Digest of Education Statistics, 2001 by DeptEdu

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 34

									CHAPTER 4
Federal Programs for Education and Related Activities
   This chapter provides a summary of federal funds        1985 and 2001. Postsecondary education decreased
for education to help describe the magnitude of the        by 25 percent between 1980 and 1985 and then de-
federal fiscal effort and give some indication of the      clined 10 percent between 1985 and 2001. Between
scope and variety of the education programs. Data in       1985 and 2001, other education rose by 86 percent,
this chapter reflect outlays and obligations of federal    and research by 69 percent, after adjustment for in-
agencies. These tabulations differ from federal re-        flation (table 362).
ceipts reported in other chapters because of numer-           Off-budget support and nonfederal funds gen-
ous variations in the data collection systems. Federal     erated by federal legislation showed an increase in
dollars are not necessarily spent by recipient institu-    real dollars between FY 1980 and FY 2001 (256 per-
tions in the same year they are appropriated. In           cent), but there were significant fluctuations through-
some cases, institutions cannot identify the source of     out the period. These amounts tend to fluctuate be-
federal revenues because they flow through state           cause of changes in interest rates and program legis-
agencies. Some types of revenues, such as tuition          lation which affect the number and volume of student
and fees, are reported as revenues from students           loans. Between FY 1990 and FY 2001, these same
even though they may be supported by federal stu-          funds showed an increase of 141 percent (table
dent aid programs. Some institutions that receive          362).
federal education funds are not included in regular           According to FY 2001 estimates, $36.8 billion or
surveys conducted by the National Center for Edu-          about 40 percent of the $92.8 billion spent by the
cation Statistics. Thus, the revenue data tabulated in     federal government on education came from the U.S.
this chapter are not comparable with figures reported      Department of Education. Large amounts of money
in other chapters. Readers should be careful about         also came from the U.S. Department of Health and
comparing data on obligations shown in some tables         Human Services ($19.5 billion), the U.S. Department
with data on outlays and appropriations appearing in       of Agriculture ($11.0 billion), the U.S. Department of
others.                                                    Labor ($5.6 billion), the U.S. Department of Defense
   Federal on-budget funding for education showed          ($4.5 billion), and the U.S. Department of Energy
sizable growth between fiscal years (FYs) 1965 and         ($3.5 billion) (table 363).
2001, after adjustment for inflation. Particularly large      Fiscal year 2001 estimates call for federal program
increases occurred between 1965 and 1975. After a          funds for elementary and secondary education to be
slight increase from 1975 to 1980, there was a sub-        $48.7 billion; for postsecondary education, $15.3 bil-
stantial decrease from 1980 to 1985 (16 percent).          lion; for research at universities and related institu-
Thereafter, federal on-budget funding for education        tions, $22.8 billion; and for other programs, $6.0 bil-
generally increased, showing a rise of 56 percent          lion (table 364).
from 1985 to 2001, after adjustment for inflation             Almost 60 percent of total federal education sup-
(table 362).                                               port, excluding estimated federal tax expenditures,
   During the 1965 to 1975 period, after adjustment        went to educational institutions in FY 2001. Another
for inflation, federal funds for elementary and sec-       20 percent was used for student support. Banks and
ondary education rose by 207 percent, postsec-             other lending agencies received 6 percent, and all
ondary education by 259 percent, other education by        other recipients, including libraries, museums, and
141 percent, and research at educational institutions      federal institutions, received almost 15 percent (table
by 6 percent. Between 1975 and 1980, federal fund-         365).
ing for elementary and secondary education in-                Between FYs 1990 and 2001, U.S. Department of
creased by 2 percent and research by 15 percent,           Education obligations rose 46 percent, after adjust-
but postsecondary education decreased slightly by 2        ment for inflation. Funds for student financial assist-
percent and other education decreased by 35 per-           ance increased by $2.0 billion in 2001, a rise of 13
cent. After declining 21 percent between 1980 and          percent since 1990. Funds for elementary and sec-
1985, federal funding for elementary and secondary         ondary education were an estimated $16.4 billion in
education programs rose by 89 percent between              2001, an increase of 74 percent since 1990, after ad-
                                                                                                              409
410 FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES



justment for inflation. Funds for the handicapped in-                    1890 Second Morrill Act provided for money grants
creased by 101 percent, to $9.2 billion, and funds for                         for support of instruction in the agricultural
vocational and adult education increased 22 percent,                           and mechanical colleges.
after adjustment for inflation (table 37 in chapter 1
and table 366).                                                          1911 State Marine School Act authorized federal
   Of the $36.8 billion spent by the U.S. Department                           funds to be used for the benefit of any nau-
of Education in FY 2001, about $17.6 billion went to                           tical school in any of 11 specified state sea-
school districts, $6.1 billion to institutions of higher                       port cities.
education, $6.2 billion to college students, and $4.9                    1917 Smith-Hughes Act provided for grants to states
billion to state education agencies. A portion of the                          for support of vocational education.
remaining $1.9 billion went to banks to subsidize stu-
dent loans (table 367).                                                  1918 Vocational Rehabilitation Act provided for
   Thirty-three percent of public elementary and sec-                          grants for rehabilitation through training of
ondary school students received publicly funded free                           World War I veterans.
or reduced-price lunches in 1993–94. At public ele-
                                                                         1919 An Act to Provide for Further Educational Fa-
mentary schools, the participation rate was 39 per-
                                                                               cilities authorized the sale by the federal gov-
cent compared with 22 percent for public secondary
                                                                               ernment of surplus machine tools to edu-
schools (table 375).
                                                                               cational institutions at 15 percent of acquisi-
   About 13 percent of all elementary and secondary
                                                                               tion cost.
school children received Title I services in 1993–94.
Federally sponsored Title I programs are designed to                     1920 Smith-Bankhead Act authorized grants to
improve student achievement, particularly for children                         states for vocational rehabilitation programs.
in schools with high concentrations of poverty. Chil-
dren in rural areas (13 percent) and central cities (17                  1935 Bankhead-Jones Act (Public Law 74–182) au-
percent) were more likely to receive services than                             thorized grants to states for agricultural ex-
those in suburban areas (9 percent) (table 376).                               periment stations.

Federal Education Legislation                                                 Agricultural Adjustment Act (Public Law 74–
                                                                               320) authorized 30 percent of the annual cus-
  A capsule view of the history of federal education                           toms receipts to be used to encourage the
activities is provided in the following list of selected                       exportation and domestic consumption of ag-
legislation:                                                                   ricultural commodities. Commodities pur-
1787 Northwest Ordinance authorized land grants for                            chased under this authorization began to be
      the establishment of educational institutions.                           used in school lunch programs in 1936. The
                                                                               National School Lunch Act of 1946 continued
1802 An Act Fixing the Military Peace Establishment                            and expanded this assistance.
      of the United States established the U.S. Mili-
      tary Academy. (The U.S. Naval Academy was                          1936 An Act to Further the Development and Mainte-
      established in 1845 by the Secretary of the                              nance of an Adequate and Well-Balanced
      Navy.)                                                                   American Merchant Marine (Public Law 74–
                                                                               415) established the U.S. Merchant Marine
1862 First Morrill Act authorized public land grants to
                                                                               Academy.
       the states for the establishment and mainte-
       nance of agricultural and mechanical col-                         1937 National Cancer Institute Act established the
       leges.                                                                  Public Health Service fellowship program.
1867 Department of Education Act authorized the es-                      1941 Amendment to Lanham Act of 1940 authorized
      tablishment of the U.S. Department of Edu-                               federal aid for construction, maintenance, and
      cation.*                                                                 operation of schools in federally impacted
1876 Appropriation Act, U.S. Department of the                                 areas. Such assistance was continued under
      Treasury, established the U.S. Coast Guard                               Public Law 815 and Public Law 874, 81st
      Academy.                                                                 Congress, in 1950.
                                                                         1943 Vocational Rehabilitation Act (Public Law 78–
* The U.S. Department of Education as established in 1867 was
later known as the Office of Education. In 1980, under Public Law              16) provided assistance to disabled veterans.
96–88, it became a cabinet-level department. Therefore, for pur-
poses of consistency, it is referred to as the ‘‘U.S. Department of           School Lunch Indemnity Plan (Public Law 78–
Education’’ even in those tables covering years when it was officially         129) provided funds for local lunch food pur-
the Office of Education.                                                       chases.
                                                  FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES 411



