended for higher production of mango cv. Dashehari.
L   Mango based cropping system has been developed and recommended. Cowpea-potato system has
    been found to give high monetary returns up to 10 years age of the plantation.
L   Soil application of paclobutrazol (3.2 ml m-1 canopy diameter) has been found effective in inducing
    regular flowering and fruiting and thus controlling irregular bearing in mango cv. Dashehari.
L   Soil application of NPK (1:1:1 kg tree-1) to 10-years old Dashehari mango increased the yield. Trench
    application of fertilizers around the tree in July has been found most efficient.
L   Application of FYM (40kg) enriched with Azospyrillum (250g) per tree was found effective for 15-
    years old mango cv. Dashehari.
L   Farm waste utilization through NADEP, vermi, microbe-mediated composting and biodynamic (BD)
    composting has been recommended.
L   Nutritional imbalance was noticed in most of the orchards of U.P. in mango growing belt of Lucknow
    district and orchards found deficient in Zn, Mn and Fe upto the tune of 45.9, 35.1 and 2.7 per cent.
    Similarly Zn and Mn deficiencies were found upto 27.5 and 25.0 per cent in the mango orchards of
    districts Bahraich and Azamgarh.
L   Mango trees irrigated at 45 per cent available soil moisture (ASM) depletion level has given more plant
    height (4.90m), stem girth (69.00cm) and canopy spread (6.55m N-S & 5.90m, E-W), than those
    irrigated at 60 per cent ASM depletion level 60 ASM (Height = 4.72 m, Girth 65cm, canopy spread N-
    S 5.75 m, E-W 5.28 m) and control (basin system Height=4.10m Girth 50 cm, canopy spread N-S
    4.81 m, E-W 4.55m). Plant yield was 29.3 kg tree-1, 22.06 kg tree-1 and 12.6 kg tree-1 at 45 ASM, 60
    ASM and control, respectively.

                                                    6
Guava
L   Model nursery having a separate mother block with poly and net house facilities have been established
    for the multiplication of elite clones of guava.
L   Wedge grafting in guava was standardized for rapid multiplication of plant material throughout the year.




                                            Wedge Grafting in Guava


L   Rejuvenation technique for old and unproductive guava trees have been developed and standardized.




                                             Rejuvenation in Guava

L   Topping and hedging has been found valuable techniques in controlling tree size during initial stages of
    plant growth.
L   Trees at the highest density (3x1.5m) were taller. The population
    density of 555 trees ha-1 with a spacing of 3x6m was best for
    higher yield and quality produce.
L   Current season shoot pruning influenced the canopy architecture
    and flowering under high density planting when imposed in the
    month of May.
L   Highest fruit yield (79.5 kg tree-1) was recorded from the trees
    planted at 3.0x6.0m.
L   Closer spacing caused a marked reduction in PAR penetration
    after 6-years of planting.
L   Application of 20kg FYM inoculated with Azotobacter
    produced highest yield (13.69 & 40.11kg tree-1) in guava
    cv. Allahabad Safeda in 1st and 2nd years of fruiting.
L   Technique of meadow orcharding (ultra high density)
    standardized in Guava.                                                Meadow orcharding in Guava

                                                       7
Crop Protection

Mango
L   Integrated Pest Management (IPM) module for mango insect pests
    have been developed and standardized. The technology is being
    demonstrated in six districts of Uttar Pradesh.
L   Weather based forewarning of mango fruit fly and hopper has been
    developed.
L   Imidacloprid (0.005%) was found effective against mango hopper.
                                                                               Methyl Eugenol Wooden Block Trap
L   Methyl eugenol wooden block trap soaked in alcohol, methyl eugenol
    and malathion (6:4:1) was found highly effective in trapping fruit flies
    and thus reducing its infestation in mango orchards and demonstrated
    at farmers’ fields in large areas.
L   Melipona/Trigona spp. were identified as main pollinators on mango.
L   Pollinators population were more on organically grown mango as
    compared to non-organic ones.
L   Critical temperatures (15-17oC & 32-35oC) and period (3rd & 4th              Effecient Pollinator Melipona
    week of March) for development of powdery mildew were identified.
L   Mango powdery mildew was effectively controlled by spraying of Carbendazim + Apsa (0.1+0.2%),
    Index (0.1%) and Companion (0.2%). Addition of Apsa increased the efficiency of fungicides.
L   Maximum and minimum temperatures (31-340C & 25-260C) with intermittent rain were found conducive
    for development of anthracnose in mango.
L   Carbendazim (0.1%), Companion (0.2%) and Copper oxychloride (0.3%) were found effective in
    controlling anthracnose of mango. Combined application of Prochloraz + Velvet (0.125 + 2.5%) were
    also found effective against the disease.
L   Indian oil formulation (Tree oil ) @ 3 and 4 % was found effective in reducing sooty mould in mango.
L   Highest incidence of bacterial canker
    (MBCD) recorded on cv. Langra. MBCD
    pathogen, Xcmi was found to produce non-
    thermolabile toxic metabolite which can be
    purified and used for screening of mango
    germplasm against the pathogen.
L   Plasmid DNA (total) was extracted from Xcmi
    11 and Xcmi 18 by using alkaline analysis
    method and showed variation which
    indicates that the plasmid DNA could be used
    as a tool for detection of variability in the
                                                         MBCD in Langra         Plasmid DNA from Xcmi 11 and
    pathogen.                                                                             Xcmi 18


                                                     8
L   Twenty-six Xcmi strains were grouped in 6 closely associated clusters on the basis of TLC of lipid
    profile.
L   Eighteen bacterial antagonists isolated from various sources were found effective against MBCD pathogen
    (Xcmi 17). Out of these, five were identified as species of Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Acenetobacter.
L   Apart from existing 26 Xcmi strains, two new strains of MBCD pathogen acceded in Institute’s collection
    for detection of variability.
L   Single application of the 5 identified antagonists proved effective against MBCD in vivo.
L   Post-harvest diseases, viz. anthracnose, stem end rot and Aspergillus (black) rot have been completely
    checked by covering the fruits with brown paper
    and news paper bags one month prior to harvest.

Guava
L   Cartap hydrochloride was found most effective
    in managing guava fruit borer.
L   Inoculation technique (stem hole inoculation) for
    reproduction of wilt in guava has been
    standardized.
L   Gliocladium roseum has been found most
    potent causal pathogen for guava wilt, as it
    produces symptoms in grown up plants in field               Wilt Reproduction by G. roseum
    within 2 months of inoculation.
L   Bio-control agents, Aspergillus niger (AN 17)
    and Penicillium citrinum have been identified for the control
    of guava wilt.
L   Co-cultivation with Curcuma domestica, Allium sativum and
    Tagetis erecta were found effective in reducing the incidence
    of wilt in guava.
L   A hybrid between Psidium molle x Psidium guajava has
    been found resistant to guava wilt and has potential as root
    stock.
L   Corn meal medium was found best for multiplication of guava
    wilt antagonists, Trichoderma harzianum, Aspergillus niger
    and Penicillium citrinum.
L   One hundred sixty five isolates of Fusarium sp. from wilted
    plants of guava were collected from different parts of India.
L   Population of spiral nematode was found high in wilt affected
    guava plant(s).                                                        Wilt Resistant Root stock


                                                        9
Papaya
L   Ring spot (PRSV) and leaf curl (PaLCV) have been identified as important viral diseases of papaya
    causing considerable loss to the crop. Insect vectors responsible for the transmission of these viruses
    have been identified.
L   Antiviral plant substances from Boerhaavia diffusa and Clerodendrum aculeatum were found effective
    against PRSV.
L   Out of nineteen papaya germplasm, 6 have shown resistant reaction against PaLCV.
L   Four endophytic nemic antagonistic genera have been identified.
L   Major nematode pests of papaya have been identified and synergistic interaction of root-knot nematode
    with PRSV has been established.
L   Population of root knot nematode was found high in virus infected papaya plants.

Banana
L   Root knot, lesion and spiral nematodes were found in banana as major nematode pests in the commercial
    cultivation belt of the crop.

Postharvest Management

Mango
L   Maturity indices of commercially grown mango cvs. Dashehari, Langra, Mallika and Chausa have been
    worked out.
L   Fruits of Dashehari mangoes harvested with 8-10 mm stalks could be stored for 21 days at 12°C and
    85-90 per cent RH, while under ambient conditions they can be stored for 6 days.
L   Uniform ripening of early harvested mangoes could be achieved by dip treatment of fruits in 750 ppm
    ethrel in hot water at 52±2oC for 5 minutes. Concentration of the ethrel could be reduced to 100-500
    ppm depending upon stage of fruit maturity and variety.
L   The optimum low temperature for storage (2-3 weeks) of Langra, Dashehari and Chausa were found to
    be 14, 12 and 10 0C, respectively.
L   Beverages prepared from blends of mango-pineapple (1:1), mango-pear (any ratio) and mango-papaya
    (2:1) were ideal with better acceptability.
L   Recipe of oilless pickle of mango has been developed with salt, chilli and asafoetida as ingredients. It
    could be safely stored for nine months.
L   Good quality vinegar from mango peel could be obtained by use of
    Acetobacter aceti.
L   Jelly grade pectin and edible fibre could be extracted chemically from
    mango peel.
L   A simple low cost mango harvester has been fabricated which could
    harvest 800-1000 fruits per hour.
L   A simple web removing device has been fabricated by which webs of
    leaf webber from 5-8 mango trees could be removed in a hour.                   Mango Harvester


                                                     10
L   Sprayer and automatic packaging unit were evaluated and defects
    were rectified.
L   In an evaluation trial, fruit picking platform was found economical
    for bagging, harvesting and pruning operations.
L   A modular type of mango desapper and forced air solar dehydration
    unit were designed and fabricated.
L   Necessary adjustments were made in conveyor system to grade the
    fruits of Dashehari, Chausa and Langra on the weight basis.
L   Corrugated fibre board (CFB) boxes of 5 and 10 kg capacities have
    been fabricated with 0.5 per cent ventilation for packaging mangoes
    as per codex standards.
L   A sprayer hood was developed to reduce the cost of labour required
    for moving the sprayer boom in the air carrier type power sprayer.          CPB Boxes for Mango
L   Pre-harvest sprayings of calcium chloride dihydrate (2%) at 10 days
    internal checked the jelly formation, while its combination with carbendazim and postharvest dip in
    calcium chloride (dihydrate) have extended the shelf life of fruits.
L   Methodology was standardised for the preparation of raw mango squash (panna) that could be stored
    for 9 months.
L   Among 34 mango varieties screened for nectar preparation, hybrids H-817, H-533, H-500, H-486,
    H-577, EC-95862 and H-896 were found most suitable.
L   Addition of Mallika or Dashehari pulp (up to 30%) improved the appearance of RTS drink prepared
    from Rumani, a poor pulp coloured mango variety.
L   Among different surface disinfectants tried in mango, H2O2 (0.4%) was found to have highest bactericidal
    effect.
L   Methodologies were standardised for the analysis of carbendazim and paclobutrazol residues in mango
    fruits by HPLC.

Guava
L   Guava fruits of cv. Allahabad Safeda could be stored for 28 days in 0.25 per cent ventilated LDPE bags
    at 50C.
L   The storage study of nectar prepared from 5 pink fleshed varieties
    of guava revealed that nectar prepared from HPS-I-35 was best
    after 6 months of storage.
L   Among 5 pink fleshed guava varieties, HPSI-16 was found best for
    processing.
L   Guava slices from cv. Lalit could be stored in 400Brix sugar syrup
    for 9 months.
L   CFB boxes (190X300X80mm) of 2 kg capacity with 0.5 per cent
    ventilation were designed and fabricated for extending the shelf-life
                                                                                  CFB box for Guava
    of guava fruits.

