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									FILA Coaches Clinic
Tokyo November 2006



      Modern training of the
      physical and explosiv strength

          Prof. Dr. Harold Tünnemann
Modern training of the physical and explosiv strength



Each modification to the rules influences the structure of
performance and combat behaviour. Coaches and athletes
respond to these modifications of the structure of perfor-
mance with concrete goals for individual combat behaviour
and with corresponding training-methodological measures.
The current rules with their fundamental revaluation and
overemphasis of standard situations (lift techniques) do not
only demand concrete changes of strategy and tactics, but
they affect also to a particular degree the organisation of
general and specific training of maximum strength and of
speed strength.
From the point of view of speed strength training
   we focus on the following main points:

 Biological bases

 Methods and programmes

 Test and norm values

 Errors in strength training
                   Counselling system coach-athlete
                      Structure of performance

        strategy                 technique            physical condition
         tactics                   strength                 endurance
       behaviour                    skills                   energy


                          Structure of training
                       inventory of means of training

  technique/tactics       special strength        general strength /endurance


                          control of training and
                               competition

analysis of competition    test device training     tests     analysis of training
    Objectives and tasks of strength training

    Increase in muscle elasticity
    increase in active muscle mass and decrease
     in superfluous body fat
    improvement of posture and figure
    enhancement of physical fitness features, like strength,
     speed, endurance and flexibility

within a range of competitive sports, general strength training
   lays the foundation for varied and productive performance
   conditioning and
 sport-specific strength training lays the foundation
  for an increase in performance
Structure of muscle




   a   sceletal muscle
   b   muscle fibre bundle
   c   sceletal muscle fibre
   d   myofibril
              Structure of muscle
 By muscular diameter training the muscular diameter and
  the number of myofibrils and energy store are increased.
  This and other adjustment features of the organism to
  maximal und sub-maximal strength loads result in growth of
  the muscles. The more myofibrils may contract, the
  greater is the strength release.


 The share of muscle mass with women is 30 – 35%,
  with men 42 – 47%.
  By training of maximum strength and speed strength the share
  can be increased to well over 60%.
     Fibre types of sceletal muscle
 Human muscle contains a mixture of slow-twich-fibres (ST-
  fibres) with a slow contraction time and fast-twich-fibres (FT-
  fibres) which contract rapidly.
 The smaller ST-fibres are also referred to as red fibres because of
  their high content of myoglobin (red colour of muscle).
  They have many mitochondria, higher-than-average
  capillarization, low contraction strength, slow contraction speed
  and high resistance against fatigue.
  Important for endurance performances.
 The larger FT-fibres are referred to as white fibres and have a
  lower content of myoglobin. The have relatively extensive
  phosphate and glycogen depots , feature high strength and speed
  of contraction and get fatigued quickly (maximum strength
  performances).
 Fibre types of sceletal muscle
          Muskelfasertypen


         fast                     slow
       FTF/type II               STF/type I



glycolytic           oxydative   oxydative

                                        capillarization
                                        oxidative capacity
                                        stimulus threshold
                                        glycolitic capacity
                                        diameter
     Fibre types of sceletal muscle
According to their mode of energy supply FT-fibres are subdivided
 into FTG-fibres and FTO-fibres. The provision of energy in the
 FTG-fibres is predominantly glycolytic, energy-rich glycogen is
 split without the participation of oxygen.
 Energy in the FTO-fibres is mainly provided by the oxidative
 mode, glycogen and fats are broken down with the participation
 of oxygen.
The share of ST- and FT-fibres is individually different and can not
 be altered by training.
 On average each human being has 40% slow und 60% fast
 fibres.
Although distribution of ST- and FT-fibres in human beings is
 determined by heredity, the properties of fibres can adapt to specific
 stimuli. Conversion of FTO- fibres into FTG-fibres and vice-versa
 is possible.
Fibre types of sceletal muscle
                                               modified after Costill
 percentage
        of muscle fibres

                  reserve of fibres

                                      fibres


                                      fibres



                                 fibres
    Neuro-muscular processes




1    spinal marrow   4   motor nerve fibre
2    cytosome        5   sensory nerve fibre
    ( motoneuron)
3    spinal nerve    6   muscle
        Neuro-muscular processes
Muscles for delicate and precise movements (ocular or finger
 muscles) have motor units containing 8 - 50 muscle fibres, muscles
 for unrefined movements (calf muscle) have approximately 1,600
 muscle fibres
The all-or-nothing phenomenon rules the reaction of motor units.
 When the ventral horn cell transmits an impulse, either all the
 muscle fibres of the motor unit contract or none at all. The more
 powerful the resistance which needs to be overcome, the greater is
 the number of motor units which need to be involved in the
 movement.
Up to 25% of maximum strength motor units of the ST-fibres are
 activated, from 25% up those of the FT-fibres (fig. 4).
 Untrained can activate approx. 60% of the fibres at the same time,
 trained maximum strength athletes up to 85% of their motor units.
Energy metabolism
   Energy metabolism