1944 Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (Public Law            1958 National Defense Education Act (Public Law
      78–346) known as the GI Bill, provided as-                85–864) provided assistance to state and
      sistance for the education of veterans.                   local school systems for strengthening in-
                                                                struction in science, mathematics, modern
     Surplus Property Act (Public Law 78–457) au-
                                                                foreign languages, and other critical subjects;
      thorized transfer of surplus property to edu-
                                                                improvement of state statistical services;
      cational institutions.
                                                                guidance, counseling, and testing services
1946 National School Lunch Act (Public Law 79–                  and training institutes; higher education stu-
      396) authorized assistance through grants-in-             dent loans and fellowships; foreign language
      aid and other means to states to assist in                study and training provided by colleges and
      providing adequate foods and facilities for the           universities; experimentation and dissemina-
      establishment, maintenance, operation, and                tion of information on more effective utiliza-
      expansion of nonprofit school lunch pro-                  tion of television, motion pictures, and related
      grams.                                                    media for educational purposes; and voca-
     George-Barden Act (Public Law 80–402) ex-                  tional education for technical occupations
      panded federal support of vocational edu-                 necessary to the national defense.
      cation.                                                  Education of Mentally Retarded Children Act
                                                                (Public Law 85–926) authorized federal as-
1948 United States Information and Educational Ex-
                                                                sistance for training teachers of the handi-
      change Act (Public Law 80–402) provided for
                                                                capped.
      the interchange of persons, knowledge, and
      skills between the United States and other               Captioned Films for the Deaf Act (Public Law
      countries.                                                85–905) authorized a loan service of cap-
                                                                tioned films for the deaf.
1949 Federal Property and Administrative Services
      Act (Public Law 81–152) provided for dona-          1961 Area Redevelopment Act (Public Law 87–27)
      tion of surplus property to educational institu-          included provisions for training or retraining of
      tions and for other public purposes.                      persons in redevelopment areas.
1950 Financial Assistance for Local Educational           1962 Manpower Development and Training Act (Pub-
       Agencies Affected by Federal Activities (Pub-            lic Law 87–415) provided training in new and
       lic Law 81–815 and Public Law 81–874) pro-               improved skills for the unemployed and un-
       vided assistance for construction (Public Law            deremployed.
       815) and operation (Public Law 874) of                  Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962
       schools in federally affected areas.                     (Public Law 87–510) authorized loans, ad-
     Housing Act (Public Law 81–475) authorized                 vances, and grants for education and training
      loans for construction of college housing fa-             of refugees.
      cilities.                                           1963 Health Professions Educational Assistance Act
1954 An Act for the Establishment of the United                 of 1963 (Public Law 88–129) provided funds
      States Air Force Academy and Other Pur-                   to expand teaching facilities and for loans to
      poses (Public Law 83–325) established the                 students in the health professions.
      U.S. Air Force Academy.                                  Vocational Education Act of 1963 (Part of Pub-
     Educational Research Act (Public Law 83–531)               lic Law 88–210) increased federal support of
      authorized cooperative arrangements with                  vocational education schools; vocational
      universities, colleges, and state educational             work-study programs; and research, training,
      agencies for educational research.                        and demonstrations in vocational education.
                                                               Higher Education Facilities Act of 1963 (Public
     School Milk Program Act (Public Law 83–597)
                                                                Law 88–204) authorized grants and loans for
      provided funds for purchase of milk for school
                                                                classrooms, libraries, and laboratories in pub-
      lunch programs.
                                                                lic community colleges and technical insti-
1956 Library Services Act (Public Law 84–597) pro-              tutes, as well as undergraduate and graduate
       vided grants to states for extension and im-             facilities in other institutions of higher edu-
       provement of rural public library services.              cation.
1957 Practical Nurse Training Act (Public Law 84–         1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Public Law 88–352)
      911) provided grants to states for practical              authorized the Commissioner of Education to
      nurse training.                                           arrange for support for institutions of higher
412 FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES



       education and school districts to provide in-         School Assistance in Disaster Areas Act (Pub-
       service programs for assisting instructional           lic Law 89–313) provided for assistance to
       staff in dealing with problems caused by de-           local education agencies to help meet excep-
       segregation.                                           tional costs resulting from a major disaster.
     Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (Public Law       1966 International Education Act (Public Law 89–
      88–452) authorized grants for college work-              698) provided grants to institutions of higher
      study programs for students from low-income              education for the establishment, strength-
      families; established a Job Corps program                ening, and operation of centers for research
      and authorized support for work-training pro-            and training in international studies and the
      grams to provide education and vocational                international aspects of other fields of study.
      training and work experience opportunities in
                                                             National Sea Grant College and Program Act
      welfare programs; authorized support of edu-
                                                              (Public Law 89–688) authorized the establish-
      cation and training activities and of commu-
                                                              ment and operation of Sea Grant Colleges
      nity action programs, including Head Start,
                                                              and programs by initiating and supporting
      Follow Through, and Upward Bound; and au-
                                                              programs of education and research in the
      thorized the establishment of Volunteers in
                                                              various fields relating to the development of
      Service to America (VISTA).
                                                              marine resources.
1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act of               Adult Education Act (Public Law 89–750) au-
       1965 (Public Law 89–10) authorized grants              thorized grants to states for the encourage-
       for elementary and secondary school pro-               ment and expansion of educational programs
       grams for children of low-income families;             for adults, including training of teachers of
       school library resources, textbooks, and other         adults and demonstrations in adult education
       instructional materials for school children;           (previously part of Economic Opportunity Act
       supplementary educational centers and serv-            of 1964).
       ices; strengthening state education agencies;
       and educational research and research train-          Model Secondary School for the Deaf Act
       ing.                                                   (Public Law 89–694) authorized the establish-
                                                              ment and operation, by Gallaudet College, of
     Health Professions Educational Assistance                a model secondary school for the deaf.
      Amendments of 1965 (Public Law 89–290)
      authorized scholarships to aid needy students     1967 Education Professions Development Act (Public
      in the health professions.                              Law 90–35) amended the Higher Education
                                                              Act of 1965 for the purpose of improving the
     Higher Education Act of 1965 (Public Law 89–             quality of teaching and to help meet critical
      329) provided grants for university community           shortages of adequately trained educational
      service programs, college library assistance,           personnel.
      library training and research, strengthening
      developing institutions, teacher training pro-         Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 (Public Law
      grams, and undergraduate instructional                  90–129) established a Corporation for Public
      equipment. Authorized insured student loans,            Broadcasting to assume major responsibility
      established a National Teacher Corps, and               in channeling federal funds to noncommercial
      provided for graduate teacher training fellow-          radio and television stations, program produc-
      ships.                                                  tion groups, and ETV networks; conduct re-
                                                              search, demonstration, or training in matters
     National Foundation on the Arts and the Hu-              related to noncommercial broadcasting; and
      manities Act (Public Law 89–209) authorized             award grants for construction of educational
      grants and loans for projects in the creative           radio and television facilities.
      and performing arts and for research, train-
      ing, and scholarly publications in the human-     1968 Elementary and Secondary Education Amend-
      ities.                                                   ments of 1968 (Public Law 90–247) modified
                                                               existing programs, authorized support of re-
     National Technical Institute for the Deaf Act             gional centers for education of handicapped
      (Public Law 89–36) provided for the estab-               children, model centers and services for deaf-
      lishment, construction, equipping, and oper-             blind children, recruitment of personnel and
      ation of a residential school for postsec-               dissemination of information on education of
      ondary education and technical training of the           the handicapped; technical assistance in edu-
      deaf.                                                    cation to rural areas; support of dropout pre-
                                                  FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES 413



       vention projects; and support of bilingual edu-           tional Advisory Council for Drug Abuse Pre-
       cation programs.                                          vention; community assistance grants for
     Handicapped Children’s Early Education Assist-              community mental health centers for treat-
      ance Act (Public Law 90–538) authorized pre-               ment and rehabilitation of persons with drug-
      school and early education programs for                    abuse problems, and, in December 1974, a
      handicapped children.                                      National Institute on Drug Abuse.

     Vocational Education Amendments of 1968                   Education Amendments of 1972 (Public Law
      (Public Law 90–576) modified existing pro-                92–318) established the Education Division in
      grams and provided for a National Advisory                the U.S. Department of Health, Education,
      Council on Vocational Education and collec-               and Welfare and the National Institute of Edu-
      tion and dissemination of information for pro-            cation; general aid for institutions of higher
      grams administered by the Commissioner of                 education; federal matching grants for state
      Education.                                                Student Incentive Grants; a National Commis-
                                                                sion on Financing Postsecondary Education;
1970 Elementary and Secondary Education Assist-
                                                                State Advisory Councils on Community Col-
       ance Programs, Extension (Public Law 91–
                                                                leges; a Bureau of Occupational and Adult
       230) authorized comprehensive planning and
                                                                Education and State Grants for the design,
       evaluation grants to state and local education
                                                                establishment, and conduct of postsecondary
       agencies; provided for the establishment of a
                                                                occupational education; and a bureau-level
       National Commission on School Finance.
                                                                Office of Indian Education. Amended current
     National Commission on Libraries and Informa-              U.S. Department of Education programs to in-
      tion Services Act (Public Law 91–345) estab-              crease their effectiveness and better meet
      lished a National Commission on Libraries                 special needs. Prohibited sex bias in admis-
      and Information Science to effectively utilize            sion to vocational, professional, and graduate
      the nation’s educational resources.                       schools, and public institutions of under-
     Office of Education Appropriation Act (Public              graduate higher education.
      Law 91–380) provided emergency school as-
                                                          1973 Older Americans Comprehensive Services
      sistance to desegregating local education
                                                                Amendment of 1973 (Public Law 93–29)
      agencies.
                                                                made available to older citizens comprehen-
     Environmental Education Act (Public Law 91–                sive programs of health, education, and so-
      516) established an Office of Environmental               cial services.
      Education to develop curriculum and initiate
      and maintain environmental education pro-                Comprehensive Employment and Training Act
      grams at the elementary-secondary levels;                 of 1973 (Public Law 93–203) provided for op-
      disseminate information; provide training pro-            portunities for employment and training to un-
      grams for teachers and other educational,                 employed and underemployed persons. Ex-
      public, community, labor, and industrial lead-            tended and expanded provisions in the Man-
      ers and employees; provide community edu-                 power Development and Training Act of
      cation programs; and distribute material deal-            1962, Title I of the Economic Opportunity Act
      ing with the environment and ecology.                     of 1962, Title I of the Economic Opportunity
                                                                Act of 1964, and the Emergency Employment
     Drug Abuse Education Act of 1970 (Public Law               Act of 1971 as in effect prior to June 30,
      91–527) provided for development, dem-                    1973.
      onstration, and evaluation of curricula on the
      problems of drug abuse.                             1974 Education Amendments of 1974 (Public Law
1971 Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act                 93–380) provided for the consolidation of cer-
      of 1971 (Public Law 92–257) amended Title                 tain programs; and established a National
      VII of the Public Health Service Act, increas-            Center for Education Statistics.
      ing and expanding provisions for health man-             Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
      power training and training facilities.                    Act of 1974 (Public Law 93–415) provided for
1972 Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972                 technical assistance, staff training, centralized
      (Public Law 92–255) established a Special                  research, and resources to develop and im-
      Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention to                 plement programs to keep students in ele-
      provide overall planning and policy for all fed-           mentary and secondary schools; and estab-
      eral drug-abuse prevention functions; a Na-                lished, in the U.S. Department of Justice, a
414 FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES



       National Institute for Juvenile Justice and De-          lished a community schools program to pro-
       linquency Prevention.                                    vide for the use of public buildings.
1975 Indian Self-Determination and Education As-              Middle Income Student Assistance Act (Public
       sistance Act (Public Law 93–638) provided               Law 95–566) modified the provisions for stu-
       for increased participation of Indians in the           dent financial assistance programs to allow
       establishment and conduct of their education            middle-income as well as low-income stu-
       programs and services.                                  dents attending college or other postsec-
     Harry S Truman Memorial Scholarship Act                   ondary institutions to qualify for federal edu-
      (Public Law 93–642) established the Harry S              cation assistance.
      Truman Scholarship Foundation and created          1979 Department of Education Organization Act
      a perpetual education scholarship fund for               (Public Law 96–88) established a U.S. De-
      young Americans to prepare and pursue ca-                partment of Education containing functions
      reers in public service.                                 from the Education Division of the U.S. De-
     Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance                partment of Health, Education, and Welfare
       Act of 1975 (Public Law 94–23) authorized               along with other selected education programs
       funds to be used for education and training of          from HEW, the U.S. Department of Justice,
       aliens who have fled from Cambodia or Viet-             U.S. Department of Labor, and the National
       nam.                                                    Science Foundation.

     Education for All Handicapped Children Act          1980 Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control
      (Public Law 94–142) provided that all handi-             Act of 1980 (Public Law 96–270) established
      capped children have available to them a free            a program for inspection of schools for detec-
      appropriate education designed to meet their             tion of hazardous asbestos materials and pro-
      unique needs.                                            vided loans to assist educational agencies to
                                                               contain or remove and replace such mate-
1976 Educational Broadcasting Facilities and Tele-             rials.
      communications Demonstration Act of 1976
      (Public Law 94–309) established a tele-            1981 Education Consolidation and Improvement Act
      communications demonstration program to                  of 1981 (Part of Public Law 97–35) consoli-
      promote the development of nonbroadcast                  dated 42 programs into 7 programs to be
      telecommunications facilities and services for           funded under the elementary and secondary
      the transmission, distribution, and delivery of          block grant authority.
      health, education, and public or social service    1983 Student Loan Consolidation and Technical
      information.                                             Amendments Act of 1983 (Public Law 98–79)
1977 Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects               established an 8 percent interest rate for
      Act of 1977 (Public Law 95–93) established a             Guaranteed Student Loans and extended
      youth employment training program that in-               Family Contribution Schedule.
      cludes, among other activities, promoting               Challenge Grant Amendments of 1983 (Public
      education-to-work transition, literacy training          Law 98–95) amended Title III, Higher Edu-
      and bilingual training, and attainment of cer-           cation Act, and added authorization of Chal-
      tificates of high school equivalency.                    lenge Grant program. The Challenge Grant
     Career Education Incentive Act (Public Law                program provides funds to eligible institutions
      95–207) authorized the establishment of a                on a matching basis as an incentive to seek
      career education program for elementary and              alternative sources of funding.
      secondary schools.                                      Education of the Handicapped Act Amend-
1978 Tribally Controlled Community College Assist-             ments of 1983 (Public Law 98–199) added
       ance Act of 1978 (Public Law 95–471) pro-               the Architectural Barrier amendment and
       vided federal funds for the operation and im-           clarified participation of handicapped children
       provement of tribally controlled community              in private schools.
       colleges for Indian students.                     1984 Education for Economic Security Act (Public
     Education Amendments of 1978 (Public Law                  Law 98–377) added new science and mathe-
      95–561) established a comprehensive basic                matics programs for elementary, secondary,
      skills program aimed at improving pupil                  and postsecondary education. The new pro-
      achievement (replaced the existing National              grams included magnet schools, excellence
      Reading Improvement program); and estab-                 in education, and equal access.
                                                FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES 415



     Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act (Pub-            Impact Aid, Indian Education, Adult Edu-
      lic Law 98–524) continued federal assistance             cation, and other smaller education programs.
      for vocational education through FY 1989.
      The act replaced the Vocational Education              Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals
      Act of 1963. It provided aid to the states to           with Disabilities Act of 1988 (Public Law 100–
      make vocational education programs acces-               407) provided financial assistance to states to
      sible to all persons, including handicapped             develop and implement consumer-responsive
      and disadvantaged, single parents and home-             statewide programs of technology-related as-
      makers, and the incarcerated.                           sistance for persons of all ages with disabil-
                                                              ities.
     Human Services Reauthorization Act (Public
      Law 98–558) created a Carl D. Perkins schol-           Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance
      arship program, a National Talented Teach-              Amendments Act of 1988 (Public Law 100–
      ers Fellowship program, a Federal Merit                 628) extended for two additional years pro-
      Scholarships program, and a Leadership in               grams providing assistance to the homeless,
      Educational Administration program.                     including literacy training for homeless adults
                                                              and education for homeless youths.
1985 Montgomery GI Bill—Active Duty (Public Law
      98–525), brought about a new GI Bill for indi-         Tax Reform Technical Amendments (Public
      viduals who initially entered active military           Law 100–647) authorized an Education Sav-
      duty on or after July 1, 1985.                          ings Bond for the purpose of postsecondary
     Montgomery GI Bill—Selected Reserve (Public              educational expenses. The bill grants tax ex-
      Law 98–525), is an education program for                clusion for interest earned on regular series
      members of the Selected Reserve (which in-              EE savings bonds.
      cludes the National Guard) who enlist, reen-
      list, or extend an enlistment after June 30,      1989 Children with Disabilities Temporary Care Re-
      1985, for a 6-year period.                              authorization Act of 1989 (Public Law 101–
                                                              127) revised and extended the programs es-
1986 Handicapped Children’s Protection Act of 1986            tablished in the Temporary Child Care for
      (Public Law 99–372) allowed parents of                  Handicapped Children and Crises Nurseries
      handicapped children to collect attorneys’              Act of 1986.
      fees in cases brought under the Education of
      the Handicapped Act and provided that the              Childhood Education and Development Act of
      Education of the Handicapped Act does not               1989 (Part of Public Law 101–239) author-
      preempt other laws, such as Section 504 of              ized the appropriations to expand Head Start
      the Rehabilitation Act.                                 Programs and programs carried out under the
                                                              Elementary and Secondary Education Act of
     Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of
                                                              1965 to include child care services.
      1986 (Part of Public Law 99–570), part of the
      Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, authorized           1990 Excellence in Mathematics, Science and Engi-
      funding for FYs 1987–89. Established pro-               neering Education Act of 1990 (Public Law
      grams for drug abuse education and preven-              101–589) was intended to promote excel-
      tion, coordinated with related community ef-            lence in American mathematics, science, and
      forts and resources, through the use of fed-            engineering education by creating a national
      eral financial assistance.                              mathematics and science clearinghouse, and
1987 Higher Education Act Amendments of 1987                  creating several other mathematics, science,
      (Public Law 100–50) made technical correc-              and engineering education programs.
      tions, clarifications, or conforming amend-
                                                             Student Right-To-Know and Campus Security
      ments related to the enactment of the Higher
                                                              Act (Public Law 101–542) requires institutions
      Education Amendments of 1986.
                                                              of higher education receiving federal financial
1988 Augustus F. Hawkins-Robert T. Stafford Ele-              assistance to provide certain information with
      mentary and Secondary School Improvement                respect to the graduation rates of student-ath-
      Amendments of 1988 (Public Law 100–297)                 letes at such institutions. The act also re-
      reauthorized through 1993 major elementary              quires the institution to certify that it has a
      and secondary education programs including:             campus security policy and will annually sub-
      Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Bilingual Education,              mit a uniform crime report to the Federal Bu-
      Math-Science Education, Magnet Schools,                 reau of Investigation (FBI).
416 FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES



     Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Public            gomery GI Bill to students whose course
      Law 101–336) prohibits discrimination against             studies were interrupted by the Persian Gulf
      persons with disabilities.                                War.
     National and Community Service Act of 1990               Civil Rights Act of 1991 (Public Law 102–166)
      (Public Law 101–610) increased school and                amended the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the
      college-based community service opportuni-               Age Discrimination in Employment Act of
      ties and authorized the President’s Points of            1967, and the Americans with Disabilities Act
      Light Foundation.                                        of 1990, with regard to employment discrimi-
                                                               nation. Established the Technical Assistance
     School Dropout Prevention and Basic Skills Im-
                                                               Training Institute.
      provement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–600)
      was intended to improve secondary school           1992 Higher Education Amendments of 1992 (Public
      programs for basic skills improvements and               Law 102–325) amended the Higher Edu-
      dropout reduction.                                       cation Act of 1965 to revise and reauthorize
                                                               funding for its various programs.
     Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Reauthor-
      ization Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–637) re-            Ready-To-Learn Act (Public Law 102–545)
      authorized the Asbestos School Hazard                    amended the General Education Provisions
      Abatement Act of 1984, which provided finan-             Act to establish Ready-To-Learn Television
      cial support to elementary and secondary                 programs to support educational program-
      schools to inspect for asbestos and to de-               ming and support materials for preschool and
      velop and implement an asbestos manage-                  elementary school children and their parents,
      ment plan.                                               child care providers, and educators.
     Eisenhower Exchange Fellowship Act of 1990               National Commission on Time and Learning,
       (Public Law 101–454) provided a permanent               Extension (Public Law 102–359) amended
       endowment for the Eisenhower Exchange                   the National Education Commission on Time
       Fellowship Program.                                     and Learning Act to extend the authorization
                                                               of appropriations for such Commission,
     Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990
                                                               amended the Elementary and Secondary
      (Public Law 101–508) included a set of stu-
                                                               Education Act of 1965 to revise provisions for
      dent aid provisions that were estimated to
                                                               (1) a specified civic education program; and
      yield a savings of $2 billion over 5 years.
                                                               (2) schoolwide projects for educationally dis-
      These provisions included delayed Guaran-
                                                               advantaged children, and provided for addi-
      teed Student Loan disbursements, tightened
                                                               tional Assistant Secretaries of Education.
      ability-to-benefit eligibility, and expanded pro
      rata refund policy and the elimination of stu-     1993 Student Loan Reform Act (Public Law 103–66)
      dent aid eligibility at high default schools.            reformed the student aid process by phasing
                                                               in a system of direct lending designed to pro-
1991 National Literacy Act of 1991 (Public Law 102–
                                                               vide savings for taxpayers and students. Al-
      73) established the National Institute for Lit-
                                                               lows students to choose among a variety of
      eracy, the National Institute Board, and the
                                                               repayment options, including income contin-
      Interagency Task Force on Literacy. Amend-
                                                               gency.
      ed various federal laws to establish and ex-
      tend various literacy programs.                         National Service Trust Act (Public Law 103–82)
                                                               amended the National and Community Serv-
     High-Performance Computing Act of 1991
                                                               ice Act of 1990 to establish a Corporation for
      (Public Law 102–194) directed the President
                                                               National Service and enhance opportunities
      to implement a National High-Performance
                                                               for national service. In addition, the Act pro-
      Computing Program. Provided for: (1) estab-
                                                               vided education grants up to $4,725 per year
      lishment of a National Research and Edu-
                                                               for 2 years to people age 17 years or older
      cation Network; (2) standards and guidelines
                                                               who perform community service before, dur-
      for high performance networks; and (3) the
                                                               ing, or after postsecondary education.
      responsibility of certain federal departments
      and agencies with regard to the Network.                NAEP Assessment Authorization (Public Law
                                                               103–33) authorizes the use of NAEP for
     Veterans’ Educational Assistance Amendments
                                                               state-by-state comparisons.
      of 1991 (Public Law 102–127) restored cer-
      tain educational benefits available to reserve     1994 Goals 2000: Educate America Act (Public Law
      and active-duty personnel under the Mont-                103–227) established a new federal partner-
                                              FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES 417



 ship through a system of grants to states and               ment’s largest program providing educational
 local communities to reform the nation’s edu-               assistance to disadvantaged children; profes-
 cation system. The Act formalized the na-                   sional development and technical assistance
 tional education goals and established the                  programs; a safe and drug-free schools and
 National Education Goals Panel. It also cre-                communities provision; and provisions pro-
 ated a National Education Standards and Im-                 moting school equity.
 provement Council (NESIC) to provide vol-            1995 Amendment to the Elementary and Secondary
 untary national certification of state and local           Education Act of 1965 (Public Law 104–5)
 education standards and assessments and                    amended a provision of Part A of Title IX of
 established the National Skill Standards                   the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
 Board to develop voluntary national skill                  of 1965 relating to Indian education, to pro-
 standards.                                                 vide a technical amendment and for other
School-To-Work Opportunities Act of 1994                    purposes.
 (Public Law 103–239) established a national          1996 Contract With America: Unfunded Mandates
 framework within which states and commu-                   (Public Law 104–4) a bill to curb the practice
 nities can develop School-To-Work Opportu-                 of imposing unfunded federal mandates on
 nities systems to prepare young people for                 states and local governments; to strengthen
 first jobs and continuing education. The Act               the partnership between the federal govern-
 also provided money to states and commu-                   ment and state, local, and tribal governments;
 nities to develop a system of programs that                to end the imposition, in the absence of full
 include work-based learning, school-based                  consideration by Congress, of federal man-
 learning, and connecting activities compo-                 dates on state, local, and tribal governments
 nents. School-To-Work programs will provide                without adequate funding, in a manner that
 students with a high school diploma (or its                may displace other essential governmental
 equivalent), a nationally recognized skill cer-            priorities and to ensure that the federal gov-
 tificate, or an associate degree (if appro-                ernment pays the costs incurred by those
 priate) and may lead to a first job or further             governments in complying with certain re-
 education.                                                 quirements under federal statutes and regula-
Safe Schools Act of 1994 (Part of Public Law                tions; and for other purposes.
 103–227) authorized the award of competitive              Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill
 grants to local educational agencies with seri-            of Rights Act Amendments of 1996 (Public
 ous crime to implement violence prevention                 Law 104–1834) amended the Developmental
 activities such as conflict resolution and peer            Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act
 mediation.                                                 to extend the act, and for other purposes.
Educational Research, Development, Dissemi-                Remove Grant Limits on Historically Black Col-
 nation, and Improvement Act of 1994 (Part of               leges (Public Law 104–141) amended section
 Public Law 103–227) authorized the edu-                    326 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 to
 cational research and dissemination activities             permit continued participation by historically
 of the Office of Educational Research and Im-              black graduate and professional schools in
 provement. The regional educational labora-                the grant program authorized by that section.
 tories and university-based research and de-              Correct Impact-Aid Payments (Public Law 104–
 velopment centers are authorized under this                195) amends the Impact Aid Program to pro-
 act.                                                       vide for a hold-harmless with respect to
Student Loan Default Exemption Extension                    amounts for payments relating to the federal
 (Public Law 103–235) amended the Higher                    acquisition of real property, and for other pur-
 Education Act of 1965 to extend until July 1,              poses.
 1998, the effective date for cohort default rate          Human Rights, Refugee, and Other Foreign
 extension for Historically Black Colleges and              Relations Provisions Act of 1996 (Public Law
 Universities, tribally controlled community col-           104–319) made certain provisions with re-
 leges, and Navajo community colleges.                      spect to internationally recognized human
Improving America’s Schools Act (Public Law                 rights, refugees, and foreign relations to re-
  103–382) reauthorized and revamped the El-                vise U.S. human rights policy.
  ementary and Secondary Education Act. The           1997 Need-Based Educational Aid Antitrust Protec-
  legislation includes Title I, the federal govern-         tion Act of 1997 (Public Law 105–43) amends
418 FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES



       the Improving America’s Schools Act of 1994              of 1988 with a new Act, authorized through
       to clarify the financial information exchanged           fiscal year 2004, to address the assistive-
       between institutions of higher education.                technology needs of individuals with disabil-
                                                                ities.
     The Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (Public Law
      105–34) enacted the Hope Scholarship and           1999 Education Flexibility Partnership Act of 1999
      Life-Long Learning Tax Credit provisions into            (Public Law 106–25) authorizes the Secretary
      law.                                                     of Education to allow all states to participate
     Individuals with Disabilities Education Act               in the Education Flexibility Partnership pro-
       Amendments of 1997 (Public Law 105–17)                  gram.
       amended the Individuals with Disabilities Edu-         District of Columbia College Access Act of
       cation Act (IDEA) to revise its provisions and          1999 (Public Law 106–98) establishes a pro-
       extend through fiscal year 2002 the author-             gram to afford high school graduates from the
       ization of appropriations for IDEA programs.            District of Columbia the benefits of in-state
     Emergency Student Loan Consolidation Act of               tuition at state colleges and universities out-
      1997 (Public Law 105–78) amends the High-                side the District of Columbia.
      er Education Act to provide for improved stu-           Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improve-
      dent loan consolidation services.                         ment Act of 1999 (Public Law 106–170)
1998 Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (Public Law               amends the Social Security Act to expand the
      105–220) enacted the Adult Education and                  availability of health care coverage for work-
      Family Literacy Act, and substantially revised            ing individuals with disabilities and estab-
      and extended, through fiscal year 2003, the               lishes a Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency
      Rehabilitation Act of 1973.                               Program in the Social Security Administration
                                                                to provide such individuals with meaningful
     Higher Education Amendments of 1998 (Public                opportunities to work.
      Law 105–244) substantially amended, and re-
      authorized, through fiscal year 2003, the          2000 The National Defense Authorization Act for Fis-
      Higher Education Act of 1965.                            cal Year 2001 (Public Law 106–398) in-
                                                               cludes, as Title XVIII, the Impact Aid Reau-
     Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supple-                thorization Act of 2000, which extends the Im-
      mental Appropriations Act, 1999 (Public Law              pact Aid programs through fiscal year 2003.
      105–277) enacted the Reading Excellence
      Act, to promote the ability of children to read         College Scholarship Fraud Prevention Act of
      independently by the 3rd grade; earmarked                2000 (Public Law 106–420) enhanced federal
      funds to help states and school districts re-            penalties for offenses involving scholarship
      duce class sizes in the early grades.                    fraud, requires an annual scholarship fraud
                                                               report by the Attorney General, the Secretary
     Charter School Expansion Act (Public Law                  of Education, and the Federal Trade Commis-
      105–278) amended the charter school pro-                 sion (FTC), and requires the Secretary of
      gram, enacted in 1994 as Title X, Part C of              Education, in conjunction with the FTC, to
      the Elementary and Secondary Education Act               maintain a scholarship fraud awareness Web
      of 1965.                                                 site.
     Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Tech-
                                                              Consolidated Appropriations Act 2001 (Public
      nology Education Amendments of 1998 (Pub-
                                                               Law 106–554) created a new program of as-
      lic Law 105–332) revised, in its entirety, the
                                                               sistance for school repair and renovation, and
      Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Tech-
                                                               amended the Elementary and Secondary
      nology Eduation Act, and reauthorized the
                                                               Education Act of 1965 to authorize credit en-
      Act through fiscal year 2003.
                                                               hancement initiatives to help charter schools
     Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (Public Law              obtain, construct, or repair facilities; to reau-
      105–394) replaced the Technology-Related                 thorize the Even Start program; and enacted
      Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act         the ‘‘Children’s Internet Protection Act.’’
                                                             FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES 419