                                                      11
Aonla
L   A simple manually operated low cost aonla destoning machine was
    developed.
L   LDPE film of 200 gauge thickness with 2 per cent ventilation was found
    suitable to extend the shelf life of aonla fruits for 15-days.
L   Shelf life of aonla fruits of cv. NA-6 was 10 days, while in case of cv.
    Kanchan it was 6-8 days.
L   Dip treatment in 2 per cent Ca (OH)2 solution for 30 min. was found
    most effective in extending the shelf life of aonla fruits with minimum
    spoilage.
L   Recipe for preparation of oil-less pickle from aonla has been developed.
L   Technology for the preparation of aonla segments-in-syrup was
    standardized.
L   Methodology was standardized for the preparation of aonla-lemon-ginger     Aonla Destoning Machine
    blended squash.
L   Recipe for the preparation of aonla churan from dried powder
    was standardized.
L   Among aonla segments, supari and shreds, the shreds took
    minimum time for freeze drying, while maximum retention in
    vitamin-C content was in segments.
L   SO2 (500 ppm) found effective for the preservation of aonla juice.
L   An acid (2.5 %) tolerant fungus was isolated from the spoiled
    aonla pulp.
L   Acidity and osmo-tolerance microbes from spoiled aonla segments
    and preserve were identified as Saccharomyces bailii and
    Eurotium repens, respectively.                                                Aonla Cider

L   Technique was standardized for the preparation of aonla cider.
L   Five per cent aonla fibre could be added to biscuit ingredients to
    get an acceptable quality of fibre enriched biscuit.
L   Techniques for preparation of sweetened and brined (salted) aonla
    segments have been standardized.

Papaya                                                                          Aonla Products

L   Papaya pulp can be mixed with bael pulp in the ratio of 3:2 for the preparation of acceptable quality
    drink.
L   Recipe of sweet papaya chutney has been developed, which can be stored for 9 months in
    plastic jars.

                                                     12
Under-utilized fruits
L    Methodology has been standardized for the preparation of mahua (Bassia latifolia) wine through alcoholic
     fermentation.
Transfer of Technology
L    Institute undertakes programmes of transfer of technology for endusers through gosthies, demonstrations,
     exhibitions, scientists-farmers interaction, radio and TV talks, etc.
L    Training programmes are being regularly organized for entrepreneurs and trainers engaged in horticulture
     development.
L    A Kisan Call Centre has been established at the Institute for solving the problems of orchardists on
     telephone.
L    The Institute has established Information Technology Centre which depicts various technologies developed.
L    Institute is providing training to graduate and post graduate students by persuing their Ph.D. and M.Sc.
     degrees at the Institute.

5.   IMPACT ASSESSMENT

5.1 Growth

Crop Improvement
     Germplasm collection is a continuous process, therefore, the repository of mandated fruits is being
updated on regular basis. Germplasm of mango, guava, papaya and litchi is being utilized for selection and
breeding for varieties of desired traits such as high yield, good quality and disease and insect pest resistance.
Dashehari-51 regular, a bearing clone, has been released for commercial cultivation. Promising mango hybrid
‘Ambika’ has also been released. The cultivar has red blush, firm flesh and scanty fibre. It has good potential
for domestic and export markets. Some other clones are under evaluation. Institute has released a guava
seedling selection ‘Lalit’. The fruits are attractive, saffron yellow coloured with red blush, medium sized, firm
and pink flesh with good blend of sugar and acid. It gives 24 per cent higher yield than the popular variety of
Allahabad Safeda. It is suitable for processing purpose. This variety is gaining popularity among orchardists.
Some other promising seeding sections are under evaluation. The promising bael varieties
CISH-B-1 and CISH-B-2 have been identified for commercial cultivation.

Crop Production
     Institute has standardized a Rejuvenation Technology for old and uneconomic orchards of mango, guava
and aonla, which is being extended to the orchardists of different regions. Paclobutrazol application in root
zone along with judicious use of major nutrients has been effective in controlling irregular bearing in mango.
Intercropping of cowpea-potato crop rotation is economical and complimentary with mango productivity.

Crop Protection
    Chemical control measures for different insect pests and major diseases of mango have been standardized.
These measures have been widely adopted by orchardists and resulted in increase in productivity, through
reduction of preharvest losses.

                                                        13
     Institute has worked on biocontrol package comprising Trichoderma, Beauveria bassiana, Verticillium
lecani and predators. These measures have been incorporated in Integrated Pest Management and Integrated
Disease Management schedules. These are also being demonstrated on farmers’ fields.
      Forecasting models have been developed for powdery mildew and fruit fly so as to forewarn the growers
about their incidence. Causal organism for guava wilt has been identified. Wilt can be managed/ controlled by
soil treatment of Aspergillus niger multiplied on FYM.

Postharvest Management
     Institute has standardized maturity indices for mango and guava. This is helping orchardists in harvesting
these fruits at appropriate maturity resulting into optimum quality with reduced postharvest losses.
      Guava harvested with foliage and packed in ventilated polythene bags show better appearance resulting
in higher price realisation.
       Losses with postharvest system in mango, guava, papaya and litchi have been quantified at all the levels,
i.e., from farmers to consumers. Factors affecting the losses at different levels have been identified and are
being advocated to growers.
    Mango harvester developed by Institute is being used by the farmers. Telescopic CFB boxes for packing
of mangoes have been developed and are currently under vigorous packaging and transport trials.
     Protocol for postharvest management of mango has been standardized and extended to clientele groups.
Based on research efforts and its techno-economic feasibility, mango packhouse has been established under
the Agri-Export Zone at Lucknow and Saharanpur, U.P. Pulp of mango and guava could be stored successfully
for one year for preparation of final processed products at any time of the year. Improved and innovative
aonla products have been developed and entrepreneurs at home and cottage levels are preparing and marketing
these products. These have got very good consumer acceptability. Beverages developed from fruit juice
blends have reached to the stage of pilot testing. The technology developed for production of citric acid,
vinegar, pectin and fibre from mango wastes have been transferred to various clientele groups.

Transfer of Technology
     Technologies developed in respect of integrated management of insect pests and diseases, rejuvenation
of old and uneconomic mango, guava orchards and postharvest management of mandate fruits are being
extended to end users on a regular basis. This has led to increase in the productivity and preventing postharvest
spoilage, etc. and also resulted into increased availability of mango and guava fruits and consequently, add to
the nutritional security. Further work on refinement of technology is being pursued. The researchers from
different institutions and development workers of various states are being trained in various technologies and
protocols developed by the Institute. It also includes training in organic/ biodynamic production of fruits.

5.2 Input-Output Assessment
     As per the 2001 census, the population of India reached 1.027 billion, out of which Uttar Pradesh was
the most populous state, accounting for 16.16 per cent. In order to meet the food and nutritional requirements
and accounting for requirement for seed and wastages, the requirement for food grains has been estimated as
240.64 million tonnes by the end of 2020 as against 204.07 million tonnes during 2001-2002. Similarly, the
requirement for fruits and vegetables has been estimated as 113.17 million tonnes by the end of 2020. In
order to achieve these targets, massive investments are to be made in infrastructure to create a sustainable
base and increase application of inputs in optimum doses and adoption of new technology in its entirety. The

                                                       14
gross domestic product of the country stood at Rs. 22.425 thousand billion at current prices, out of which,
agriculture sector accounted for about 23 per cent. The share of agriculture in GDP is constantly decreasing
over the years. It was recorded to be 44 per cent during the year 1973-74, it came down to 38.7 in 1983-84
and reduced further to 32.9 and 26.9 per cent during 1993-94 and 1999-2000, respectively. This indicates
that the share of other sectors including infrastructure and manufacture has been going up. On the other
hand, the expenditure on non-food sector in rural India has been steadily increasing. It was 25.1 per cent
during 1973-74, which increased to 34.4, 36.8 and 40 per cent during 1983-84, 1993-94 and 1999-2000,
respectively. This depicts increase in agricultural incomes and prosperity over the years. Its indirect effect will
on the one hand influence the agricultural growth through increased investment in agriculture, which will become
progressively stronger through the spin-off effects. On the other hand it will also increase non-farm expenditure
on goods and services, rather than food. This in turn will result into spin-off effects for the other sectors,
resulting into over all development of the economy. It is a redeeming feature of the economy that the dependence
of population on agriculture declined from 77 per cent during 1950-51 to 69 per cent during 2001-02.
However, the holding size decreased from 2.28 ha during 1970-71 to 1.57 ha during 1990-91. The decline
in holding size does not go well with the efficiency of production of the agricultural enterprises, as it may make
the complete adoption of agricultural technology rather difficult owing to reduced incentive to investment in
agriculture including land reclamation. Similarly, taking up horticultural crops, particularly fruit crops, on the
small holding size may not be cost effective.
      The Tenth Five Year Plan envisaged an investment of Rs. 4081.7 thousand billion against investment of
Rs. 219.6 thousand billion in Agriculture and Allied sector. The plan document projected total investments of
Rs. 2476.1 billion from private investments, Rs. 744.1 thousand billion from the Center and Rs 468.7 thousand
billion from State allocations. An additional investment of Rs. 392.8 thousand billion is also required for which
resources are to be tapped. On the other hand, the Tenth Plan envisaged a private investment of Rs. 174.0
thousand billion, Rs. 34.0 thousand billion from the Centre and Rs. 98.2 thousand billion from the State
allocations for Agriculture and Allied Sector. Consequently, it projected a surplus of Rs. 86.6 thousand billion
in the agriculture and allied activities sector. While reviewing the Ninth Plan performance, it might be mentioned
that performance of Agriculture and allied sectors has not been as envisaged. The average annual growth rate
of agriculture and allied sector has only been 2.06 against a targeted growth rate of 3.9 per cent. The growth
in food grain production was very low, while the growth in pulses actually declined. With regards to Horticulture,
it could be mentioned that the investment in horticulture has depicted tremendous increase, i.e. Rs. 1000
crores during VIII plan to Rs. 1400 crores during the IX plan. High level of land productivity in many parts of
the country could be attributed to cultivation of high value crops. The constraints in the horticultural development
were identified as technological and infrastructural constraints, small size of land holdings, preponderance of
old and senile trees and poor management. There was acute shortage of good quality, disease free high
yielding seed and planting materials. The crop specific disease and disorders like malformation and irregular
bearing in mango, wilt of guava, Papaya Ring Spot virus, Papaya Leaf Curl virus, etc., are still indicated as
detrimental to the production process. The plan document also found the processing infrastructure weak and
inadequate research and development support. Consequently, the horticulture sector has been treated as an
extreme focus area for the provision of strong support for its over all development. The IX plan envisaged a
target production of 179 million MT for fruits and vegetables, however, it was found to be too ambitious as
only 131.6 million tonnes could be achieved by the end of 2001-2002. Consequently, the X-Five Year plan
envisages following thrust areas:
L    Area expansion, particularly on waste and marginal lands.
L    Improving production, including seeds and planting material.