Increased storage capacityof major energy suppliers
affected by strength training (in %)
        Energy metabolism
         12 years



         15 years


         > 17 years


         highly trained
         athletes

         strength athletes and
         weightlifters




Increased storage capacityof major energy suppliers
affected by strength training (in %)
Energy metabolism
                                modified after Howald
 performance

       Adenosine triphosphate
       Creatine phosphate
                    Glycogen
                    (anaerobic metabilism)



                        Glycogen
                       (aerobic metabilism)
                                   Energy metabolism
                                                                       modified after Rohmert

maximum time of elevation (min)




                                                       muscle vessel diametre




                                  power of elevation in % of muscle power
          Methods and programmes
               Development of maximum strength

By specific muscular diameter training the beginner is able to
increase his muscle mass by 3 kg within one year and the advanced
athlete by 2 kg. Because of their lower testosterone level women are
not able to reach these values..


       Sub-maximal tension repetition method
       This method results in increase of the diameter of muscle
       fibres.
                                        Methods and programmes
    Developement of strength capacity

                                                                          Strength capacity




                                        Starting value   1st cycle            2nd cycle
                                                                 Strength training
                                                                                  Training cycles

Development of maximum strength by increasing the muscular diameter
(repetitive sub-maximal tension method)
         Methods and programmes
 Kind of exercises, complex exercises, which contain free
  movements over several joints and over the full room to
  move, are preferred.
 Number of exercises, in order to increase the whole muscle
  mass, 3 to 4 complex exercises are carried out in one training
  unit. When the muscle is to grow, then the muscles with its
  main functions has to be affected by several exercises, i. e. the
  number of exercises increases, the number of series decreases.
 The resistance constitutes 80 to 90% of maximum strength
  capacity. The most effective resistance is considered to be
  85%.
          Methods and programmes

 Repetitions, repetitions during one series continue until the onset
  of temporary exhaustion of the neuro-muscular system. With a
  resistance of 80 to 90% 5 to 12 repetitions are carried out.
  Resistances of more than 90 % allow only 1 to 4 repetitions.
  Within a training session, with an average resistance of 80 to
  90% 35 to 85 repetitions and with 80 to 75% of maximum
  strength 70 to 110 repetitions are carried out.
  Because of training-caused development of performance the
  maximum strength performance of one exercise has to be
  determined time and again. If the performance capacity has to be
  stabilised one third of the repetitions is enough.
           Methods and programmes
In order to achieve radical depletion of the reserves of energy-rich
phosphate, and hence a maximum increase in muscular diameter
strength athletes train by the principle:
Each series is carried out to exhaustion of the neuro-muscular system
and then another 2 to 2 repetitions are obtained by sweat and tears.
Several processes are used to obtain other repetitions by sweat and
tears :
o Assisted repetitions (the training partner lends support with the
  extra repetitions),
o Cheated repetitions (the extra repetitions are carried out with faulty
  technique),
o Weight reduced repetitions (the extra weight is reduced slightly).
          Methods and programmes
 Exercising speed, slowly to explosively and briskly. Explosive
  and brisk speed produces speed strength effects. For extreme
  maximum strength training a slow execution of the exercise is
  recommended (long periods of tension).
 Number of series, muscle groups which recover slowly
  (leg extensor) are loaded with 5 to 10 series, quickly
  recovering muscle groups (arm extensor) with 7 to 12 series).
 Breaks, the minimum is one minute, the maximum 4 minutes.
  A complete recovery is not aimed at with the sub-maximal tension
  repetition method.
 Recovery phase, since for one muscle group 3 to 4 training ses-
  sions are necessary with 75 to 100 repetitions of 1 to 4 exercises
  (split system), a break of not less than 48 hours must be planned.
                   Methods and programmes
Sample programme IV
Participants:       advanced and                  Organisation:         set training
                    top-class athletes
Exercises:         using extra weight             Training      sub-maximal tension repetition
                                                                method
Set    Resistance               Programme/exercise
       in % to maximum          A) Arm flexion supine sit-up                   leg flexion
       strength ability         B) Bent support partial snatch                 leg extension