              Figure 20.–Federal on-budget funds for education, by agency: Fiscal year 2001




                                                                                               Department of Education, 39.6%




Department of Agriculture, 11.9%


                                                                                                        Department of Interior, 1.2%

                                                                                                        Other, 3.3%
       Department of Defense, 4.8%
                                                                                                    National Science Foundation, 3.8%

                                                                                                   National Aeronautics and
           Department of Energy, 3.8%                                                                   Space Administration, 2.3%

                                                                                              Department of Veterans Affairs, 2.3%

                                                                                     Department of Labor, 6.1%
       Department of Health and Human Services, 21.0%


                                                           Total = $92.8 billion

          SOURCE: U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2002; and National
          Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001.
420 FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES




                                     Figure 21.–Federal on-budget funds for education, by level or
                                               other educational purpose: 1965 to 2001

              In billions of constant FY 2001dollars
            $ 50


              45

              40

              35                    Elementary and secondary

              30

              25
                                                                                Postsecondary
              20

              15

              10                                                                         Research at educational institutions

               5
                                                                                                           Other education
               0
                   1965           1970            1975            1980             1985             1990             1995             2000
                                                                         Fiscal year

               SOURCE: U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, fiscal years 1967 to 2002; National
               Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, fiscal years 1967 to 2001; and unpublished data.




                          Figure 22.–Department of Education outlays, by type of recipient:
                                                 Fiscal year 2001

                                                                          48
                                                                                       Local education agencies, 48.0%




                                                                                                     Other and multiple
           State education agencies, 13.4%                                                         3.5types of recipients, 3.5%

                                         13.4                                                    Federal, 1.7%
                                                                                                  1.7




                                                                                          16.6
                                                                                        Postsecondary institutions, 16.6%
                            Postsecondary students, 16.8%
                                                         16.8



                                                    Total outlays = $36.8 billion

                SOURCE: U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2002; Catalog of
                Federal Domestic Assistance; National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development , Fiscal Years
                1999, 2000, and 2001; and unpublished data obtained from various federal agencies.
                               Table 362.—Federal support and estimated federal tax expenditures for education, by category: Fiscal years 1965 to 2001
                                                                                                                          [In millions of dollars]

                                                                      On-budget   support 1                                                      Off-budget support and nonfederal funds generated by federal legislation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Estimated
                            Total on-budget                                                                                                                                                   Nonfederal funds                                                 federal
                              support, off-                    Elemen-                              Research                                                                                                                                                   tax ex-
                          budget support, and                                                                                 Off-budget support
    Fiscal year                                                  tary       Post-                    at edu-                                                                                           Leveraging                                               pendi-
                            nonfederal funds                                             Other                                                                                                                                 Supplemental
                                                     Total       and        sec-                     cational     Total                              Federal Family                 Income             Educational                                 Work-      tures for
                             generated by                                              education                                                                       Perkins                                                  Educational
                                                                 sec-      ondary                     institu-                                         Education                   Contingent           Assistance                                 Study         edu-
                           federal legislation                                                                                                                         Loans 4                                                  Opportunity
                                                               ondary                                  tions                    Federal Direct          Loans 3                     Loans 5            Partnerships                                aid 8       cation 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Grants 7
                                                                                                                               Student Loans 2                                                          Programs 6

          1                        2                  3           4           5               6         7           8                 9                     10            11           12                   13                      14               15          16
                                                                                                                                          Current dollars
1965 ..................                 $5,354.7    $5,331.0    $1,942.6   $1,197.5       $374.7     $1,816.3       $23.7                       —                 —       $16.1               —                       —                      —       $7.6           —
1970 ..................                 13,359.1    12,526.5     5,830.4    3,447.7         964.7     2,283.6       832.6                       —             $770.0       21.0               —                       —                      —       41.6           —
1975 ..................                 24,691.5    23,288.1    10,617.2    7,644.0       1,608.5     3,418.4     1,403.4                       —            1,233.0       35.7               —                    $20.0                     —      114.7     $8,605.0
1980 ..................                 39,349.5    34,493.5    16,027.7   11,115.9       1,548.7     5,801.2     4,856.0                       —            4,598.0       31.8               —                     76.8                     —      149.4     13,320.0
1985 ..................                 47,753.4    39,027.9    16,901.3   11,174.4       2,107.6     8,844.6     8,725.5                       —            8,467.0       21.4               —                     76.0                     —      161.1     19,105.0
1986 ..................                 48,357.3    39,962.9    17,049.9   11,283.6       2,620.0     9,009.4     8,394.4                       —            8,142.0       20.2               —                     72.7                     —      159.5     20,425.0
1987 ..................                 50,724.6    41,194.7    17,535.7   10,300.0       2,820.4    10,538.6     9,529.8                       —            9,272.0       20.9             $0.6                    76.0                     —      160.4     20,830.0
1988 ..................                 54,078.7    43,454.4    18,564.9   10,657.5       2,981.6    11,250.5    10,624.3                       —           10,380.0       20.6              0.5                    72.8                     —      150.4     17,025.0
1989 ..................                 59,537.4    48,269.6    19,809.5   13,269.9       3,180.3    12,009.8    11,267.8                       —           10,938.0       20.4              0.5                    71.9                  $22.0     215.0     17,755.0
1990 ..................                 62,811.5    51,624.3    21,984.4   13,650.9       3,383.0    12,606.0    11,187.2                       —           10,826.0       15.0              0.5                    59.2                   48.8     237.7     19,040.0
1991 ..................                 70,375.6    57,599.5    25,418.0   14,707.4       3,698.6    13,775.4    12,776.1                       —           12,372.0       17.3              0.5                    63.5                   87.7     235.0     18,995.0
1992 ..................                 74,481.1    60,483.1    27,926.9   14,387.4       3,992.0    14,176.9    13,998.0                       —           13,568.0       17.3              0.5                    72.0                   97.2     242.9     19,950.0
1993 ..................                 84,741.5    67,740.6    30,834.3   17,844.0       4,107.2    14,955.1    17,000.8                       —           16,524.0       29.3               —                     72.4                  184.6     190.5     21,010.0
1994 ..................                 92,781.5    68,254.2    32,304.4   16,177.1       4,483.7    15,289.1    24,527.3                  $813.0           23,214.0       52.7               —                     72.4                  184.6     190.5     22,630.0
1995 ..................                 95,810.8    71,639.5    33,623.8   17,618.1       4,719.7    15,677.9    24,171.2                  5,161.0          18,519.0       52.7               —                     63.4                  184.6     190.5     24,600.0
1996 ..................                 96,833.0    71,327.4    34,391.5   15,775.5       4,828.0    16,332.3    25,505.6                  8,357.0          16,711.0       31.1               —                     31.4                  184.6     190.5     26,340.0
1997 ..................                103,259.8    73,731.8    35,478.9   15,959.4       5,021.2    17,272.4    29,528.0                  9,838.0          19,163.0       52.7               —                     50.0                  184.6     239.7     28,125.0
1998 ..................                107,810.5    76,909.2    37,486.2   15,799.6       5,148.5    18,475.0    30,901.3                 10,400.1          20,002.5       45.0               —                     25.0                  194.3     234.4     29,540.0
1999 ..................                113,417.2    82,863.6    39,937.9   17,651.2       5,318.0    19,956.5    30,553.6                  9,953.0          20,107.0       33.3               —                     25.0                  195.9     239.4     37,360.0
2000 ..................                119,100.0    85,502.6    43,809.0   15,010.4       5,485.1    21,198.0    33,597.4                 10,347.0          22,711.0       33.3               —                     50.0                  199.7     256.4     39,475.0
2001 10 ...............                128,149.7    92,774.5    48,707.0   15,310.1       5,976.4    22,781.1    35,375.2                 10,860.0          23,903.0       33.3               —                     80.0                  218.7     280.2     41,460.0