                                                         15
L    Improving productivity per unit area.
L    Reducing cost of production through input use efficiency.
L    Improving quality of products.
L    Developing package of Jaivik production and its explanations.
L    Value addition.
L    Promotion of marketing and export.
L    Strengthening of credit and organizational support.
L    Human resource development.
L    Addressing relevant policy issues.
L    Developing protocol to suit cold chain concept in mandate fruits.
      The overall emphasis will be on creation of synergy and convergence of various programmes for horticultural
development to achieve horizontal and vertical integration. Availability of good quality disease free and high
yielding seed and planting material is sine-qua-non for enhancing productivity and increasing production of
horticultural crops. This will also include micro-propagation. Non-existence of proper regulatory regime to
ensure supply of quality planting material has been a major handicap. Efforts are under way to establish some
institutional arrangement for the purpose. In order to reduce the wide gap between potential and achieved
yields, an efficient technology transfer is to be ensured. Efforts need to be made to transfer technology of re-
plantation and rejuvenation of old and senile orchards and Hi-tech horticulture.
     The importance of research in the development of horticulture industry in the country can not be over
emphasized. There are many endemic problems in the cultivation of fruits, including some of the problems
mentioned earlier, which need early solutions and are to be taken to different clients for increasing the productivity
at micro or regional and macro levels. Similarly, there is continuous need to refine the technology to suit
current as well as future requirements. In the era of globalization, the efforts need to concentrate on maintaining
natural quality for adequate period to ensure long distance transportation and export. Similarly, value addition
has to be given due importance. In order to meet research requirements, expenditure on research in horticulture
sector has increased from Rs. 295.0 to 436 million over a period 1997-98 to 2000-01 depicting an increase
of 48 per cent. The allocation for the year 2001-02 is Rs. 500 million. However, in terms of proportional
increase to the total allocation to agriculture research, the expenditure has declined from 8.93 to 8.44 per cent
over the period 1997-98 to 2000-01 and based on the allocation for 2001-02, the proportion is likely to go
down further to 7.3 per cent of the total allocation. In order to keep pace with the requirements of higher
production during the year 2020, the investment in horticulture research needs to be judicious and adequate.

5.3 Gaps and Shortcomings
      The Institute has a specific shortage of scientists particularly in the field of Biotechnology, Irrigation
Engineering, Computer Application, Entomology, Pathology, Extension, Soil Microbiology, Organic Chemistry
and Food Technology. While some of these posts have been included in the X Plan, others will be taken care
in the subsequent plans. The Institute has skeleton technical staff, which hampers successful implementation
of the targeted research work, which is increasing regularly due to expansion of thrust areas. Hence, provision
of additional technical staff is also to be ensured. There is an urgent need to train the manpower in state-of-
the-art techniques and specialised fields in India and abroad on a continuous basis. Instruments like GCMS,

                                                         16
Electron Microscope and Automatic DNA sequencer and Radio Active Tracer Laboratory equipments, etc.
are required for carrying out basic research.

Germplasm exploration :
Though Institute has collected valuable germplasm but consequent upon the industrialization/ urbanization the
forest coverage and horti-heritage of the country getting depleted which further requires an intensive effort to
survey, collect, conserve and document the valuable germplasm displaying off season.
Varietal development :
Mango :Two varieties of mango have been developed but varieties endowed with peculiar characters like off
season, extended bearing and malformation resistant are yet to be developed.
Guava : In guava too, two varieties have been evolved but guava wilt resistant cross has to be aggressively
propagated.
Papaya : Resistant varieties with respect to frost injury and virus diseases is also an important area which
requires attention.
Rejuvenation technology : Technology for senile orchards has been evolved but it is yet to be perfected
particularly with respect to economics and plant population dynamics in respect of various agroecological
zones.
Irrigation economy : Effective and optimal usage of water is another important point required to be studied
in view of depleting water resources.
Fertigation economy : Fertigation technology, an emerging area in view of upcoming agri-preneurs also
requires to be economized.
Bioagents : Though number of promising bioagents have been isolated and identified but their utilization for
their management of pest and diseases particularly with respect to mass culturing and delivery system protocols
have to be studied in detail.

5.4 Lessons Learnt, Suggestions and Options for Future
      Institute is striving hard to make large number of crosses for producing hybrids of desired traits in mango,
guava and papaya. Promising hybrids are required to be evaluated intensively over a period of time for
observing their productivity, resistance to diseases and insect pests, higher shelf life and specific uses comprising
domestic and export market and for processing. In case of mango, disorders, diseases and insect pests,
comprising mango malformation, irregular bearing, powdery mildew, fruit fly, etc., resistant/ tolerant varieties
are to be bred. Some of the sources of resistance have been identified and they are being used in the breeding
programme. In case of guava wilt, various indigenous and exotic sources are being utilized in hybridization
programme. Frost and PLCV and PRSV are the major problems in case of papaya. Efforts are being made
to develop transgenics confirming resistants/ tolerant to these maladies.
      Growing of healthy papaya germplasm is difficult because of 98 per cent incidence of papaya ring spot
virus (PRSV). Carica candamarcencis is difficult to cross with C. papaya. It is, therefore, necessary to go
in for embryo rescue technique to raise inter-specific hybrids resistant to frost and PRSV. Work on identification,
isolation and transfer of genes responsible for desired traits needs to be intensified.
    Work on identification of dwarfing rootstocks in mango suited to problematic soils need to be intensified.
Production systems for problematic soils are required to be developed. Chance seedlings and clones of

                                                          17
aonla, bael, jamun and other under-utilized fruits are being collected on continuous basis and are being
evaluated.
    In order to increase productivity per unit volume of the plant, the work has been initiated for canopy
management in mango and guava, which in turn will facilitate high density orcharding and multifold increase in
productivity.
     Photosynthetic efficiency of commercial cultivars of mango and its relationship with productivity needs to
be studied further. Large number of mango, guava and aonla orchards are becoming uneconomic due to
increasing age and overlapping of branches. Technologies of their rejuvenation have been standardized and
are being extended to the orchardists.
      Basic information on doses of fertilizer and chemicals in mango has been generated. Studies on uptake,
translocation and metabolisation of the nutrients in mango and guava need to be studied. Carry over of
fertilizers in orchard soil and their use by plants in subsequent years need to be studied.
     Appropriate irrigation / fertigation systems are being standardized for different production systems. Water
requirement of mango, guava, papaya and other mandate fruits need to be studied for vegetative and reproductive
phases. Soil moisture studies are being undertaken for studying precise movement of water and nutrients in
the plant system.
     Chemical control measures for various insect pests and diseases have been standardized which have
been adopted by orchardists for harnessing the potential of various fruit crops. However, new formulations
are being introduced regularly. There is a continuous need for evaluating their efficacy and toxicity. Hazardous
nature of these chemicals/ fertilizers is now well recognised, as it causes environmental pollution and leaves
residues in the final product, development of resistance to pests, resurgence of new pests/ strain and thereby
upsetting natural balances in the ecosystem.
       Demonstration of technologies developed needs to be disseminated on a regular basis to the orchardists.
Institute is striving towards whole village approach rather than individual farmers for extending the technologies.
Information and communication technologies are quite advanced, but the Institute utterly lacks these
sophisticated facilities. Institute needs to be equipped with such facilities for smooth transfer of technologies
to the farmers. Institute has limited manpower to extend the technologies to large areas. Therefore, Institute
is striving to train the master trainers from various developmental agencies.
      Under the present WTO regime and open market economy, the commodities/ products having residues
above the critical limit are not going to be acceptable. Consequently, it has become mandatory to produce the
fruits organically. This will involve use of organic products like FYM, Vermi compost, biodynamic formulations,
neem and other plant products, bioagents, etc. These systems are being utilized for developing various
organic farming systems including IPNM and IPM.
     Institute has developed various innovative products for mandate fruits. These are to be tested at Pilot
scale for evaluating their economic feasibility. Similarly, different value added products have been developed
from processing waste of commercial fruits. Further, studies are to be taken up for developing new acceptable
products. In order to increase the shelf life and maintain quality as per international standards, there is an
urgent need to utilise newer approaches like MAP, CA storage, etc. As of now, the fresh fruits are generally
packed in wooden boxes, which result in heavy postharvest losses and deplete forest wealth of the country.
Consequently, different Card Board packages are being developed. Refinement in the packaging system is a
continuing process.

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6. SCENARIO AND SWOT ANALYSIS

6.1 Scenario

Mango
L   Owing to varied agro-ecological zones, country is endowed with rich gene pool of diverse traits.
L   Global concern for depleting bio-diversity heritage coupled with nation wise awareness and emphasis on
    its conservation calls for the strategic reorientation of planning keeping in view the biodiversity regulations
    along with intellectual property regime.
L   Due to rapid industrialization / urbanization, the available rich germplasm pockets run the risk of gradual
    extinction. Even the likelihood of some having been wiped out too, can’t be ruled out.
L   Goal driven surveys in unexplored agro ecological zones, and horti-heritage zones comprising orchards
    raised and propped by erstwhile rulers may lead to the identification and conservation of germplasm
    having most sought after traits of an ideal cultivar (s) including extended fruiting duration, regular bearing,
    longer shelf life, resistance against prevalent pests/ diseases, etc. Promising cultivars displaying such a
    kind(s) of traits are required to be characterized and documented using conventional and modern
    biotechnological tools.
L   Mango, on global basis, accounts 3.11 per cent in terms of area and 2.15 per cent in terms of production.
    Out of 503.08 MT global production, our country ranks second accounting for 9.34 per cent production
    followed by Brazil, U.S.A. and Italy accounting 7.3, 3.9 and 3.5 per cent, respectively.
L   India is the largest producer of mango accounting for 40.64 per cent in terms of production and 43.36
    per cent in terms of area. China, Thailand, Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Phillipines and Brazil are the
    other important countries account for 13.48, 6.40, 5.65, 4.10, 3.79, 3.64 and 3.20, respectively.
L   Brazil followed by Pakistan, Mexico and China, the major commercial producers are credited with
    highest productivity.
L   In India, Andhra Pradesh (3135.2 MT) followed by U.P. (2585.6 MT), Karnataka (1105.9 MT), Bihar
    (865.6 MT) and Maharashtra (634.3 MT) are the major mango producing states. Conversely, the
    productivity is highest in U.P. (10.5 MT ha-1) followed by Karanataka (9.4 MT ha-1), Andhra Pradesh (8
    MT ha-1), Bihar (6.2 MT ha-1) and Maharashtra (6.2 MT ha-1).
L   Despite being the largest producer, the country faces competition from Columbia, Kenya and Venezuela
    an account of its round the year availability. Indonesia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Burkina
    Faso owing to longer season there as compared to April to June here and off season availability from
    countries like Ecuador, Egypt, Israel, Peru, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Switzerland, U.S.A., Zambia,
    etc.
L   Geographical regions offering environment versus cultivar(s) specific response(s) viz. early / late fruiting,
    extended fruiting duration, disease / pests escape/ immunity, colour development, etc. have to be located
    and mapped for further exploitation. G.I.S. tools hold promise for attaining this objective.
L   Old and dense orchards prevalent throughout the major traditional belt particularly in the northern region
    (35-40%) are the major factors contributing towards the yield decline.
L   Low productivity of mango in the country particularly in its northern belt comprising of 45.1 million ha
    representing 13.7 per cent geographical area of the country, could be attributed to non adoption of