      Set 1   70               10 x )             10 x )             10 x )
      Set 2   85               7 x+n)             7 x+n)             7 x+n)
      Set 3   90               5 x+n) 1 - 2 min   5 x+n) 1 - 2 min   5 x+n) 2 – 4 min
      Set 4   90               5 x+n) break       5 x+n) break       5 x+n) break
      Set 5   85               6 x+n) between     6 x+n) between     6 x+n) between
      Set 6   85               6 x+n) the         6 x+n) the         6 x+n) the sets
      Set 7   85               6 x+n) series      6 x+n) series      6 x+n)
      Set 8   85               5 x+n)             5 x+n)             5 x+n
                           Trainingsmittel
Zusatz-    Maximalkraftleistung des Sportlers (kg)
last (%)
           30     35      40      45     50      55     60     65     70     75     80     85
  30       9,0    10,5    12,0    13,5   15,0    16,5   18,0   19,5   21,0   22,5   24,0   25,5
  35       10,5   12,5    14,0    16,0   17,5    19,5   21,0   23,0   24,5   26,5   28,0   30,0
  40       12,0   14,0    16,0    18,0   20,0    22,0   24,0   26,0   28,0   30,0   32,0   34,0
  45       13,5   16,0    18,0    20,5   22,5    25,0   27,0   29,5   31,5   34,0   36,0   38,5
  50       15,0   17,5    20,0    22,5   25,0    27,5   30,0   32,5   35,0   37,5   40,0   42,5
  55       16,5   19,5    22,0    25,0   27,5    30,5   33,0   36,0   38,5   41,5   44,0   47,0
  60       18,0   21,0    24,0    27,0   30,0    33,0   36,0   39,0   42,0   45,0   48,0   51,0
  65       19,5   23,0    26,0    29,5   32,5    36,0   39,0   42,5   45,5   49,0   52,0   55,5
  70       21,0   24,5    28,0    31,5   35,0    38,5   42,0   45,5   49,0   52,5   56,0   59,5
  75       22,5   26,5    30,0    34,0   37,5    41,5   45,0   49,0   52,5   56,5   60,0   64,0
  80       24,0   28,0    32,0    36,0   40,0    44,0   48,0   52,0   56,0   60,0   64,0   68,0
  85       25,5   30,0    34,0    38,5   42,5    47,0   51,0   55,5   59,5   64,0   68,0   72,5
  90       27,0   31,5    36,0    40,5   45,0    49,5   54,0   58,5   63,0   67,5   72,0   76,5
  95       28,5   33,5    38,0    43,0   47,5    52,5   57,0   62,0   66,5   71,5   76,0   81,0
                               Trainingsmittel
Zusatz-    Maximalkraftleistung des Sportlers (kg)
last (%)
              90        95      100       105         110     115     120     125     130     135
  30         27,0     28,5      30,0      31,5        33,0    34,5    36,0    37,5    39,5    40,5
  35         31,5     33,5      35,0      37,0        38,5    40,5    42,0    44,0    45,5    47,5
  40         36,0     38,0      40,0      42,0        44,0    46,0    48,0    50,0    52,0    54,0
  45         40,5     43,0      45,0      47,5        49,5    52,0    54,0    56,5    58,5    61,0
  50         45,0     47,5      50,0      52,5        55,0    57,5    60,0    62,5    65,0    67,5
  55         49,5     52,5      55,0      58,0        60,5    63,5    66,0    69,0    71,5    74,5
  60         54,0     57,0      60,0      63,0        66,0    69,0    72,0    75,0    78,0    81,0
  65         58,5     62,0      65,0      68,5        71,5    75,0    78,0    81,5    84,5    88,0
  70         63,0     66,5      70,0      73,5        77,0    80,5    84,0    87,5    91,0    94,5
  75         67,5     71,5      75,0      79,0        82,5    86,5    90,0    94,0    97,5   101,5
  80         72,0     76,0      80,0      84,0        88,0    92,0    96,0   110,0   104,0   108,0
  85         76,5     81,0      85,0      89,5        93,5    98,0   102,0   106,5   110,5   115,0
  90         81,0     85,5      90,0      94,5        99,0   103,5   108,0   112,5   117,0   121,5
  95         85,5     90,5      95,5     100,0       104,5   109,5   114,0   119,0   123,5   128,5
                Methods and programmes
Sample programme V:
Participants:           advanced/top-class athletes Training: using extra weight
Organisation:           station training
Trainingsmethode:       sub-maximal tension repetition method
Programme:                     The following muscles and/or muscle groups are developed by
                               the undermentioned exercises:
                              Arm flexor: Arm flexion with resting upper arms,
                                           free arm flexion at the sloping bench,
                                           arm flexion with overgrip
                         greater pectoral: sloping bench press positive,
                                           lateral arm raise over the trunk, pull-over
                        rectus abdominis: sit-ups in supine position; leg raises
The exercises are carried out one after the other in the following series:
Extra weight in relation to maximum strength
              Number of repetitions
                80%      +     85%     +    90%      +    85%     +   85%    +   85%
                 10 x        7x+n+3x       5x+n+2x       6x+n+2x      5x+n+2x    4x+n+1x
         Methods and programmes
Notes concerning sample programme V:
 The first definite number beneath the line constitutes the minimum
  demand on the athlete regarding repetitions, the second general number
  „n“, expresses the indefinite, personally conditioned number of repetitions
  leading to exhaustion, the third definite number indicates the assisted,
  resistive, cheated weight-reduced or partial repetitions aimed at.
 After the training a recovery phase of at least 48 hours has be be observed
  in order to guarantee the desired adjustment processes. However, during the
  recovery phase such exercises may be carried out that only little affect the
  muscles trained the day before
 Between the series and the stations as well as on completion of all
  stations appropriate stretching and loosening-up exercises are to be carried
  out.
                   Methods and programmes
Sample programme VI
Participants:       top-class athletes             Organisation:         Set training
Exercises:         with extra weight               Training:             sub-maximal tension
                                                                         repetition method