                                                                                                                              Constant fiscal year 2001 dollars 11
1965 ..................                $28,838.4   $28,710.7   $10,461.9   $6,449.3     $2,017.7     $9,781.7      $127.7                       —                 —       $86.8               —                       —                      —      $40.9           —
1970 ..................                 57,523.6    53,938.5    25,105.6   14,845.6      4,154.0      9,833.3     3,585.0                       —           $3,315.6       90.3               —                       —                      —      179.1           —
1975 ..................                 74,729.7    70,482.4    32,133.4   23,135.0      4,868.1     10,346.0     4,247.3                       —            3,731.7      107.9               —                    $60.5                     —      347.1    $26,043.4
1980 ..................                 80,474.0    70,543.0    32,778.4   22,733.2      3,167.3     11,864.1     9,931.0                       —            9,403.4       65.0               —                    157.1                     —      305.5     27,240.9
1985 ..................                 72,821.6    59,515.6    25,773.7   17,040.4      3,214.0     13,487.6    13,305.9                       —           12,911.8       32.6               —                    115.9                     —      245.7     29,134.2
1986 ..................                 71,966.7    59,473.9    25,374.2   16,792.6      3,899.2     13,408.0    12,492.8                       —           12,117.2       30.1               —                    108.2                     —      237.4     30,397.1
1987 ..................                 73,473.2    59,669.5    25,400.0   14,919.3      4,085.3     15,264.9    13,803.7                       —           13,430.3       30.3             $0.8                   110.1                     —      232.3     30,171.7
1988 ..................                 75,925.8    61,009.4    26,064.8   14,963.0      4,186.1     15,795.5    14,916.4                       —           14,573.4       29.0              0.7                   102.2                     —      211.2     23,902.8
1989 ..................                 80,602.5    65,347.9    26,818.4   17,964.9      4,305.6     16,259.0    15,254.5                       —           14,808.0       27.6              0.7                    97.3                  $29.8     291.1     24,036.9
1990 ..................                 82,256.6    67,606.1    28,790.2   17,876.9      4,430.3     16,508.6    14,650.5                       —           14,177.5       19.7              0.7                    77.5                   63.9     311.3     24,934.4
1991 ..................                 88,264.7    72,241.0    31,879.2   18,446.0      4,638.8     17,277.1    16,023.7                       —           15,516.9       21.8              0.6                    79.7                  110.0     294.7     23,823.4
1992 ..................                 90,351.0    73,370.3    33,877.3   17,452.9      4,842.5     17,197.6    16,980.6                       —           16,459.0       21.0              0.7                    87.3                  118.0     294.7     24,200.8
1993 ..................                100,268.5    80,152.6    36,484.0   21,113.5      4,859.7     17,695.3    20,115.9                       —           19,551.7       34.6               —                     85.7                  218.4     225.5     24,859.6
1994 ..................                107,549.9    79,118.5    37,446.4   18,752.0      5,197.4     17,722.7    28,431.4                   $942.4          26,909.1       61.1               —                     84.0                  214.0     220.9     26,232.1
1995 ..................                108,480.9    81,113.2    38,070.3   19,948.0      5,343.8     17,751.2    27,367.7                  5,843.5          20,968.0       59.6               —                     71.8                  209.0     215.7     27,853.1
1996 ..................                107,116.6    78,902.3    38,043.9   17,450.9      5,340.8     18,066.8    28,214.3                  9,244.5          18,485.7       34.4               —                     34.7                  204.2     210.7     29,137.3
1997 ..................                111,909.5    79,908.1    38,450.8   17,296.3      5,441.8     18,719.2    32,001.4                 10,662.1          20,768.2       57.1               —                     54.2                  200.1     259.8     30,480.9
1998 ..................                115,372.0    82,303.4    40,115.3   16,907.7      5,509.6     19,770.8    33,068.6                 11,129.5          21,405.4       48.2               —                     26.8                  207.9     250.8     31,611.8
1999 ..................                119,351.3    87,199.1    42,027.5   18,574.7      5,596.3     21,000.6    32,152.2                 10,473.8          21,159.0       35.0               —                     26.3                  206.1     251.9     39,314.7
2000 ..................                122,227.0    87,747.5    44,959.2   15,404.5      5,629.1     21,754.6    34,479.5                 10,618.7          23,307.3       34.2               —                     51.3                  204.9     263.1     40,511.4
2001 10 ...............                128,149.7    92,774.5    48,707.0   15,310.1      5,976.4     22,781.1    35,375.2                 10,860.0          23,903.0       33.3               —                     80.0                  218.7     280.2     41,460.0


  —Not available or applicable.                                                                                                               7 Institutions award grants to undergraduate students, and the federal share of such grants may not exceed 75 per-
  1 On-budget support includes federal funds for education programs tied to appropriations.                                                cent of the total grant.
  2 The Federal Direct Student Loan (FDSL) program, renamed the William D. Ford Direct Loan program, provides stu-                            8 Employer contributions to student earnings is generally 1/3 of federal allocation.
                                                                                                                                              9 Losses of tax revenue attributable to provisions of the federal income tax laws that allow a special exclusion, ex-
dents with the same benefits they are currently eligible to receive under the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL)
program but provides loans to students through federal capital rather than through private lenders. This program is                        emption, or deduction from gross income or provide a special credit, preferential rate of tax, or a deferral of tax liability
an off-budget support program.                                                                                                             affecting individual or corporate income tax liabilities.
  3 Formerly the Guaranteed Student Loan program. New student loans guaranteed by the federal government and                                  10 Estimated.

disbursed to borrowers.                                                                                                                       11 Data adjusted by the federal funds composite deflator prepared by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.
  4 Student loans created from institutional matching funds (since 1993 1/3 of federal capital contributions). Excludes
                                                                                                                                             NOTE: To the extent possible, federal education funds data represent outlays rather than obligations. Some data
repayments of outstanding loans.                                                                                                           have been revised from previously published figures. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.
  5 Student loans created from institutional matching funds (1/9 of the federal contribution). This was a demonstration

project that involved only 10 institutions and had unsubsidized interest rates. Program repealed in FY 1992.                                 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, compiled from data appearing in
  6 Formerly the State Student Incentive Grant program. Provides dollar-for-dollar required state matching contributions.                  U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Appendix, fiscal years 1967 to 2002; National
Starting in fiscal year 2000, under $30.0 million was also dollar-for-dollar required state matching contributions, and                    Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, fiscal years 1965 to 2001; and unpublished data
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FEDERAL PROGRAMS 421




over $30.0 million, the state matching is two-to-one.                                                                                      obtained from various federal agencies. (This table was prepared April 2001.)
422 FEDERAL PROGRAMS



                                Table 363.—Federal on-budget funds for education, by agency: Fiscal years 1965 to 2001
                                                                                                [In thousands of current dollars]

                          Agency                                        1965        1970           1975         1980           1985          1990          1995          1999          2000          2001

                                1                                         2           3              4            5              6             7             8             9             10            11

      Total ........................................................   $5,331,016 $12,526,499 $23,288,120 $34,493,502 $39,027,876 $51,624,342 $71,639,520 $82,863,596 $85,502,629 $92,774,545

Department of Education ................................                1,000,567   4,625,224      7,350,355   13,137,785    16,701,065    23,198,575    31,403,000    34,344,076    34,106,697    36,754,063
Department of Agriculture ...............................                 768,927     960,910      2,219,352    4,562,467     4,782,274     6,260,843     9,092,089    10,318,294    11,107,826    11,029,503
Department of Commerce ..............................                       9,347      13,990         38,967      135,561        55,114        53,835        88,929       105,802       108,400       130,500
Department of Defense ..................................                  587,412     821,388      1,009,229    1,560,301     3,119,213     3,605,509     3,879,002     4,112,225     4,432,981     4,476,157
Department of Energy ....................................                 442,434     551,527        764,676    1,605,558     2,247,822     2,561,950     2,692,314     3,354,514     3,373,918     3,535,161
Department of Health and Human Services ..                              1,027,537   1,796,854      3,675,225    5,613,930     5,322,356     7,956,011    12,469,563    15,535,462    17,601,780    19,467,381
Department of Housing and
   Urban Development .................................                   221,256      114,709        –52,768        5,314           438           118         1,613         1,000          1,000         1,100
Department of the Interior ..............................                170,088      190,975        300,191      440,547       549,479       630,537       702,796       773,313        959,402     1,095,128
Department of Justice .....................................               10,252       15,728         61,542       60,721        66,802        99,775       172,350       261,459        277,627       286,842
Department of Labor .......................................              230,041      424,494      1,103,935    1,862,738     1,948,685     2,511,380     3,967,914     5,407,300      4,688,600     5,633,600
Department of State .......................................               64,200       59,742         89,433       25,188        23,820        51,225        54,671       346,921        388,349       394,268
Department of Transportation .........................                        —        27,534         52,290       54,712        82,035        76,186       135,816       115,030        120,254       138,990
Department of the Treasury ...........................                     8,240           18      1,118,840    1,247,463       290,276        41,715        49,496        65,000         83,000        92,000
Department of Veterans Affairs ......................                     97,237    1,032,918      4,402,212    2,351,233     1,289,849       757,476     1,324,382     1,552,813      1,577,374     2,105,952