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    scientifically proven potential of mechanized irrigation system approach which, if adopted, may increase
    the productivity potential up to 10 to 12 t ha-1 from the current level of 6.4 t ha-1.
L   Around 95.2 million ha area at global level and 7.2 million ha at national level is affected due to the
    problem of soil salinity. Similarly, the nutritional imbalances particularly the micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn
    & B) play an important role in proper vegetative growth and consequently in mango fruiting. A worldwide
    deficiency of these micronutrients and its effect on vegetative growth and fruiting in mango is a well
    known phenomenon.
L   Mango malformation, powdery mildew and die-back amongst the pre harvest diseases and anthracnose
    amongst post harvest diseases are one of the major factors in qualitative and quantitative production of
    mango.
L   Malformation (25%-30% losses in North West part ) considering its occurrence throughout northern
    belt along with Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh has assumed national status. Further, disease has also
    been reported from other continents including Australia, Africa (Egypt, Sudan, South Africa), Asia
    (Bangladesh, Middle East, UAE, Israel) North and South America (Mexico, U.S.A., Brazil).
L   Powdery mildew, another serious disease of national importance, may cause losses ranging between
    22.35 to 90.41 per cent. All the major mango regions in Australia, Africa, Asia, North and Central
    America, (California, Florida, Mexico, Jamaica, Costa Rica, Guatemala) South America (Brazil, Columbia,
    Peru, Venezuela) Europe (Greece) are reported to suffer from the disease.
L   Die back responsible for causation of 30-40 per cent losses, besides being prevalent throughout mango
    growing belt of the country, has also been recorded from Barbados, Puerto Rico, Egypt, Indonesia,
    Elsalvador, Brazil, USA and South Africa.
L   Anthracnose responsible for 2.39 per cent losses assumes severe dimension in Terai belt of U.P. Further
    more, all the major mango growing belt spread over the globe have been found affected by this disease.
L   Mango bacterial canker disease once considered to be a disease of minor importance confined only to
    South Indian cultivars is presently reported from most of the mango growing states within the country
    and around a dozen of the mango growing countries across the globe.
L   Mealy bug, hoppers responsible for causing severe losses is found throughout major mango growing
    belts. Lately, the shoot gall psylla too has been found causing considerable losses.
L   Fruit drop and jelly formation are the other problems in Langra and Dashehari cultivars.

Guava
L   Guava is available throughout the year in one or the other part of the country. Bihar is the leading state
    in terms of production (256000 MT) followed by Maharashtra (212090.3 MT), Karnataka (151000
    MT), U.P. (147100), West Bengal (140900). Punjab (127900), etc. In terms of productivity, Karanataka
    stands a top with productivity level of 18.7 MT ha-1 followed by Punjab (17.5), West Bengal (15.0) and
    U.P. (10.0).
L   In many parts of the country, guava plantations are under threat due to urbanization.
L   Many traditional areas are enriched with valuable germplasm which are required to be conserved.
L   The crop is hardy and could be grown on marginal land.
L   Fruit borer and fruit fly particularly in the rainy season crop throughout the country and guava wilt in the
    Indo-Gangetic plains are the major impediments in its cultivation.

                                                      20
Papaya
L   Andhra Pradesh having an area of 11400 ha under papaya cultivation and 875000 MT production is the
    leading state followed by Maharashtra (552500 MT), Gujarat (268900 MT) and Karnataka (254500
    MT). On the other hand, Tamil Nadu (182.0 MT) followed by Maharashtra (85.0 MT) and Andhra
    Pradesh (76.5 MT) are the leading states in terms of productivity.
L   Papaya cultivation in Indo-Gangetic and central plains of the country is hampered by papaya ring spot
    virus, papaya leaf curl virus and frost/ injury.
L   Currently the sex expression in papaya is another major hurdle in its successful cultivation.
L   Nematode pests including root-knot and reniform nematodes besides causing substantial yield reduction
    on its own also play a synergistic role in increasing the yield losses caused by the viruses.

Aonla
L   Aonla is gaining popularity in India owing to its hardy nature, high productivity, neutraceutical value and
    suitability for growing in various agro-climatic conditions and its utilization in cosmetic, pharmaceutical
    and processing industries.
L   Aonla fruits remain available for almost 9 to 10 months in different parts (North India – November to
    February, Eastern India- October to January) of the country.
L   Currently aonla is grown over 50,000 ha area in the country with 1.75 lakh tonne of production. The
    average productivity is around 4 tonne/ha, which will increase. Uttar Pradesh is the largest aonla producing
    state (63,000 tonne of aonla from 15750 ha area). Its area is rapidly increasing in the semi-arid regions
    of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Aravali range in Haryana,
    Kandi area in Punjab and Himachal Pradesh.
L   Banarasi, Bansi Red, Francis and Chakaiya were the known aonla cultivars. NA-4 (Kanchan), NA-5
    (Krishna), NA-6 and NA-7 were released by NDUAT, Faizabad for commercial cultivation.

Bael
L   The Bael fruit is one of the most nutritious fruits having high medicinal value. Marmelosin is most important
    therapeutically active principle of bael fruit. Further, it could also be made use of into several value
    added products.
L   Some of the promising selections of bael have been released from NDUAT, Faizabad, CISH, Lucknow
    and GBPUAT, Pantnagar.

Jamun
L   Though country has got rich genetic diversity in the crop but a proper and right kind of genotype suitable
    for medicinal purpose is yet to be identified.

6.2 SWOT Analysis

6.2.1 Strength

Mango
L   Country, a natural repository of mango germplasm, coupled unwavering interventions throughout its

                                                       21
    established cultivation history over the ages mediated through emperor / aristocracy has led to identification
    and conservation of unique germplasm in the form of old orchards. Further reinvention through intensive
    surveys could be gainfully utilized to locate and identify the promising cultivars.
L   Currently CISH has 727 accessions of mango in its field gene bank collected and conserved over the
    years from diverse agro ecological zones of the country.
L   Institute has released a red coloured variety Ambika which holds promise for export.
L   Three more coloured hybrids H-39, H-949, H-1084 are in the offing.
L   Work on salt tolerant rootstock is underway which may open avenues for the solution of mango cultivation
    in salt tolerant/ calcareous soil.
L   Two cultivars viz. Bhaduran and Elaichi found free from malformation are being utilized in breeding
    programme for evolving malformation resistant variety.
L   Preliminary work undertaken at the Institute on drip irrigation has yielded valuable data on the effective
    utilization and conservation of water and its significant impact on yield increase.
L   Problem of unproductively/yield plateau in old and unproductive orchards has been tackled to a greater
    extent through rejuvenation technology.
L   Development of IPM modules for insect pests, using wooden block traps for control of fruit fly and
    forecasting models for powdery mildew also hold promise for containing the losses brought about by
    these pest/ diseases.
L   Technology for R.T.S. drinks has been evolved.

Guava
L   Crop is very hardy, tolerant to water logging and could be grown even on marginal waste land.
L   Currently, Institute is having a collection of 114 valuable accessions.
L   Institute has released a selection ‘Lalit’ having uniform sized fruit with a deep pink coloured flesh holds
    promise for domestic and export market as well as processing.
L   Another variety Shweta released recently has a characteristic feature of good keeping quality.
L   Regulation of fruiting through selective pruning for quality fruit production has been standardized.
L   A guava cross developed through Psiduim guajava and P. molle has been found resistant against
    guava wilt.

Papaya
L   Area under papaya cultivation has shown a steady increase due to its therapeutic and medicinal value.
L   Institute has around 24 accessions in its germplasm bank. Work on inter specific hybridization is under
    way to evolve cold and ring spot/leaf curl resistant varieties.
L   Embryo rescue technique would also be used to get large number of hybrids.
L   Infrastructure in biotechnology lab has been created and the work on transgenic plants for conferring
    resistance against ring spot and leaf curl viruses in papaya is in progress.

                                                      22
Aonla
L   Efforts are underway for selection of promising aonla genotypes having high antioxidant value.

Bael
L   Crop is very hardy and can be grown on marginal and waste land.

Jamun
L   A vast wealth of germplasm enriched with medicinal traits is available in the country.

6.2.2 Weakness

Mango
L   Lack of sufficient and reliable data base on the promising accessions.
L   Lack of perfect production technology for problematic soils.
L   Non availability of genuine planting material.
L   Non availability of an ideal polyembryonic variety for rootstock purpose to produce uniform planting
    material and to combat abiotic stresses.
L   Non availability of off season, regular bearing, extended fruiting duration, malformation and powdery
    mildew resistant cultivars with longer shelf life.
L   Lack of processing and coloured varieties for export purpose.
L   Lack of suitable varieties for development of value added products.
L   Perfect protocols for pre and post harvest handling.
L   Unregulated marketing and market intelligence system.

Guava
L   Getting quality fruit free from borer infestation is yet to be achieved.
L   Non availability of coloured guava varieties for processing.
L   Guava plantation largely succumb to wilt infection within a very short span of raising the crop.
L   Management of bulk produce and post harvest handling.

Papaya
L   Non availability of genuine seed material.
L   Sex identification.
L   Frost and viral infection susceptibility.

Aonla and Bael
L   Agro techniques for various agro climatic zones are yet to be perfected.

                                                       23
Jamun
L   Package of agro practices are yet to be developed.

6.2.3 Opportunities

Mango
L   Increased awareness and realization about the renumerative potential of horticulture.
L   Greater demand for horticultural produce both at domestic and international front.
L   Steady increase in demand for value added product.
L   Access to new and effective technologies.

Guava
L   Meadow orcharding has opened new vistas for higher productivity per unit area.
L   Rejuvenation and selective pruning technology perfected at the Institute holds promise.
L   A cross of P. guajava and P. molle is likely to revolutionize the cultivation of guava in northern belt
    owing to its resistant trait against wilt pathogen.

Papaya
L   RTS beverages and pharmaceutical are the important and worth exploring ventures which offer exciting
    avenues.

Aonla, Bael and Jamun
L   Vast pool of available germplasm could be identified / characterized for pharmaceutical industries.

6.2.4 Threat

Mango
L   Depleting germplasm base may hamper the breeding programmes.
L   Inclement and unpredictable weather conditions.
L   Mango malformation, powdery mildew and anthracnose among fungi mealy bugs, hoppers, fruit fly, etc.
    among pests are the major threats.
L   High cost of cultivation, erratic irrigation and non availability of quality inputs like fertilizer/ pesticides too
    are the important factors.
L   Assured remunerative market price and distress sale are the other crucial factors.

Guava
L   Problem of wilt in guava unless resolved meticulously is a major threat to guava cultivation.
L   Limitation of irrigation is another major threat.

Papaya
L   Frost injury and viral diseases may ruin the cultivation.