Set    Resistance               Programme/exercise
       in % to maximum          A) chins       supine sit-up              knee flexion
       strength ability         B) bench press rowing upright             leg flexion


      Set 1   70               10 x )              10 x )              10 x )
      Set 2   85               7 x+n)              7 x+n)              7 x+n)
      Set 3   90               5 x+n) 15 to 60 s   5 x+n) 15 to 60 s   5 x+n) 60 to 120 s
      Set 4   90               5 x+n) break        5 x+n) break-       5 x+n) break
      Set 5   85               6 x+n) between      6 x+n) between      6 x+n) between
      Set 6   85               6 x+n) the series   6 x+n) the series   6 x+n) the sets
      Set 7   85               6 x+n)              6 x+n)              6 x+n)
      Set 8   85               5 x+n)              5 x+n)              6 x+n
             Methods and programmes
Notes concerning sample programme VI:
 This extremely intensive programme serves the definition of the musculature with
  simultaneous moderate increase of the muscular diameter and the development of
  the endurance strength. It preferably used by strength athletes, who cannot train
  twice a day during the competition phase for lack of time. Moreover it promotes
  the purposeful development of strength of combative athletes.
 The first and second left-hand columns contain the number of the set
  and the required strength mobilization (%).
 The first definite number beneath the exercises constitutes the minimum
  demand regarding repetitions, the second general number „n“, expresses the
  indefinite, personally conditioned number of additional repetitions leading to
  exhaustion.
 The programmes (A and B) are carried out alternately. With four times training a
  week, programme A could be carried out on Monday and on Thursday, and
  programme B on Tuesday and on Friday.
 On completion of all stations a stretching and loosening-up programme
  is to be carried out.
       Methods and programmes
Intra-muscular coordination training aims at increasing
maximum strength by improving intra-muscular coordination.


       Short-term maximum tension method
       This method requires a lower muscular performance
       and a lower energy consumption. Exhaustion does not
       occur. That is a good condition for the development of
       neuro-muscular processes. The number of synchronously
       working motor units increases from approximately 60%
       (beginners) to 85% (advanced athletes).
                                       Methods and programmes
   Developement of strength capacity



                                                                          Strength capacity




                                       Starting value   1st cycle            2nd cycle
                                                                Strength training
                                                                                 Training cycles

Development of maximum strength by improving intra-muscular coordination
(short-term maximum tension method)
                 Methods and programmes
Sample programme VII:
Participants:            advanced/top-class athletes       Exercises: with extra weight
Organisation:           station training
Training:               short-term maximum tension method
Programme:               The exercises

                        A) chins, supine sit-up, heel raise as well as
                        B) bench press, half-snatching and knee bends

                         are united in partial programmes.


The exercises are carried out alternately in the following series:
Extra weight in relation to maximum strength ability          =

            number of series and repetitions
                 90%     +     95%       +     100%    +     90%     +   95%    +   90%
                3+3           2+2              1+1           3+3          2         2+2
       Methods and programmes
Combination training aims to increase muscular diameter and to
improve intra-muscular coordination simultaneously.