           Other agencies and programs

ACTION ..........................................................             —           —           7,081        2,833          1,761         8,472            —             —             —             —
Agency for International Development ...........                          63,329      88,034         78,896      176,770        198,807       249,786       290,580       326,047       313,000       409,700
Appalachian Regional Commission ................                              —       37,838         45,786       19,032          4,745            93        10,623        10,031         7,243         7,300
Barry Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence
      in Education Foundation ........................                         —           —              —             —             —          1,033         3,000         3,000         3,000         3,000
Corporation for National and
      Community Service .................................                      —          —              —            —              —             —        214,600       372,000       386,000       498,000
Environmental Protection Agency ..................                             —      19,446         33,875       41,083         60,521        87,481       125,721       127,800       153,500       151,600
Estimated education share of federal aid to
      the District of Columbia ..........................                 11,350      33,019         55,487       81,847        107,340       104,940        78,796       117,710       147,643       158,127
Federal Emergency Management Agency .....                                     —          290            290        1,946          1,828           215       170,400        14,356        14,894        12,500
General Services Administration ....................                       4,013      14,775         22,532       34,800             —             —             —             —             —             —
Harry S Truman Scholarship fund ..................                            —           —              —        –1,895          1,332         2,883         3,000         3,000         3,000         3,000
Institute of American Indian and Alaskan
      Native Culture and Arts Development ...                                  —           —              —             —             —          4,305       13,000         4,000         2,000         4,000
Institute of Museum and Library Services ......                                —           —              —             —             —             —            —        142,000       166,000       165,000
James Madison Memorial Fellowship
      Foundation ...............................................               —           —              —             —             —            191         2,000         2,000         7,000         2,000
Japanese-United States Friendship
      Commission .............................................                —           —              —         2,294          2,236         2,299         2,000         2,000         3,000         3,000
Library of Congress ........................................              15,111      29,478         63,766      151,871        169,310       189,827       241,000       350,000       299,000       305,000
National Aeronautics and Space
      Administration ..........................................          208,788     258,366        197,901      255,511        487,624     1,093,303     1,757,900     2,094,349     2,096,538      2,097,920
National Archives and Records
      Administration ..........................................                —           —              —             —        52,118        77,397       105,172       131,707       121,879       142,713
National Commission on Libraries and
      Information Science ................................                    —            —            449        2,090            723         3,281         1,000         1,000         2,000          1,000
National Endowment for the Arts ...................                           —           340         4,754        5,220          5,536         5,577         9,421        11,136        10,048         10,081
National Endowment for the Humanities ........                                —         8,459        63,955      142,586        125,671       141,048       151,727        92,100       100,014        100,315
National Science Foundation ..........................                   181,216      295,628       535,294      808,392      1,147,115     1,588,891     2,086,195     2,729,717     2,785,298      3,495,505
Nuclear Regulatory Commission ....................                            —            —          7,093       32,590         30,261        42,328        22,188         8,900         9,100         10,800
Office of Economic Opportunity ......................                    189,871    1,092,410        16,619           —              —             —             —             —             —              —
Smithsonian Institution ....................................               2,233        2,461         5,509        5,153          7,886         5,779         9,961            —             —              —
United States Arms Control Agency ...............                             —           100            —           661            395            25            —         10,135        25,764         31,794
United States Information Agency ..................                        7,512        8,423         9,405       66,210        143,007       201,547       294,800            —             —              —
United States Institute of Peace .....................                        —            —             —            —              —          7,621        12,000        12,000        13,000         15,000

Other agencies ...............................................            10,055       1,421          5,949           990            432           885           500         5,400         6,500         6,545


  —Not available or applicable.                                                                                          SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
                                                                                                                      compiled from data appearing in U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the
  NOTE: Data for fiscal year 2001 are estimated. Negative amounts occur when pro-                                     U.S. Government, Appendix, fiscal years 1967 to 2002; National Science Foundation,
gram receipts exceed outlays. To the extent possible, amounts reported represent out-                                 Federal Funds for Research and Development, fiscal years 1965 to 2001; and unpub-
lays, rather than obligations. Some data have been revised from previously published                                  lished data obtained from various federal agencies. (This table was prepared April 2001.)
data. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.
                                                                                                                                                                             FEDERAL PROGRAMS 423



Table 364.—Federal on-budget funds for education, by level or other educational purpose, by agency and program:
                                          Fiscal years 1965 to 2001
                                                                                                   [In thousands of current dollars]
Level or educational purpose, by agency and                            1965           1970             1975          1980          1985         1990 1         1995 2         1999 3         2000 4        2001 5
                  program

                                1                                       2              3                4             5             6             7              8              9              10            11

            Total, all programs .........................            $5,331,016 $12,526,499 $23,288,120 $34,493,502 $39,027,876 $51,624,342 $71,639,520 $82,863,596 $85,502,629 $92,774,545

Elementary/secondary education pro-
  grams ..........................................................   $1,942,577     $5,830,442 $10,617,195 $16,027,686 $16,901,334 $21,984,361 $33,623,809 $39,937,910 $43,809,043 $48,706,995

Department of        Education6   ..............................       567,343       2,719,204        4,132,742     6,629,095     7,296,702     9,681,313     14,029,000     17,026,662     20,039,563    22,931,418
    Grants for the disadvantaged .................                          —        1,339,014        1,874,353     3,204,664     4,206,754     4,494,111      6,808,000      7,554,155      8,529,111     8,470,199
    Impact aid program7 ...............................                349,671         656,372          618,711       690,170       647,402       816,366        808,000      1,081,063        877,101     1,140,483
    School improvement programs ..............                          72,298         288,304          700,470       788,918       526,401     1,189,158      1,397,000      1,328,021      2,549,971     3,287,617
    Indian education .....................................                  —               —            40,036        93,365        82,328        69,451         71,000         56,845         65,285        84,473
    Bilingual education .................................                   —           21,250           92,693       169,540       157,539       188,919        225,000        311,331        362,662       448,110
    Special education ...................................               13,849          79,090          151,244       821,777     1,017,964     1,616,623      3,177,000      4,444,100      4,948,977     5,814,825
    Vocational and adult education ..............                      131,525         335,174          655,235       860,661       658,314     1,306,685      1,482,000      1,364,029      1,462,977     1,722,985
    Education Reform - Goals 20008 ...........                              —               —                —             —             —             —          61,000        887,118      1,243,479     1,962,726
Department of Agriculture ...............................              623,014         760,477        1,884,345     4,064,497     4,134,906     5,528,950      8,201,294      9,367,933     10,051,278    10,041,539
    Child nutrition programs9 .......................                  178,580         299,131        1,452,267     3,377,056     3,664,561     4,977,075      7,644,789      8,877,933      9,554,028     9,541,539
    Agricultural Marketing Service—
         commodities10 ..................................              340,073        341,597          248,839       388,000       336,502       350,441        400,000        400,000        400,000       400,000
    Special milk program9 ............................                  86,609         83,800          122,858       159,293        15,993        18,707             (9)            (9)            (9)           (9)
    Estimated education share of Forest
       Service permanent appropriations .......                         17,752         35,949           60,381       140,148       117,850       182,727        156,505         90,000         97,250       100,000
Department of Commerce ..............................                       —              —                —         54,816            —             —              —              —              —             —
    Local public works program—school
         facilities11 ..........................................            —              —                —         54,816            —              —              —              —              —             —
Department of Defense ..................................                73,000        143,100          264,500       370,846       831,625      1,097,876      1,295,547      1,378,974      1,485,611     1,489,147
    Junior ROTC ..........................................                  —          12,100           12,500        32,000        55,600         39,300        155,600        167,636        210,432       218,418
    Overseas dependents schools ...............                         73,000        131,000          252,000       338,846       613,437        864,958        855,772        882,261        904,829       895,935
    Section VI schools7 ................................                    —              —                —             —        162,588        193,618        284,175        329,077        370,350       374,794
Department of Energy12 .................................                   100            200              300        77,633        23,031         15,563         12,646             —              —             —
    Energy conservation for school
         buildings13 ........................................               —              —                —          77,240        22,731        15,213         10,746             —              —             —
    Pre-engineering program .......................                        100            200              300            393           300           350          1,900             —              —             —
Department of Health and Human Services14                               79,999        167,333          683,885      1,077,000     1,531,059     2,396,793      5,116,559      5,429,850      6,011,036     6,979,608
    Head Start15 ...........................................                —              —           403,900        735,000     1,075,059     1,447,758      3,534,000      4,658,000      5,267,000     6,200,000
    Payments to states for AFDC work
         programs16 .......................................                 —              —                —             —             —        459,221        953,000         62,000         15,000         9,000
    Social Security student benefits17 ..........                       79,999        167,333          279,985       342,000       456,000       489,814        629,559        709,850        729,036       770,608
    Department of the Interior .......................                 130,096        140,705          220,392       318,170       389,810       445,267        493,124        593,306        725,423       812,627
    Mineral Leasing Act and other funds:
         Payments to states—estimated
           education share ............................                 11,075         12,294           27,389        62,636       127,369       123,811         18,750         13,840         24,610         4,370
         Payments to counties—estimated
           education share ............................                 10,731         16,359           29,494        48,953        59,016       102,522         37,490         23,900         53,500         9,500
    Indian Education:
         Bureau of Indian Affairs schools .....                         92,603         95,850          141,056       178,112       177,265       192,841        411,524        476,086        466,905       488,418
         Johnson-O’Malley assistance18 ......                           15,534         16,080           22,251        28,081        25,675        25,556         24,359         18,080         17,387        16,998
         Education construction ....................                        —              —                —             —             —             —              —          60,400        161,021       292,341
    Education expenses for
         children of employees,
         Yellowstone National Park ..............                             153            122              202        388           485           538          1,000          1,000          2,000         1,000
Department of Justice .....................................                 6,402          8,237            9,822     23,890        36,117        65,997        128,850        204,800        224,800       244,400
    Vocational training expenses
         for prisoners in federal prisons ........                       1,466          2,720             3,039         4,966         8,292         2,066          3,000          3,000          1,000         1,000
    Inmate programs19 .................................                  4,936          5,517             6,783        18,924        27,825        63,931        125,850        201,800        223,800       243,400
Department of Labor .......................................            230,041        420,927         1,097,811     1,849,800     1,945,268     2,505,487      3,957,800      5,402,000      4,683,200     5,628,000
    Job Corps20 ............................................                —              —            175,000       469,800       604,748       739,376      1,029,000      1,253,000      1,256,000     1,412,000
    Training programs—estimated funds for
         education programs21 .....................                    230,041        420,927          922,811      1,380,000     1,340,520     1,766,111      2,928,800      4,149,000      3,427,200     4,216,000
Department of Transportation22 .....................                        —              45               50             60            60            46             62            150            188           218
    Tuition assistance for educational
         accreditation—
         Coast Guard personnel23 ................                             —              45             50            60            60               46             62           150            188           218
Department of the Treasury ...........................                        32             —         847,139       935,903       273,728               —              —             —              —             —
    Estimated education share of general
         revenue sharing:24
         State25 .............................................                 —              —        475,224       525,019            —                —              —              —              —             —
         Local ................................................                —              —        371,915       410,884       273,728               —              —              —              —             —
    Tuition assistance for educational
         accreditation—
         Coast Guard personnel23 ................                           32             —                 —            —             —             —              —              —              —             —
Department of Veterans Affairs26 ...................                    41,250        338,910         1,371,500      545,786       344,758       155,351        311,768        417,903        445,052       427,177
    Noncollegiate and job training
         programs27 .......................................             14,550        281,640         1,249,410      439,993       224,035        12,848                —              —              —             —
    Vocational rehabilitation for
         disabled veterans28 .........................                  17,400         41,700           73,100        87,980       107,480       136,780        298,132        411,592        438,635       419,200
    Dependents’ education29 .......................                      9,300         15,570           48,990        17,813        13,243         5,723          5,961          6,311          6,417         7,977
    Service members occupational
         conversion and training act of
           199230 ...........................................                  —              —               —              —             —             —           7,675             —              —             —
Other agencies:
    Appalachian Regional Commission31 ....                                     —       33,161           41,667            9,157         4,632            93          2,173          3,254       2,588         2,600
    National Endowment for the Arts32 ........                                 —           —             3,686            4,989         4,399         4,641          7,117          4,862       6,002         4,816
         Arts in education .............................                       —           —             3,686            4,989         4,399         4,641          7,117          4,862       6,002         4,816
    National Endowment for the
         Humanities33 ....................................                  —               20             149              330           321          404            997            360            812           815
    Office of Economic Opportunity34 ..........                        182,793       1,072,375          16,619               —             —            —              —              —              —             —
         Head Start35 ....................................              96,400         325,700              —                —             —            —              —              —              —             —
         Other elementary and secondary
           programs36 ....................................              20,000         42,809           16,612               —             —             —              —              —              —             —
         Job Corps37 .....................................              34,000        144,000               —                —             —             —              —              —              —             —
         Youth Corps and other training
               programs38 ................................              31,000        553,368                  7             —             —             —              —              —              —             —
424 FEDERAL PROGRAMS