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7.   PERSPECTIVE
L    By the year 2010 the Institute will have maximum available world germplasm of mango, guava, aonla,
     bael and other underutilized fruits.
L    Characterization, evaluation and cataloguing of the world germplasm of mango will be completed by the
     year 2016.
L    Collection of Psidium species and guava varieties will be completed by the year 2010 and their
     characterization, cataloguing and evaluation will be completed by 2015.
L    Collection of papaya varieties and Carica species will be completed by 2011 and by 2016 the
     characterization, cataloguing and evaluation of germplasm will be completed.
L    While working in the field of molecular biology, the Institute will be in a position to produce plant material
     of papaya having desired gene(s) through genetic engineering.
L    Genetic resource information database of mandate fruits will be available with the Institute on national
     and international levels. Identity of genotypes of mandate fruits will be established by using molecular
     tagging technology.
L    High yielding regular bearing varieties of mango having attractive red coloured fruits, longer shelf life,
     suitable for export and processing will be available at the Institute by 2011.
L    The Institute will be in a position to make available malformation free varieties of mango and hormonal
     and cultural control of malformation.
L    Guava varieties resistant to wilt with red fruit skin and pulp, soft and less seeds and having long shelf-life
     will be available.
L    Papaya varieties resistant to ring-spot virus, and tolerant to frost may be available with the Institute for
     supplying to farmers.
L    In vitro propagation techniques will be standardized which will make possible the mass multiplication of
     mango, guava, bael and jamun plants and conservation of germplasm.
L    Integrated nutrient and water management programmes, which will give a complete information on leaf
     nutrient standards, plant nutrient requirements, source of nutrients, improving fertilizer use efficiency,
     water requirement and judicious use of water will be standardized in mango, guava and aonla for adoption.
L    Rootstocks of mango and guava for tree dwarfing will be developed for medium density planting.
L    Rootstocks of guava having resistance to wilt will be available for grafting commercial guava varieties.
L    High density planting system in mango and guava using dwarfing rootstocks and canopy management
     through pruning and chemicals will emerge, which will increase yield per unit area of land.
L    Integrated pest/ disease management programme, in which, bio control will be one of the important
     components for the management of mango hopper, mealy bug, fruit fly, nematode pest, guava wilt and
     MBCD, etc., will be available for adoption.
L    By analysing pesticide residue in fruits, it would be possible to market fruits with minimum permissible
     limit of residues.
L    Forecasting models for insect pests and diseases will be made available for taking preventive measures
     against their occurrence.


                                                        25
L   Postharvest management of fruits is an important aspect. Through an integrated approach by working
    out maturity of fruits, optimum low temperature for longer shelf life, improved method of harvesting,
    handling, packaging and transportation and utilization of by-products for various purposes, such as
    pectin extraction, alcohol production, enzymes and animal feed, a complete postharvest management
    system will be developed for their adaptation.
L   Export of fresh fruits and processed products will be encouraged manifold by developing suitable varieties
    and postharvest management system.
L   Tools and implements such as harvester, grader, peeler, drier, etc. will be improved and made available
    for increasing efficiency of various processes.
L   The technologies developed by the Institute during perspective plan period will be transferred to end
    users and it is envisaged that these new technologies will be adopted by the farmers.
L   It is expected that the implementation of the plan will increase yield, quality of fruits, ensure better
    postharvest management will increase exports and provide eco-friendly pest and nutrient management
    systems.

8. ISSUES AND STRATEGIES

8.1 Strengthening of Ongoing Research Areas

CROP IMPROVEMENT

MANGO

Issues
L   Erosion of vast pool of genetic resources and successive depletion of locally available superior cultivars
    evolved over a period of time.
L   Lack of data on genetic variability in available cultivars
L   Non availability of coloured varieties having extended shelf life, regular bearing, off season mango varieties.
L   Non availability of cultivars resistant against pests/ diseases especially hopper, mealy bug, malformation,
    die-back, powdery mildew.
L   Non availability of varieties having neutraceutical value.

Strategies
L   Extensive/ Intensive surveys for collection, identification and subsequent conservation of superior cultivars.
    Introduction of exotic germplasm and their utilization in breeding programmes for development of varieties
    with traits including colour, off season fruiting, extended shelf life / biennial bearing, etc.
L   Development of national genetic resource database for mango and its wild relatives.
L   Use of GIS tools for germplasm management, specially for predicting suitability of varieties/hybrids for
    commercial cultivation in different agro-ecological regions of country.
L   To identify Baramasi off season mango varieties for extending the mango availability periods.
L   Identification of genetic markers for the mango malformation in resistant and susceptible cultivars.

                                                       26
L   Development of mango varieties with high carotenoid and antioxidant contents.
L   Screening of germplasm of mango against diseases and insect pests for their suitability for processing.
L   Characterization and genetic analysis of commercial cultivars of mango using molecular markers.
L   Standardization of somatic embryogenesis in mango for use in transgenic development.
L   Development of genetic linkage maps for fruit colour, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress for reducing
    time required for breeding desirable types in mango.

GUAVA

Issues
L   Erosion of available genetic stock spread over varied agro-ecological zones.
L   Non availability of soft seeded varieties.
L   Lack of varieties endowed with superior traits, e.g. better shelf life.
L   Wilt resistant commercial cultivars are not available .

Strategies
L   Use of GIS tools for germplasm management, specially for predicting suitability of varieties/hybrids for
    commercial cultivation in different agro-ecological regions of country.
L   Characterization and genetic analysis of commercial cultivars of guava using molecular markers.
L   Management of Psidium guajava and related species germplasm, enrichment of NAGS and introduction
    of exotic germplasm.
L   Standardisation of rootstock in guava for screening of Psidium species and use of aneuploid as rootstock
    for Allahabad Safeda and L-49.
L   Development of coloured varieties of guava combined with less and/ or shrivelled seeds, better quality,
    shelf life and suitable for high density cultivation.
L   Development of guava varieties with high vitamin C, lycopene, carotenoid, antioxidant contents to combat/
    check aging / ailments in human system.
L   Exploitation of resistance genes from wild sources against guava wilt for rootstock breeding and their
    utilization for commercial graft production.
L   Development of genetic linkage maps for fruit colour, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses for reducing
    time required for breeding desirable types in guava.

PAPAYA

Issues
L   Frost/virus resistant cultivars are lacking.
L   Sex expression leading to problems and production other than gynodioceious lines.

                                                      27
Strategies
L   Hybridization on papaya for development of superior type gynodiocious line with frost and virus tolerance.
L   Characterization and genetic analysis of commercial cultivars of papaya using molecular markers.
L   Standardization of somatic embryogenesis in papaya for use in transgenic development.
L   Identification of papaya seedling for sex at juvenile stage using sex specific SCAR markers.
L   Development of transgenic in papaya conferring resistance to PRSV and PaLCV.
L   Screening of germplasm of papaya against viruses.
UNDERUTILIZED FRUITS
Issues
L   Lack of data on potential cultivars of industrial/ nutritional value.
Strategies
L   Collection and evaluation of indigenous and exotic germplasm of underutilized fruits viz., aonla, bael,
    litchi, jamun, mahua, chironji, karonda, khirnee, woodapple, tamarind, amra, badhal, custard apple,
    loquat, lasoda, mulberry, phalsa, gulab jamun and carambola.
CROP PRODUCTION
MANGO
Issues
L   Productivity plateau in senile orchards.
L   Productivity constraints in problematic soils.
L   Biennial bearing.
L   Non availability of dwarf cultivars.
L   Fertigation and water use efficiency.
Strategies
L   Rejuvenation of mango orchards in relation to canopy management, bearing behaviour, use of intercrops
    and mulching in improving productivity.
L   Standardization of density plantation in mango on the basis of light infiltration, photosynthetic efficiency,
    stomatal count and harnessing solar energy etc. by modifying tree canopy.
L   Development of techniques to enhance the nutritive value of composts through incorporation of various
    organic waste, rock phosphate, dolomite, lime, cakes, bio-fertilizers, fish meal, etc.
L   Development of techniques for balanced and conjunctive use of various sources of nutrient supply including
    biofertilizers for evolving integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) module in local/ regional
    perspectives.
L   Application of paclobutrazol along with judicious inorganic/ organic nutrient management, pruning and
    mulching for control of biennial bearing in mango cvs Dashehari, Chausa and Langra.
L   Integrated approach for control of mango malformation.

                                                       28
L   Identification of nutrient constraints on bench mark soils in mango growing regions of Northern plains.
L   Optimization of irrigation water requirement with microirrigation including fertigation in mango.
L   Development of rootstock in mango for dwarfing and tolerant to problematic soils.
L   Commercial formulation of Aspergillus niger AN-17 to be used to observe the solubilization of
    phosphorus in comparison to organic formulation developed by the Institute.
GUAVA
Issues
L   Breaking up the yield plateau in senile orchards.
L   Enhancing the yield per unit area.
Strategies
L   Standardization of density plantation in mango on the basis of light infiltration, photosynthetic efficiency,
    stomatal count and harnessing solar energy, etc. by modifying tree canopy.
L   Standardization of package of practices for high density planting of guava by modifying tree canopies for
    increased production efficiency and development of meadow orchards.
L   Development of techniques to enhance the nutritive value of composts through incorporation of various
    organic waste, rock phosphate, dolomite, lime, cakes, bio-fertilizers, fish meal, etc.
L   Development of techniques for balanced and conjunctive use of various sources of nutrient supply including
    biofertilizers for evolving integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) module in local/ regional
    perspectives.
L   Optimization of irrigation water requirement with microirrigation including fertigation in guava.

PAPAYA

Issues
L   Non-availability of true to type quality seed.

Strategies
L   Development of techniques for balanced and conjunctive use of various sources of nutrient supply including
    biofertilizers for evolving integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) module.
L   Optimization of irrigation water requirement with microirrigation including fertigation in papaya.
L   Production of healthy true to type and quality seeds of papaya/ planting material.

UNDERUTILIZED FRUITS
Issues
L   Popularisation of underutilized fruits in untapped areas.

Strategies
L   Standardization of agro-techniques in bael, aonla and underutilized fruits.

                                                        29
GRAPE

Issues
L   Popularization of promising cultivar for North Indian conditions.

Strategies
L   Agro techniques, plant protection and post harvest management practices for suitable grape variety
    (Flame seedless) identified for the region would be standardized and popularised.

CROP PROTECTION

Issues
L   Data bank on strains/ biotypes of important pests/ diseases.
L   Etiology and epidemiology of mango malformation, guava wilt.
L   Conservation of antagonistic native flora/ fauna.
L   Pest and disease complexes and emergence of new pest/ disease.
L   Management of pest/ disease complexes through eco-friendly approaches.

Strategies
L   Collection and conservation of strains of pathogens (fungal, bacterial and viral) of mango, guava and
    papaya and their characterization by traditional and modern methods particularly molecular tools.
L   Survey and surveillance for the identification of newer diseases of subtropical and underutilized fruits.
L   Etiology, ecology, epidemiology and histopathology of important diseases of mango, guava and aonla.
L   Identification of resistant source(s) against powdery mildew, anthracnose, bacterial canker and
    malformation in mango, guava wilt and papaya viruses.
L   Management of diseases of mango, guava and aonla with newer molecules and biological and traditional
    systems.
L   Management of major insect pests of mango, guava and aonla through ecofriendly approaches.
L   Evaluation of new molecules, bioagents, plant products, organic and biodynamic preparations for control
    of major insect pests of mango, guava and aonla and nematode pests of papaya.
L   Collection and identification of antagonistic organisms and their evaluation against powdery mildew,
    anthracnose, die back and bacterial canker in mango and guava wilt.
L   Identification of endophytic antagonistic bacterial fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes for their
    exploitation in management of plant parasitic nematode and major insect pests.
L   Evaluation of different antagonistic organisms for their PGPR activity.


                                                     30
POSTHARVEST MANAGEMENT

Issues
L   High postharvest losses due to poor handling and pests/diseases.
L   Low shelf life of fruits.
L   Management of bulk production and value addition for enhancing the farm produce income.
L   Quality assurance in processed products.
L   Management of processing waste through development of by products.
L   Mechanisation of harvesting and assessing of maturity by non-destructive methods.
L   Non-availability of indigenous equipments for processing of fruits.