       Combination Method
       The combination method combines the sub-maximal tension
       repetition method and the short-term maximum tension
       method. With that stimuli for the muscular diameter training
       as well as for intra-muscular coordination become effective.
       The stimuli may be established to be of different value for
       the two components of strength capacity.
                                            Methods and programmes
        Developement of strength capacity

                                                              Strength capacity




                                     1st cycle           2nd cycle
                                             Starting value
                                         Strength training
                                                             Training cycles
Developing the maximum strength by increasing muscular diameter and by
improving intra-muscular coordination (combining the method of repetitive sub-
maximal tension and that of short-term maximum tensions)
                    Methods and programmes
Sample programme VIII – Developing maximum strength
Participants:        advanced/top-class athletes   Organisation:   set training
Exercises:           with extra weight             Method:         combination method
Set     resistance             programme/exercise
         in % to maximum     A) chins        supine                        leg extension
         strength                             sit-up                       in knee joint
                              B) bench press       prone sit-up            leg flexion
Set 1      70        8x                 120 s      8x              120 s      8x
Set 2      85        7x+1               break      7x+1            break      7x+1
Set 3      95        2x                            2x                         2x
Set 4      90        6s                            6s                         6s         after
           isome-                       180 to                     180 to                each
           tric                         240 s                      240 s                  set
Set 5      90        6s                 break      6s              break                 180-240s
           isome-                                                                        break
           tric
Set 6      85        6x+n               120 s      6x+n            120 s      6x+n
Set 7      85        6x+n               break      6x+n            break      6x+n
           Methods and programmes
Pyramid training is an important system to develop both components
of maximum strength.
 Simple pyramid training, within station training, implies that the
  resistance used increases in each series, while the number series
  and repetitions decreases (sample programme IX a).
 Double pyramid, the pyramid is divided into two smaller
  pyramids each of which contains only roughly half the series of the
  entire pyramid. Athletes first pass through the initial partial system
  from bottom to top (progressively) and then negotiate the second
  system from top to bottom (regressively) (see sample progr. IX b).
 Progressive and regressive pyramid system, athletes rapidly
  ascend from one side (progressively) to reach the high and
  stimulating resistance and, once at the top descend (regressively).
                Methods and programmes
Sample programme IX :
Participants:       advanced/top-class athletes     Exercises: with extra weight
Organisation:       station training (pyramid training)
Method:             combination method
Programme a:        bench press, supine sit-up and
                    knee bends are carried out as follows:
Resistance in % to maximum strength                       series and repetitions

Series 10                                                 1
100 %
Series 8 - 9                                   2          +        2
95 %
Series 5 - 7                        3          +          3        +         3
90 %
Series 1 - 4              6(+n)     +       6(+n)         +        6(+n)     +     6(+n)
85 %
               Methods and programmes
Sample programme IX :
Programme b:     bench press, supine sit-up and
                 knee bends are carried out as follows:
Resistance in % to maximum strength                       Series and repetitions

Series 11+12                                  6(+n)       +        6(+n)
85 %
Series 9+10                                     3         +        3
90 %
Series 8                                                  2
95 %
Series 7                                                  1
100%
Series 6                                                  1
100%
Series 5                                                  2
95%
Series 3+4                                      3         +        3
90%
Series 1+2                                    6(+n)       +        6(+n)
85%
           Methods and programmes
             SPEED-STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT
Methods of speed-strength development are above all employed in
order to perfect inter-muscular coordination, i. e. the interplay of
muscles so that individual movements and sports techniques may be
completed precisely, fluently and efficiently. This enables the athlete
to transform the basic potential acquired by maximum strength
training into speed-strength movements. In principle speed strength
capacity is tied to sport specific courses of movements.
       Low to average tension repetition method
       Ballistic method
       Contrast method
         Methods and programmes
 Resistances. As a rule, dynamic exercises are performed with
  the following resistances:
       85%          of maximum strength 1 to 3 repetitions
       80 to 85% of maximum strength 3 to 5 repetitions
       70 to 80% of maximum strength 5 to 8 repetitions
       and < 70% of maximum strength 8 to 15 repetitions
  In static exercises the sub-maximal to maximal isometric
  contraction lasts 0.3 to 0.8 s.
 Exercising speed, in free speed-strength training each repetition
  should start explosively and continue at the highest possible
  speed.
               Basic model inventory of means of training
                    Means of training                                                task
                            competition                                       WK      -
                            training competition                              TWK     -




                    KOKA
                            complexe combat control/exhaustion                KKA     -
                            KKA
                            complex combat control / interval                 KKI     -
                            complex combat control / speed                    KKS     -
                                          KOKA                                TU      -
                            created training bout                              KTK    -
                            KTK                                                       -
                    BEKA
                            bout exercise / osition                           KÜP
                            bout exercise / situation                         KÜS     -
                            technico-tactical wrestling                       TTR     -
                            technico-tactical variability                     TTV     -
                                           BEKA                               TU      -
                    T       technique - tactics / perfection                  TTS     -
                    SPEBA




                    U       technique - tactics / stabilization               TTF     -
                    BE technique - tactics / learning                         TTE
                                                                                      -
                    KA       SPEBA                                            TU      -
                                        maximum strength                      MK      -
                                        maximum strength endurance            MKA     -
General
                            strength




