Unit 6: The Industrial
The Find Out Questions
1. What was the Industrial Revolution and why
did it begin in England?
2. What were some of the important scientific and
technological inventions of the Industrial
3. How did the Industrial Revolution affect the
way people worked, lived, and organized
4. What were the effects of the Industrial
Revolution on countries in Europe? How about
in the United States and Japan?
• 12.1 will help you answer FOQ#1.
• 12.2 and 12.3 will help you answer
• 12.3 and 12.4 will help you answer
• 12.3 will help you answer FOQ#4.
The Agricultural Revolution
• During the 1700’s, changes occurred in Europe
that allowed food to be produced more efficiently
• Less and less people were required to grow
• Soon, this surplus of food increased the
population in Europe (England especially) but
also created a huge amount of unemployment.
What would people do for work?
FOQ#1:What was the Industrial
Revolution and why did it begin in
• England had a lot of small industry during the
• Wool was the major material used in industry,
but soon cotton took over as the most important
raw material that would transform industry in
• England also had a lot of other reasons why it
was the first to industrialize.
• Read pages 379-380 to list other reasons why
England was first to become an
industrialized nation. (Homework #1)
What was the Industrial
• A change in the way people worked.
• A change in where and how people lived.
• A time of great technological innovation.
Early Coal Mining
What to Learn More?
FOQ#2: What were some of the
important scientific and
technological inventions of the
• Many of the inventions of the Industrial
Revolution were created for many reasons.
• One reason was for the search for the most
efficient way of doing business.
• Another reason was for necessity as cities grew
and required a change in the way people lived.
Important Invention Groups
• Inventions for making textile production
more efficient were very popular.
• Inventions for mechanical energy were
very important in transforming the
• Inventions for the process of making
metal allowed a great deal of things to be
• Inventions in transportation and
communication made Europe and the
world a much smaller place.
The Invention Project
• Groups of (4) will be chosen.
• Each group will be assigned four
inventions, research that invention, and
then create a poster that gives specific
• Groups will create a project that gives a
detailed summary of their invention,
including the importance of the invention,
and provides pictures of the inventions.
• Groups will present their projects to the
FOQ#3: How did the Industrial
Revolution affect the way
people worked, lived, and
How did people work during the
• Because of the changes brought on by the
Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions,
there was a shift in what people did for
– Fewer people were needed in farming.
– More people were needed in the factories,
mines, transportation, and in businesses that
supported a growing urban population.
How did people live during the
• Most of the rural populations abandoned
their lives and moved to cities.
– They did this mainly because of the need to
• Changing their way of life was difficult for
the majority of urban workers.
– They continued to try and live like they did in
the country. This plus badly planned cities led
to horrible disease, filth, and overcrowding.
How did they live? (con’t)
• The working class did have a rough time
creating a comfortable life.
– They were required to work long hours for little pay
and live in very nasty and dirty neighborhoods.
• The middle class was different.
– They enjoyed a better life compared to the working
• Homework #2: Read pages 388-392 and
identify specific examples of how the
working class and middle class lived.
How did people organize
themselves during the Industrial
• Because of the disadvantages of society
for the working class, many tried to
improve life for the working class.
– Workers began to organize themselves into
groups called labor unions.
– The purpose of the unions was to give
collective power to the poorly educated
workers against middle class factory owners
and governments that did not seem to care
about them. Read page 392 and check out
FOQ#4: What were the effects
of the Industrial Revolution
on countries in Europe? How
about in the United States
What happened in the rest of
• It took the rest of Europe 30 years to begin
to catch up with Great Britain.
– Why was continental Europe so far behind?
• Soon, European governments began to
get organized, supported business, and
began to build railroads and other
important transportation links to aide
What happened in the United
• The United States was quick to
industrialize starting in the early 1800s.
• Textiles, steel, and other manufacturing
businesses began to grow in the eastern
part of the United States.
• It wasn’t until the end of World War Two
when the entire country industrialized.
What happened in Japan?
• In the late 1800’s, the Japanese realized
that they had to industrialize or be
swallowed up by technologically superior
• By the early 1900’s Japan had
transformed itself into an industrialized
nation and began to dominate neighboring
countries like Korea and China.
• Japan even fought a war against