Strategies
L   Systems approach in mechanization of mango and guava.
L   Design and development of harvesting, destoning, pricking and shredding machine for aonla processing.
L   Design and development of shipping packages and cushioning materials for mango and guava during
    transportation and export.
L   Optimizing ripening conditions for commercial cultivars of mango including cold stored fruits.
L   Refinement of packaging line with special reference to protocol for export of mango.
L   Identification of jelly-seed resistant strains of mango cv. Dashehari and its control through integrated
    approach, viz. mulching, calcium chloride, etc.
L   Shelf life improvement through MAP and CA storage.
L   Development of postharvest management protocols for underutilized fruits.
L   Blending of fruit pulps for preparation of high quality beverages, bars, etc.
L   Improvement in solar dryers for on-farm processing of fruits.
L   Development of technology for spray and freeze drying of fruit products.
L   Development of health drinks from subtropical fruits with special reference to their neutraceutical values.
L   Studies on non-thermal, like high pressure processing, ohmic heating and irradiation of fruit products,
    preservation as an alternative to thermal processing.
L   Microbial and chemical quality assurance of fresh fruits and processed products.
L   Preparation of fermented products like cider and wine from subtropical fruits.
L   Value addition of fruit processing waste for getting by-products, particularly enzymes, through microbial
    fermentation.
L   Establishing safe waiting periods for different pesticides in mango, guava and aonla.
L   Development of efficient linkages and collaboration with processing industries.


                                                      31
SOCIAL SCIENCES

Issues
L    Technology costing and its economic feasibility for widespread adoption.
L    Constraints in production and marketing system.
L    Export promotion for mango and guava.
L    New statistical models for analysis of experiments.
L    Efficient technology dissemination mechanism, involving demonstrations, meetings, trainings, etc.
L    Impact of the technology amongst different cliental groups.
Strategies
L Studies on impact and costing of technologies developed by the Institute.
L Development of export response models of mango.
L Studies on demand quantification of various fruits depending upon availability of resources.
L Estimation of optimum sample size for different types of field experiments on mandate fruits.
L Dissemination of technologies developed by the Institute through aggressive and exhaustive field
    demonstrations, gosthies and farmers trainings.
L Creation of database on different aspects of subtropical fruits.
L Creation of effective technology dissemination unit.

8.2 New Initiatives

Areas of New Research Initiatives

Mango

Issue : Development of varieties having different traits.

Strategy
L    Development of regular bearing, dwarf stature coloured high yielding and suitable for processing varieties.
L    Breeding for malformation resistance.
L    Standardization of rootstocks for dwarfing and abiotic stress tolerance.

Issue : Physiological aspects of Mango malformation

Strategy
L    Estimation of phyto-hormones at different developmental stages in resistant and susceptible cultivars.
L    Estimation of enzymes related to resistance at various stages of plant growth in malformed susceptible
     and resistant plants.

Issue : Abiotic stress

Strategy
     In India, around 6.73 million ha affected by salinity is unfit for profitable crop production. Hence,


                                                      32
following aspects would be explored to select the salt tolerant genotype for commercial plantation :
L    Identification of suitable genotypes and rootstock for saline / sodic and calcareous soil conditions.
L    Identification of physiological and molecular traits associated with salt stress condition.
L    Studies on involvement of nutrients / compounds present in plant stress tolerance.
L    Development of suitable and viable technologies for cultivation of mango under salt stress condition.

Issue : Canopy Management

Strategy
     Canopy management is an effective tool for realizing the higher yield. The newly emerged leaves in
guava and older leaves in mango appears to be prime precursor for inducement of flowering. Canopy
management plays an important role in improvement of light penetration. Therefore, the following researches
are required to be conducted :
L    Identification the physiological maturity of leaves in guava and mango for flowering.
L    Assessing the ratio of slow and fast mobile nutrients at different developmental stages of leaves and to
     draw their relationship with flowering.
L    Working out the mesophyll efficiency of new and old leaves attached on flowering and non-flowering
     branches particularly in guava.
L    Pattern of light and gas exchange parameters in different canopy architecture and their utilization for
     shoot growth and flowering.
L    Growth dynamics of managed shoots and their relation with flowering and fruiting.
L    Biennial bearing in mango
     Most of the commercial varieties of north India are biennial bearing. Detailed studies on physiological
and nutritional factors involved in biennial bearing have been done. Institute has also developed technology to
control the biennial bearing through the use of paclobutrazol. However, research work on following aspects
is needed :
L    Quantification of stable isotopes ratios of carbon (13C/12C), oxygen (18O / 16O) and nitrogen (15N /
     14N) in regular and irregular bearing mango before and at flower bud differentiation.
L    Identification of specific gibberellic acid responsible for floral initiation and sex determination in mango.
L    Cellular and molecular mode of ethylene action in flowering of biennial and regular bearing trees.
L    Changes in gas exchange attributes at different phases of flowering development.
L    Translocation of paclobutrazol in multiple ion monitoring mode.
L    Persistence of paclobutrazol in soil, plant and fruits.

Issue : Rejuvenation in mango
     Rejuvenation of old and senile mango orchards was found very effective to make the trees productive.
Preliminary studies show that improvement in light penetration and photosynthesis due to rejuvenation are
main factors for flowering and higher yield in rejuvenated trees. However, the following research work is
needed to understand the potentiality of rejuvenated shoots for flowering and fruiting.

                                                        33
Strategy
L    Ratio of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) outside and within canopy needed for pruning / rejuvenation.
L    Effect of rejuvenation on interception and pattern of light and their utilization within mango tree for shoot
     growth and flowering.
L    Efficiency of translocation of photosynthates in rejuvenated orchards as compared to non-rejuvenated.
L    Pattern in hormonal changes.

Guava

Issue : Varietal development

Strategy
L    Development of varieties with red peel colour, pink pulp and soft seeds.
L    Introgression of wilt resistance from wild relatives of Psidium guajava.

Bael

Issue : Identification of promising bael genotypes

Strategy
L    Selection of promising bael genotypes especially suitable for pharmaceutical and processing industries.

Aonla
Issue : Identification of aonla genotypes having antioxidants.
Strategy
L    Isolation and characterization of antioxidants for popularizing aonla as health promoting fruit.

Jamun

Issue : Identification of promising genotypes for various traits/ agrotechniques for jamun.

Strategy
L    Identification of elite genotypes in both small and large seeded types with neutraceutical and medicinal
     value along with good shelf life.
L    Identification/ development of dwarf trees with ideal canopy architecture.
L    Standardizing the crop production technology to produce quality fruits.

Bioagents

Issue : Identification of promising bioagents and development of viable bioagent based technologies.

Strategy
L    Isolation, identification and characterization of bioagents.
L    Efficacy of bioagents against pests and diseases under different abiotic variables.
L    Standardization of delivery system protocols.

                                                       34
     9. PROGRAMME AND PROJECTS ON TIME SCALE FOR FUND REQUIREMENTS

     Programme and Projects                                   Time Frame                       Infra-      Man-
                                                                                            structure &    power
                                                                                             other costs    Cost

                                            2005-2010   2010-2015   2015-2020   2020-2025
     CROP IMPROVEMENT
     Survey, collection, characterization
     /evaluation and conservation of
                                                                                                530         60
     indigenous diversity of superior
     seedlings and introduction of exotic
     germplasm.
     Mango, Guava, Litchi, Papaya, Aonla
     and under utilized fruits.
     Development of national genetic                                                            350         60
     resource database.
     Mango and its wild relatives, guava,




35
     papaya and aonla.
     Development of superior varieties                                                          750         75
     with respect to specific traits.
     Mango, guava and papaya.                                                                   500         65
     Use of GIS tools for germplasm
     management.
     Mango
     Development of genetic linkage                                                             700         100
     maps.
     Mango and guava.
                                                                                                800         100
     Use of genetic markers and DNA
     fingerprinting.
     Mango, guava, aonla and papaya.                                                            50          19
     Micropropagation
     Mango
     Development of transgenic plants                                                           870         80
     Mango, guava and papaya
     Programme and Projects                               Time Frame                       Infra-      Man-
                                                                                        structure &    power
                                                                                         other costs    Cost

                                        2005-2010   2010-2015   2015-2020   2020-2025
     CROP PRODUCTION
     Development modern nursery                                                             280         60
     management
     Mango and guava.
                                                                                            250         50
     Rootstock identification studies
     Mango and guava.
                                                                                            300         60
     Planting densities
     Mango and guava
     Canopy management                                                                      250         50
     Mango, guava and aonla
     Identification of nutrient                                                             500         60
     constraints




36
     Mango and guava
     Optimization of irrigation/                                                            200         65
     fertigation
     Mango and guava
     Enhancing productivity through                                                         250         50
     use of paclobutrazol
     Mango
     Organic farming                                                                        350         69
     Mango and guava
     Identification, evaluation and
     management of potential                                                                250         40
     pollinators
     Mango, guava and aonla
     Programme and Projects                                Time Frame                        Infra-      Man-
                                                                                          structure &    power   Ag
                                                                                           other costs    Cost
                                         2005-2010   2010-2015   2015-2020#   2020-2025
     CROP PROTECTION
     Development of forecasting/                                                              250         45
     IPM modules and their
     validation
     Mango, guava, papaya and under
                                                                                              800         60
     utilized fruits.
     Molecular characterization of                                                            600         70
     pathogen
     Exploration and identification of                                                        323         50
     antagonistic microbes
     Evaluation of potential bioagents                                                        500         50
     Development of delivery system
     protocols
                                                                                              550         80




37
     Mango, guava and papaya
     Product formulation / mass scale
     evaluation
     POSTHARVEST
     MANAGEMENT                                                                               500         60
     Development of low cost
     machinery and equipments                                                                 350         80
     Design and development of
                                                                                              250         50
     shipping packages
     Enhancing shelf life                                                                     425         50
     Preparation of beverages and                                                                         40
                                                                                              250
     health drinks
     Microbial quality assurance                                                              400         60
     Establishing safe waiting period
     for pesticides residues
     Programme and Projects                             Time Frame                       Infra-      Man-
                                                                                      structure &    power
                                                                                       other costs    Cost

                                      2005-2010   2010-2015   2015-2020   2020-2025

     SOCIAL SCIENCES
     Estimation of area, yield and                                                        50          25
     production
     Constraint analysis and yield                                                        80          25
     gaps
                                                                                          80          20
     Quantification of total factor
     productivity models                                                                  80          35
     Developing models for
     estimating area, canopy volume
     and fruit volume/ weight                                                             150         40
     Impact assessment of the
     technologies                                                                         550         80
     Technology dissemination
     Forecasting orchards fruit                                                           120         50




38
     characters and weather
     parameters
10. LINKAGE, COORDINATION AND EXECUTION ARRANGEMENTS

10.1 Linkages
     Horticultural research cannot be done in isolation. It has to keep pace with the advancement and frontier
research programmes going on in various research institutions. Hence, linkages with these institutions have to
be developed for exchange of knowledge, research material and to fulfil the need of training of research
personnel. Keeping in view their infrastructure and potential, the following research institutions, both national
and international, have been identified, with which useful linkages can be established for advancing research
on the mandated fruits of the Institute to solve problems and foster their growth. A memorandum of understanding
(MoU) will be signed with the collaborating partners for sharing research facilities, research material, exchange
of plant material, sharing research results, research expenditure and exchange of personnel for training.
     The programme will be coordinated by the Director at the Institute level and by DDG (Hort.) at the
ICAR level. All Coordination arrangements, whether interdisciplinary or interinstitutional, will be made by the
Director.
     Director, Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture shall be responsible for execution of the projects
with the help of scientists.
     Linkages are required to be established in the following areas :
Survey, collection and germplasm conservation : Survey and germplasm conservation of rare material
available in different parts of the country would be carried out in collaboration with different SAUs, state
horticulture departments and ICAR Institutes like NBPGR, CARI, etc.
Breeding : Work on breeding for development of promising varieties of mango, guava and papaya would
involve the collaboration with CARI, (Andaman) and ICAR Complex for NEH (Imphal Centre).
Mango malformation : Basic studies on malformation cause and effect would be carried out in collaboration
with IARI and SAU’s.
Abiotic stresses : Abiotic stresses particularly soil salinity and calcerous soil would be conducted in
collaboration with CSSRI, Karnal.
Bio-management : Basic and applied aspects pertaining to bioagents would be pursued in collaboration
with PDBC, Bangalore and NCIPM, New Delhi.
Post harvest Management : The Institute has developed two new products, viz. segments-in-syrup
and supari of aonla fruits. Improvement in the processing technologies of a few products of mango, aonla and
bael fruits have also been intensified. Different industries including Sai Foods International, P.O.
Madhoganj, Pratapgarh; Jagrati Gramodyog Seva Sansthan, 26, UPSIDC Industrial State, Kursi Road,
Barabanki; Abdullah Fresh Foods Pvt. Ltd., F-4, Sec 11, Noida, U.P. and Khandelwal Food Products, P.O.
Tala, Pratapgarh have linkages with the Institute for promoting the new and improved technologies on above
fruit crops.