                                        speed strength / explosive strength   SK      -
basic skills                            speed strength endurance              SKA     -
                                        strength endurance                    KA      -
strength
                    ALBA




                                        STRENGTH                              TU      -
                            K           aerobic endurance                     AEA     -
                            endurance




                            R           anaerobic endurance                   ANA     -
                            A exhaustion ability                              ABA     -
                            F endurance                                       TU      -
                            T flexibility TU                                  BWK     -
                                coordination TU                               KOO     -
                    Number training sessions
                                  Koordination                                TE      -
                    duration of training in min.                              TU      -
                    Recovery                           TU                     WHS     -
                 Strength programmes wrestling

           maximum strength                      MK
           maximum strength endurance            MKA
strength




           speed strength / explosive strength   SK
           speed strength endurance              SKA
           strength endurance                    KA

           STRENGTH                              TU
K
Methods and programmes
Training programme: D 1 General basic skills (ALBA) / maximum strength ( MK 1 )

Goal: Development of general and targeted maximum strength


Training:                 Tension repetition method until exhaustion

Duration:                 90 minutes

Load:                     sub maximal

Organisation:             set training

Control:                  exact realization of technique, number n, heart rate


Pre-load:                 30 minutes (20 min allgemeine, 10 min spezielle Vorbelastung)

Afterload:                20 stretching, sauna etc.


 sets      exercise examples   intensity       repetitions         realization       breaks          muscle
                                                                                                   contraction
           half-lifting          60   %           10 x                                1   min
 Set 1     knee-bend             60   %           10 x               speedy           1   min        auxotonic
           clean                 60   %           10 x                                3   min
           half-lifting          80   %           7+n                                 1   min
 Set 2     knee-bend             80   %           7+n                  fast           1   min        auxotonic
           clean                 80   %           7+n                                 3   min
           half-lifting          85   %           7+n                                 1   min
 Set 3     knee-bend             85   %           7+n                  fast           1   min        auxotonic
           clean                 85   %           7+n                                 3   min
           half-lifting          90   %           5+n                                 1   min
 Set 4     knee-bend             90   %           5+n                  fast           1   min        auxotonic
           clean                 90   %           5+n                                 3   min
           half-lifting          90   %           5+n                                 1   min
 Set 5     knee-bend             90   %           5+n                  fast           1   min        auxotonic
           clean                 90   %           5+n                                 3   min
           half-lifting          85   %           5+n                                 1   min
 Set 6     knee-bend             85   %           5+n                  fast           1   min        auxotonic
           clean                 85   %           5+n                                 3   min
           half-lifting          80   %           5+n                                 1   min
 Set 7     knee-bend             80   %           5+n                  fast           1   min        auxotonic
           clean                 80   %           5+n                                 3   min

Methodical recommendations:        Knee bend with support and only up to right angle (90°), upper part of
                                   the body remains upright during exercise. Half-lifting only with arms, i. e.
                                   upper part of body is not lifted ( angle board is recommendable for the
                                   exercise). Command of technique is condition of realization.
             Special programme speed strength
•    Goal:               development of wrestling-specific speed strength
•    Training:           tension repetition method
•    Duration:                 90 minutes
•    Load:                     sub-maximal
•    Organisation:             set training
•    Supervision:        exact realization of techniques, break off when loss in
                         quality
•    Pre-loading:              20 minutes (10 min general, 10 min special pre-loading)
•    Afterload:                 20 min stretching, loosening-up, sauna

    sets            exercise         intensity    repetitions   realization   breaks
                    lift                             3x           speedy      1 min
                gut wrench           maximum
    1.set                                            3x           speedy      2 min
                take down             speed
                                                     3x           speedy      3 min
                    lift                             3x           speedy      1 min
                                     maximum
    2.set       gut wrench                           3x           speedy      2 min
                take down             speed
                                                     3x           speedy      3 min
                    lift                             3x           speedy      1 min
                gut wrench           maximum
    3.set                                            3x           speedy      2 min
                take down             speed
                                                     3x           speedy      3 min
                    lift                             3x           speedy      1 min
                gut wrench           maximum
    4.set                                            3x           speedy      2 min
                take down             speed
                                                     3x           speedy      3 min
                    lift                             3x           speedy      1 min
                gut wrench           maximum
    5.set                                            3x           speedy      2 min
                take down             speed
                                                     3x           speedy      3 min
                    lift                             3x           speedy      1 min
                                     maximum
    6.set       gut wrench                           3x           speedy      2 min
                take down             speed
                                                     3x           speedy      3 min
           Messgeber     Messplatz / Rollsimulator




                                    Newtonmeter




                         Leistung
                          (Nm)
                       500
                       450
                       400                                      Messwerterfassung
                       350
                       300                                      und - verarbeitung
                       250

                                             Zeit (sec.) Zeit




+
-
    Transformator
Test device training wrestling / Maximum strength programme



Training programme D 1 special basic skills ( ALBA) / maximum strength ( MK 3 )
Goal    :              development of tied to technique maximum strength with
                       gut wrench machine
Training:              short-time maximum tension method
Duration:              90 minutes
Load:                  sub-maximal to maximal
Organisation:          set training
Supervision:            reaching the individual maximum performance with exact technique

Pre-loading:           20 minutes (10 min general, 10 min special)
Afterload:             20 stretching, sauna etc.
             Maximum strength ( MK 3 )
          Maximum strength programme / gut wrench machine


                                                                                          muscle
 Sätze    exercise examp.    Intensity     Repetitions       Realisation      Breaks      contraction
  Set 1   gut wrench left     70 %             1x              speedy         1 min         auxotonic
          gut wrench right    70 %             1x              speedy         2 min         auxotonic
  Set 2   gut wrench left     80 %             1x              speedy         1 min         auxotonic
          gut wrench right    80 %             1x              speedy         2 min         auxotonic
  Set 3   gut wrench left     90 %             1x              speedy         1 min         auxotonic
          gut wrench right    90 %             1x              speedy         2 min         auxotonic
  Set 4   gut wrench left    100 %             1x               slow          1 min         isometric
          gut wrench right   100 %             1x               slow          3 min         isometric
  Set 5   gut wrench left    100 %             1x               slow          1 min         isometric
          gut wrench right   100 %             1x               slow          3 min         isometric
  Set 6   gut wrench left     90 %             1x              speedy         1 min         auxotonic
          gut wrench right    90 %             1x              speedy         2 min         auxotonic
  Set 7   gut wrench left     85 %             1x              speedy         1 min         auxotonic
          gut wrench right    85 %             1x              speedy         2 min         auxotonic
  Set 8   gut wrench left     80 %             1x              speedy         1 min         auxotonic
          gut wrench right    80 %             1x              speedy         2 min         auxotonic
  Set 9   gut wrench left     75 %             1x              speedy         1 min         auxotonic
          gut wrench right    75 %             1x              speedy         2 min         auxotonic
 Set 10   gut wrench left     70 %             1x              speedy         1 min         auxotonic
          gut wrench right    70 %             1x              speedy         2 min         auxotonic

Methodical hint: The realisation of the gut wrench has to be completed without standing-up with the
                 dummy.
Strength test wrestling
Standard values strength capacities                                     Seniors               Jul 00



     maximum strength
     weight categories (kg)          55          60      66      74         84      96      120

     bench press                    110          115     125     130       137,5    160     170

     half-snatching                 105          110     120     125        130     140     150

     clean                          105          110     120     125        130     170     150

     knee bend                      150          160     180     190        200     210     220


     speed strength             8 repetitions

                   sec
     bench press                      6          6,5     6,8     6,8         7       7      7,5
                   sec
     half-snatching                  6,5         5,5     5,8     5,8        6,1     6,3     6,6

     3 standing long jumps m       8.00m        8.10m   8.30m   8.50m      8.80m   8.80m   8.50m


     strength endurance capacities/extra weight = 75% of weight category ( 130kg = 85kg)
     ( in 45 seconds number )

     half-snatching                 50x          48x     47x     46x        46x     45x     44x

     bench press                    49x          45x     43x     43x        42x     41x     40x
        Maximum strength endurance (MKA 1)
               Programme to develop special maximum strength endurance



Sets      Station        Intensity   Repetitions   Realization     Muscle    Breaks
                                                                 contraction

        gut wrench m.      60%           2X          speedy       auxotonic   1 min
Set 1     half-lifting     60%       max. number       fast       auxotonic   1 min
        throw. dumm.        wc       max. number       fast       auxotonic   1 min
          hand ergo        70%       max. number       fast       auxotonic   3min
        gut wrench m.      70%           2X          speedy       auxotonic   1 min
Set 2     half-lifting     60%       max. number       fast       auxotonic   1 min
        throw. dumm.        wc       max. number       fast       auxotonic   1 min
          hand ergo        75%       max. number       fast       auxotonic   3min
        gut wrench m.     100%           2X           static      isometric   1 min
Set 3     half-lifting     70%       max. number       fast       auxotonic   1 min
        throw. dumm.        wc       max. number       fast       auxotonic   1 min
          hand ergo        75%       max. number       fast       auxotonic   3min
        gut wrench m.     100%           2X           static      isometric   1 min
Set 4     half-lifting     70%       max. number       fast       auxotonic   1 min
        throw. dumm.        wc       max. number       fast       auxotonic   1 min
          hand ergo        80%       max. number       fast       auxotonic   3min
        gut wrench m.      90%           2X          speedy       auxotonic   1 min
Set 5     half-lifting     70%       max. number       fast       auxotonic   1 min
        throw. dumm.        wc       max. number       fast       auxotonic   1 min
          hand ergo        80%         max. v          fast       auxotonic   3min
        gut wrench m.      80%           2X          speedy       auxotonic   1 min
Set 6     half-lifting     70%       max. number       fast       auxotonic   1 min
        throw. dumm.        wc       max. number       fast       auxotonic   1 min
          hand ergo        70%       max. number       fast       auxotonic   3min
Faults in strength training