                                                        39
     Linkages will be needed with the following national and international institutions in various areas of
research:

International and National Linkages

A. International
 Institute / Organisation                      Area of collaboration/ training
 University of Florida. Homstead, Florida.     i)     Mango breeding
 U.S.A.                                        ii)    Fruit trees canopy management
                                               iii)   Postharvest pathology
                                               iv)    Tissue culture
                                               v)     Instrumentation
 University of California, Davis,              i)     Aseptic processing technology of fruits
 California. U.S.A.                            ii)    Freeze drying or quick freezing of fruit products
                                               iii)   Fungicidal resistance
                                               iv)    Photosynthetic efficiency, translocation and canopy
                                                      manipulations in horticultural crops
 University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii,       i)     Guava and papaya breeding
 U.S.A.                                        ii)    Papaya production technology
                                               iii)   Crop regulation studies on guava and other subtropical
                                                      fruits
 Michigan State University, East Lansing,      i)     Packages and packings for storage of fresh produce
 Michigan, U.S.A.                              ii)    Bruising in fruits due to mechanical forces in storage.
                                                      Handling and transport of packages through shipping
 University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia,       i)     Use of automatic computer aided design (Autocad) in
 U.S.A.                                               development of postharvest equipments for fruits
                                               ii)    Membrane technology as applied to food processing

 Cornell University, Geneva, New York.         i)     Microbial utilization of fruit processing industry waste
 U.S.A.                                               Techniques in assessment of fruit flavours
 USDA, Beltsville, Maryland, U.S.A.            i)     Fruit crop nutrition
 Bee Research Laboratory, Beltsville,          i)     Fruit tree pollinators
 U.S.A.

 University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia,      i)     Systems approach in postharvest handling of fruits
 U.S.A.

 University of Florida, Gainsville, Florida,   i)     Quality control in processing of fruit products
 U.S.A.

 University of Florida, Lake Alfred,           i)     Microbial quality of processed products
 Florida, U.S.A.

 University of California, Berkley,            i)     Biological control of insect pests of fruits
 California, U.S.A.


                                                       40
 Agricultural Research Organisation, Bet       i)     Mango breeding
 Dagan, Israel                                 ii)    Propagation and rootstock
                                               iii)   Modified/ controlled atmosphere storage
                                               iv)    Photosynthetic enzyme studies
                                               v)     Water management
 Embrapa Florestas, Ministry of                i)     Mango breeding
 Agriculture- National Center, for Forestry
 Research Caixa Postal 319, CEP 83411-
 000, Colombo, PR, Brazil.
 University of New South Wales,                i)     Advances in study of ethylene in postharvest
 Kensington, NSW, Australia                           technology
 Council of Scientific and Industrial          i)     Establishment and operation of packaging line for fresh
 Research Organisation, Adelaide SA,                  fruits
 Australia

 Queensland University of Technology,          i)     Tissue culture on litchi
 Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

 Central Mango Research Station, Darwin,       i)     Physiology of fruits during storage
 Australia

 Rothemsted Experiment Station,                i)     Advance technique on detection of plant viruses
 Harpanden, Herti, U.K.

 Fruit Research Station, Tsukuba, Ibaraki,     i)     Physiological and biochemical approaches towards the
 Japan.                                               development of stress resistance like temperature,
                                                      water and cold
 International Agriculture Centre,             i)     Nematode management
 Wageningen, The Netherlands
 Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New        i)     Entomo-pathogenic nematodes
 Jersy, U.S.A.

B. National
 Institute / Organisation                                Area of collaboration
 Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,             i)    Research on mango, guava and papaya and
 Hessaraghatta, Bangalore, Karnataka                           exchange of germplasm
 National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New         i)    Genetic resource collection and introduction
 Delhi                                                         of plant material
 Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay,                  i)    Physiological disorder studies
 Mumbai                                                  ii)   Irradiation of fruits for extending shelf life
 National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow,         i)    Tissue culture studies
 U.P.                                                    ii)   Molecular characterization
 Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow,         i)    Pesticide residue studies
 U.P.


                                                       41
Project Directorate of Biological Control, Hebbal,     i)     Studies on biological control of pests and
Bangalore, Karnataka                                          diseases
Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export        i)     Export promotion of fresh fruits and
Development Authority. New Delhi                              processed products
Directorate of Horticulture and Food Processing.       i)     Transfer of technology
Lucknow. U.P.
Gobind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and      i)     High density orcharding of mango and testing
Technology, Pantnagar. Udham Singh Nagar, U.P.                of technology developed in mango
Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore,         i)     Papaya breeding and testing of technology
Tamil Nadu                                                    developed in papaya
Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering                 Mechanization in Horticulture
(CIAE), Nabibagh,
Berasia Road, Bhopal - 462 018 (M P)
Indian Agricultural Statistics Research                i)     Forecasting of insect pests and diseases
Institute (IASRI), Library Avenue, Pusa,               ii)    Statistical designing of experiments
New Delhi - 110 012                                    iii)   Computer application.
National Centre for Integrated Pest Management,               IPM in mango
Lal Bahadur Shastri
Bhavan, Block K-1, IARI Campus, Pusa,
New Delhi - 110 012
National Centre for Agril. Econ. & Policy Research     i)     Economics of subtropical fruits
(NCAEPR), Library Avenue,                              ii)    Total factor productivity analysis in fruit
Pusa, New Delhi - 110 012                                     crops.
                                                       iii)   Other relevant economic aspects.

National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology,       i)     Biotechnology
(NRCPB),
Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
Pusa, New Delhi - 110 012


10.2 Coordination and Execution Arrangements
      Work pertaining to survey and collection of germplasm would be conducted in collaboration with different
Institutes like NBPGR and other ICAR Institutes and SAU’s. Testing of varieties evolved at the Institute
would be done under AICRP on subtropical fruits. Similarly, the work on transgenics of papaya would be
carried out in close association of IARI. Refinement of rejuvenation technology and meadow orcharding
would be carried out in collaboration with State Department of Horticulture. Studies on screening of mango
rootstocks on problematic soil would have the involvement of the scientist from CSSRI, Karnal. Project and
detailed work plan on bioagents would be executed through the collaboration of scientist working at PDBC,
Bangalore and NCIPM, New Delhi. The whole work plan would be discussed at RAC, IRC and collaborating
Institutes before its implementation.


                                                     42
11. CRITICAL INPUTS

11.1 Funds
     Funds constitute an important input of the programmes. The programmes are focussed on perennial fruit
crops such as mango, guava, litchi, papaya and underutilised fruit crops. Some of the problems are of national
importance in mango and guava, which are to be tackled from various angles involving several disciplines. The
plan spreads over a period of 19 years. Considering all these points, an amount of about 35481 lakhs will be
required during the whole period to run the various programmes efficiently and to achieve the objectives of the
programmes.

                                                                                                    Amount
Crops/Programmes                                                   Percentage Expenditure
                                                                                                (Rs. in lakhs)
Mango                                                                          49.46                17550.00
Guava                                                                           8.82                 3131.00
Papaya                                                                          5.21                 1850.00
Jamun                                                                           4.22                 1500.00
Problems of National Importance                                                                      3500.00
                                                                                9.86
(Mango malformation, alternate bearing and guava wilt)
Basic research                                                                 12.11                 4300.00
Pesticides residue and resistance studies                                       2.53                  900.00
Transfer of technology                                                          7.75                 2750.00
Total                                                                            100                35481.00

11.2 Manpower
     The existing cadre strength of the Institute comprises 46 scientific, 70 technical, 30 administrative and 97
auxiliary. The programmes cannot be run for a period of 19 years with the existing manpower. Therefore,
additional manpower will be required to carry out the various programmes projected in the perspective plan.
Additional manpower required approximately at various levels is as follows:
     Scientific          -        15
     Technical           -        23
     Administrative      -        11
     Auxiliary           -        15

11.3 Human Resource Development and Planning
     Human resource development is an integral part of any research programme. Scientists cannot work in
isolation in the area of their research. Their exposure to latest research developments going on round the
world in their specific fields will form part of the strategy to achieve the goals. The scientists should be
sponsored for training in the national and international institutions where advanced research is going on in the
areas similar to the ones being tackled by the scientists of this Institute. For this, a programme will be chalked
out well in advance on specific the areas of research, duration of training, feasibility of incorporation of the
knowledge gained in their ongoing research projects at home, etc. The scientists will be sponsored for training

                                                        43
at the Institutes shown at item 9.3. Apart from scientists, technical and administrative personnel will also be
trained to improve their skills in technical and administrative fields.
L    Management of data base and germplasm conservation.
L    Use of Geographical Information System and remote sensing for germplasm conservation.
L    Use of modern biotechnological tools and protoplasm fusion technique.
L    Advance techniques in biochemistry.
L    Advance training in molecular biology for its utilization in physiological and microbial studies.
L    Cell culture technique.
L    Fermentation technology.
L    Advance computer skills.

12. RISKS ANALYSIS BASED ON SWOT

Crop Improvement
L    A large population of hybrids is required for proper selection failing which there is less possibility of
     getting the desired hybrids in mango, guava and other subtropical fruits.
L    The development of frost and PRSV resistant varieties of papaya largely depends upon successful transfer
     of the genes governing these characters from wild species. viz., C. candamarcensis and C. cauliflora.
     This will involve raising of large number of progenies through rescue of hybrid embryos. The hybrids may
     not be of immediate use because of poor fruit quality.
L    Back crossing with commercial cultivars having desirable qualities has to be done to get the desirable
     fruit qualities from them and at the same time it has to be ensured that the resistance to frost, papaya ring
     spot virus (PRSV) and papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCV) is not lost or diluted in the process of back
     crossing, the possibility of which cannot be completely ruled out.
L    Raising of healthy papaya germplasm is difficult due to approximately 95 per cent infestation of plants
     with PRSV viruses.