1. in organisation
2. in methodology
3. in technique
Faults in the organisation of training
 • Form of Training
 • Faulty planning of cyclization (MIKRO -;
   MESO-; Makro cycles )
 • Configuration of equipment
 • Insufficient means of training
 • Course of training
 • Mental preparation and analysis
 • Pre-loading and afterload
 • Organisation of motivation impetus
    Observation of the rules in strength
                 training
•   Order in the strength room
•   Security of the equipment
•   Scrupulousness when handling free weights
•   Train with dumbbell locks
•   Security position for maximum ranges and for
    exercises with resistive muscle work
Faults in methodology of training

•   Ineffective programmes
• Faulty training methods
• Insufficient stretching
• Generally faulty loading
• Development of muscular dysbalances
• Faulty strength training in adolescence
    Faulty training methods:

-      Method of maximum resistances in
       adolescence
-      Speed-strength training after endurance
-      Insufficient recovery phase
Insufficient stretching:
- Strength training results in shortening of the
  musculature
- Shortened musculature is less effective
- Minimization of coordinative and technical
  performance capacity
- Increase of risk of injury
- Minimization of recovery
  (permanent tensions)
- Negative psychic regulation (attitude towards
  training, increase in load)
Development of muscular dysbalances:
Muscular dysbalances arise from unproportional development of
strength and shortening of the „exercising musculature“ and by
weakening of their antagonists. They arise from one-sided sequence
of movements (one-sided strength training).
Consequence: faulty loading of the joint functions and disturbed
stereotypes of sequence of movements, no optimal interplay of
individual muscle groups during the movement and the succession of
their contraction, changes of function in joints and muscles have
negative influences on cardiovascular parameters as well as on the
central nervous system
Result: Reduced performance capacity, tenseness, general
headaches, indisposition, damages in joints including vertebral
damages
Strength training in childhood and adolescence
- Until puberty practise only with own body weight and
  low extra weights (medicine balls)
- Comprehensive learning of technique, attention to
  easing the burden on the vertebral column (during the
  growth period there is a higher damage risk [for
  Scheuermann‘s disease])
- During puberty locomotor system particularly endan-
  gered – practise maintaining (epiphysial cartilages!)
- After puberty high rates of increase in strength possible
Faults in technical realization of the exercises

• technique training with too high
  weights
• abnormal position of body posture
• abnormal position of spinal column
• faulty breathing technique
• tonic neck reflex
• faults in application of technique
Causes of damages of the spinal column
- poor and faulty technique
- non-observation of phases of load and
  recovery
- wrong selection of exercises
- poor use of additional devices
- general faulty loading
Easing the burden on the spinal column
Breathing with strength training

- During the exercise breath should not be held
- Beginners should breathe in and breathe out during the exercise
- If possible breathing should always be powerful
- No maximum inhalation before (unnecessary increase of inner
  pressure of thoracic cage )
- Harmony between breath and movement
- Hyperventilation with isometric exercises
- Short-time forced respiration during expulsion during high load
  peaks possible
Bench press with methodical recommendations
                                                           squat
                                      control




                barbell to breast


                     wrists
                                    Lifting the pelvis




Extending the                                            cross legs
arms
 Compression strength




Strength effect
on the lumbar vertebrae
when lifting a 50 kg
barbell with
different technique
System of balances with knee-bend



                                             wrong!
       correct




    F2= 1005 x 15 = 300kg              F2 = 1005x 20 = 400kg

                              F2
                             300kg
                                                                F2
                                                               400kg
Load x load arm = power x power arm ( F1 x l 1 = F2 x l 2)
Work with a check list
• Strengthen the body musculature, the back extensor and
  stomach muscles
• Make sure that the athletes have enough experience in
  strength training
• Make use of strength devices before using free devices
• Teach correct lever techniques, watch the execution of
  movements and correct
• Start with low weights
• Make use of lifter belts, upholsteries and supports
• Teach the correct breathing technique
• Pay attention to the equipment of the strength room
• Organize optimum pre-loading and afterload

								
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