Crop Production
L    Natural climatic change such as rains, hailstorms, winds, epidemics of insect pests and diseases at the
     time of flowering and fruiting in mango are the risk factors.
L    Irregular bearing in mango may create problem in production plans.
L    The rootstocks selected for observational trials may not have desirable characters. This fact is usually
     revealed after a long period.
L    Since graft combinations show incompatibility reaction with regard to growth of the tree, the resistant
     rootstocks may show incompatibility with scions of various guava cultivars.

Crop Protection
L    Continuous and indiscriminate use of synthetic chemicals against pests/ diseases have been found to
     affect the environment adversely resulting in development of resistance against chemicals and destruction
     of ecofriendly biota.

                                                       44
L    There is an urgent need to minimize the use of chemicals and promote development of eco-friendly
     approaches to pest management.
L    There are chances that chemical management may not be effective due to development of resistance in
     the various pathogens. So alternatively resistance source and IPM may be useful and requires attention.

Postharvest Technology
L    Technologies developed at the Institute have to face tough competition with the private agencies who
     have better resources. Further, due to be globalization, stringent quality standards are to be maintained.

13. PROJECT REVIEW, REPORTING AND EVALUATION ARRANGEMENTS
     The working and progress of the projects will continue to be presented in the Staff Research Council
and Research Advisory Committee meetings of the Institute for review and evaluation. Suggestions made by
the above two committees will be incorporated in the projects. The results of the projects will be reported in
the Annual Reports of the Institute and published in research journals of repute. Quinquennial Review Team
constituted by ICAR will review the progress of the projects after every five years.

14. RESOURCE GENERATION
     Though the government has been providing budget for executing research programmes of the Institute
and increasing total outlay over the years, the resource crunch is being felt at all levels and it would not be
possible for the Government to meet the growing budgetary requirement of the Institute. In view of this, it is
necessary for the Institute to generate its own resources so that the programmes projected in the perspective
plan could be fully executed. The following areas have been identified for resource mobilization:
L    Utilizing farm area not covered by experiments for commercial cultivation.
L    Intercropping in planted area with annual crops and fruit crops.
L    Consultancy services to commercial agencies and hiring out instrumentation capacity to other institutions/
     organizations during lean period.
L    Boundary plantation with teak and silveroaks.
L    Revolving fund scheme for producing and selling elite plant material and bioagents.
L    Selling of orchard produce.
L    Selling products and varieties developed by the Institute.
L    Selling or contracting technologies developed.
L    Charging royalties/license fees on patented technologies.
L    Charging fee from Indian and foreign students and trainees.
L    Charging for diagnostic, analytical and other services rendered to companies and other clients.
L    Contracting and Collaborating research projects.
L    Charging for extension service rendered.


                                                       45
Revenue Generation
L   Sale of technologies
L   Consultancy
L   Fee on training
L   Contract research

Out put projections for future use
L   Conservation of germplasm of mandate crops and the data bank developed for the germplasm with
    desired traits could be utilized for need based varietal improvisation programmes.
L   Work on water use efficiency would offer valuable information on crop based water conservation quotient
    and consequently help in restoration of fast depleting water resources.
L   Canopy management with crop physiology studies would provide exhaustive database on photosynthetic
    efficiency with respect to fruiting pattern and yield. It may help in refining the techniques required for
    enhancing the crop yield.
L   Rejuvenation and meadow orcharding would augur well for developing a miniature farming model(s)
    owing to the shrinking space for farming caused by population pressure and urbanization.
L   Work on fertigation may offer a base line for multifarious usages besides minimizing the ground water
    pollution levels. It would also curtail the wasteful fertilizer consumption thereby saving the expenditure
    incurred on fertilizer subsidy.
L   Work on biocontrol agent too would have long-term and short-term impact both on public exchequer at
    large and agro-industrial economy in particular. An iota of information generated with respect to other
    features may also be utilized by various industries (pharmaceutical, chemical etc.).
L   Value added and processed products would usher a new era in agrarian economy by curtailing the
    postharvest losses.
L   Technology impact analysis would become an effective base line for plugging the loop holes and up
    scaling the technological innovations.
L   Market intelligence studies would be an effective tool in eliminating the middle men from the system and
    contain the distress sale besides carving out a niche in export market.

15. OUTCOME OF INSTITUTION WITH TRADE, INDUSTRIES AND FARMERS
L   The Institute has the worlds largest mango germplasm repository (727 accessions), representing cultivated/
    extinct varieties, land races and wild types in NAGS acquired through extensive/ intensive survey
    programmes undertaken in various agro-climatic zones of the country and germplasm exchange
    programmes from the other mango growing countries. The programme has led to conserve some of the
    rarest and unique germplasm on the verge of extinction. Further, it has also provided an added impetus
    to the varietal improvement programmes currently operative at various research centres located in different
    agro ecological zones of the country.
L   Institute has perfected and aggressively advocated superior veneer grafting technique, which has been
    adopted by more than 40 per cent of the nurserymen in U.P.

                                                     46
L   Ambika, a hybrid developed from a cross between Amrapali and Janardhan Pasand has been released
    for export market. Similarly, two other hybrids viz H-39 and H-949 have been developed with a view
    to overcome the problem of biennial bearing. Both the hybrids are regular bearers with the fruits having
    better shelf life. These hybrids are in great demand and Institute has supplied it to 12 different organizations.
L   Lalit, a selection of guava from Allahabad Safeda has been found to yield 24 per cent higher. This variety
    is in great demand as 125 organizations have acquired the material from the Institute for its further
    multiplication and popularization.
L   The Institute has so far supplied 248 accessions of mango to different research centres to facilitate their
    research programmes. Similarly in guava too, Institute has shared 52 of its accessions with other
    organizations for enriching their gene bank.
L   Institute has been able to identify a cultivar Elaichi which is found free from mango malformation.
L   Institute has developed a cultivar through a cross between Psidium guajava and P. molle which has
    been consistently performing exceptionally well against guava wilt.
L   Rejuvenation technology perfected by the Institute for reviving the production of old mango orchards
    prevalent throughout the mango belt, is another bright spot in the research achievements of the institute.
    Around 100 per cent increase in yield has been noticed in the rejuvenated orchards. Fifty persons have
    been trained by the institute for the various operative steps and intensive management schedule of the
    technology. Department of Horticulture, Government of U.P. has been continuously seeking the expert
    advice from the Institute in respect of this technology. Recently convinced by the technology, Government
    of U.P. has distributed power operated chain saw for pruning operations amongst 100 orchardists.
L   Institute has also probed and tackled biennial bearing problem with a convincing success level. Application
    of paclobutrazol in Chausa, Dashehari and Langra has been found to manage the biennial bearing. A
    significant percentage of orchardists of U.P. particularly in Saharnpur belt and Bihar have opted this
    technology.
L   Concomitant pruning of guava for maintaining the standard crop canopy for accommodating the large
    number of plants per unit area coupled with production of quality fruits during winter cropping season is
    also an important contribution. The technology has made a sweeping headway in Allahabad and Kausambi
    districts of U.P.
L   Forecasting model for the powdery mildew of mango and fungicidal spray schedule for its management
    worked out at this Institute has drastically curtailed down the expenditure used to be incurred by the
    mango orchardists of the mango belt around Malihabad. Orchardists, once used to innumerable and
    indiscriminate fungicidal spray of costly fungicides viz. Karathane and Calixin over the years, impressed
    by the technology of the Institute have switched over to single spray of low cost sulphur fungicides. This
    has resulted in saving of around 75 per cent of the cost of the chemicals used to be incurred by the
    growers before the advocacy of Institutes technology.
L   IPM technology for protection of mango from insect pests developed at the institute under NATP validation
    programme paid rich dividends and has been implemented in different districts of U.P. covering an area
    of around 58 ha by 112 farmers.
L   Jelly formation resulting in spoilage of mango quality has been efficiently managed by preharvest calcium
    spray technology perfected by the institute. Firmness with delayed ripening has been noticed in the
    treated fruits. Government of U.P. has opted for this technology and going to pursue the farmers for its
    adoption through its extension wing.

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16. EXPORT POTENTIAL AND MARKETABILITY OF RESEARCH OUTPUT AND ITS
    IMPACT IN WTO REGIME
L   Molecular markers developed by the institute for mango germplasm would help in resolving critical IPR
    issues pertaining to the accessions / varieties related to farmer / scientist.
L   GIS studies in respect of cultivar vis-à-vis climate response pertaining to varietal behaviour / suitability
    would help broadening the scope of cultivation and shorten the time consuming process of plantation /
    evaluation and subsequent recommendations for adoption of most valid/economical system.
L   Data base developed on physical / molecular characters would offer a base line for the workers involved
    in varietal development / improvement programme. Further, the data base would also have a market
    potential.
L   Base line information on microbes in respect of their specific features besides having a scientific value
    and utility in unravelling the variety of mechanism, would also have a marketable potential for various
    companies at national and international level.

17. UTILITY OF RESEARCH OUTCOME TO FARMERS AND END USERS
L   Survey, collection and conservation studies on germplasm would help in arresting the depletion of vast
    pool of germplasm of the country, provide basic information for future use and even would protect the
    researcher’s / farmer’s interest.
L   GIS tools related studies on crop specific cultivar behaviour would have direct impact on the income of
    farming community as some crop may come into off season bearing in certain specific location(s) and
    thus may fetch premium price.
L   Crop productivity and quality per unit area is bound to increase either through the development of
    improved varieties or canopy management.
L   Studies on fertigation usage and bioagent mediated technological interventions would in all likelihood
    impact the input use efficiency resulting in curtailment of input cost and commensurate increase in profit
    margin.
L   Farm mechanization too would cut down the time scale for agricultural operations thereby resulting in an
    economically profitable input-output quotient.
L   Development of value added / processed products in addition to profitable utilization of farm produce
    would also augur well for agro based industries.

18. ANTICIPATED CONSTRAINTS
L   Many difficulties may be faced in achieving the objectives of biotechnology programme because of the
    presence of phenolic compounds in mango and the problem of regeneration of plantlets in some other
    mandate fruits.
L   The farmers in general and the small and marginal farmers in particular are not using fertilizers to replenish
    the nutrients exhausted by the fruit trees, which might be resulting into low productivity.
L   The availability of assured irrigation is very important for fruit growth and development and this has
    become a limiting factor in some areas.
L   The fruit cultivation is highly dependent on nature and therefore, is a risky preposition.


                                                      48
L   Wide variation in temperature hampers flowering and fruit set, while dust storms cause excessive fruit
    drop and reduce productivity.
L   The use of excessive chemicals for producing fruits at the farmers’ fields is leaving residues, which is
    hazardous to human and animal wealth. This calls for development of integrated crop management
    systems. The international community has become highly conscious of hazardous nature of chemicals.
    Even the domestic policy planners have started thinking on hazard free products/commodities.
L   Development of organic production technology in farm as well as non-farm sector has become quite
    challenging. This needs to be addressed urgently so as to increase organic production rapidly with an
    annual growth rate of 20-25 per cent without adding to the cost and maintaining or even increasing the
    production over and above current level of technology.

19. SCIENTIFIC DIVISIONS
L   Division of Crop Improvement and Production
L   Division of Crop Protection
L   Division of Postharvest Management
L   Section of Social Sciences




                                                     49
  CENTRAL INSTITUTE FOR SUBTROPICAL HORTICULTURE
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