Table 364.—Federal on-budget funds for education, by level or other educational purpose, by agency and program:
                                    Fiscal years 1965 to 2001—Continued
                                                                                                [In thousands of current dollars]

Level or educational purpose, by agency and                         1965           1970             1975          1980          1985          1990 1         1995 2         1999 3         2000 4        2001 5
                  program

                              1                                      2              3                4             5             6              7              8              9              10            11

        Volunteers in Service to America
          (VISTA)39 ......................................               1,393          6,498              —              —             —              —              —              —              —             —
Other programs:
    Estimated education share of federal aid
        to the District of Columbia ................                     8,507      25,748           42,588        65,714        84,918         86,579         66,871        107,857        133,490       144,630

Postsecondary education programs ..........                       $1,197,511     $3,447,697      $7,644,037 $11,115,882 $11,174,379 $13,650,915 $17,618,137 $17,651,199 $15,010,421 $15,310,069

Department of       Education6   ..............................     237,955       1,187,962        2,089,184     5,682,242     8,202,499     11,175,978     14,234,000     13,715,591     10,727,315    10,026,839
   Student financial assistance40 ...............                        —               —                —      3,682,789     4,162,695      5,920,328      7,047,000      9,124,741      9,060,317    10,006,502
   Federal Direct Student Loan
         Program 41,42 ....................................                 —              —                —             —             —              —      840,000        626,794      –2,862,240     –442,485
   Federal Family Education Loan
         Program 42,43 ....................................              —            2,323          111,087     1,407,977     3,534,795      4,372,446      5,190,000      2,805,488      2,707,473    –1,788,059
   Higher education ....................................            218,264       1,029,131        1,838,066       399,787       404,511        659,492        871,000        854,632      1,530,779     1,911,710
   Facilities—loans and insurance42 ..........                        3,588         114,199           16,292       –19,031         5,307         19,219         –6,000         –8,207         –2,174        –4,538
   College housing loans 42,44 ....................                      —               —                —         14,082     –164,061         –57,167        –46,000        –34,959        –41,886       –29,757
   Educational activities overseas ..............                       129             774            1,881         3,561         1,838             82             —              —              —             —
   Historically Black Colleges and
         Universities Capital Financing,
         Program Account45 ..........................                       —              —               —              —             —              —              —            103            150           204
   Gallaudet College and
         Howard University ............................              15,974         38,559          111,971       176,829       229,938        230,327        292,000        301,542        291,060       324,391
   National Technical Institute for the
      Deaf46 ..................................................             —           2,976            9,887     16,248        27,476         31,251         46,000         45,457         43,836        48,871
Department of Agriculture ...............................                   —              —             6,450     10,453        17,741         31,273         33,373         29,676         30,676        32,676
   Agriculture Extension Service, Second
         Morrill Act payments to agricultural
         and mechanical colleges and
         Tuskegee Institute47 .........................                  —              —             6,450        10,453         17,741        31,273         33,373         29,676          30,676        32,676
Department of Commerce ..............................                 5,081          8,277           14,973        29,971          2,163         3,312          3,487          3,602           3,800         3,600
   Sea Grant Program48 .............................                     —              —             1,886         3,123          2,163         3,312          3,487          3,602           3,800         3,600
   Merchant Marine Academy49 .................                        3,570          6,160           10,152        14,809             —             —              —              —               —             —
   State marine schools49 ..........................                  1,511          2,117            2,935        12,039             —             —              —              —               —             —
Department of Defense50 ...............................              77,500        322,100          379,800       545,000      1,041,700       635,769        729,500        983,183       1,147,759     1,198,099
   Tuition assistance for military personnel                             —          57,500           86,800           (51)        77,100        95,300        127,000        280,500         263,303       284,500
   Service academies52 ..............................                77,500         78,700           86,200       106,100        196,400       120,613        163,300        115,116         212,678       236,958
   Senior ROTC ..........................................                —         108,100          116,500           (51)       354,000       193,056        219,400        321,820         363,461       361,355
   Professional development education53 ..                               —          77,800           90,300           (51)       414,200       226,800        219,800        265,747         308,317       315,286
Department of Energy12 .................................              3,000          3,000            3,000        57,701         19,475        25,502         28,027             —               —             —
   University laboratory cooperative
         program ............................................            3,000          3,000            3,000         2,800         6,500          9,402          8,552             —              —             —
   Teacher development projects54 ............                              —              —                —          1,400            —              —              —              —              —             —
   Graduate traineeship programs55 ..........                               —              —                —             —             —              —              —              —              —             —
   Energy conservation for buildings—
      higher education13 ...............................                 —              —                 —         53,501       12,705          7,459          7,381             —              —              —
   Minority honors vocational training56 .....                           —              —                 —             —           150             —              —              —              —              —
   Honors research program56 ...................                         —              —                 —             —           120          6,472          2,221             —              —              —
   Students and teachers57 ........................                      —              —                 —             —            —           2,169          9,873             —              —              —
Department of Health and Human Services14                           469,223        981,483         1,686,650     2,412,058      516,088        578,542        796,035        880,210        954,190      1,204,340
   Health professions training programs58                           139,795        353,029           599,350       460,736      212,200        230,600        298,302        301,656        340,361        587,919
   Indian health manpower59 ......................                       —              —                 —          7,187        5,577          9,508         27,000         29,000         16,000         31,000
   National Health Service Corps
         scholarships ......................................                —              —             1,206     70,667            2,268          4,759      78,206         28,523         33,300        32,332
   National Institutes of Health training
      grants60 ................................................             —              —        154,875       176,388       217,927        241,356        380,502        509,185        550,220       539,000
   National Institute of Occupational Safety
         and Health training grants ................                     4,327          8,088            7,182     12,899            8,760      10,461         11,660         11,709         14,198        14,000
   Alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health
         training programs61 .........................               85,101        118,366           83,727       122,103        43,617         81,353               —              —              —              —
   Health teaching facilities ........................                   —              —               353         3,078           739            505              365            137            110             89
   Social Security postsecondary students’
      benefits62 .............................................      240,000        502,000          839,957      1,559,000       25,000                —              —              —              —             —
Department of Housing and Urban
   Development42 ........................................           220,744        114,199          –55,418            —             —              —              —              —              —             —
   College housing loans 42,44 ....................                 220,744        114,199          –55,418            —             —              —              —              —              —             —
Department of the Interior ..............................            30,153         31,749           50,844        80,202       125,247        135,480        159,054        132,207        187,179       234,501
   Shared revenues, Mineral Leasing Act
         and other receipts—estimated
         education share ................................                6,260          6,949        15,480        35,403        71,991         69,980         82,810         47,800         98,740       143,690
   Indian programs:
         Continuing education63 ...................                   8,993          9,380           13,311        16,909        24,338         34,911         43,907         54,898         57,576        60,604
         Higher education scholarships ........                      14,900         15,420           22,053        27,890        28,918         30,589         32,337         29,509         30,863        30,206
Department of State .......................................          53,420         30,850           50,347            —             —           2,167          3,000        290,000        319,000       321,000
   Educational exchange64 .........................                  53,420         30,850           50,347            —             —              —              —         290,000        319,000       321,000
         Mutual educational and cultural
              exchange activities ...................                47,025         30,454           50,300               —             —              —              —      276,000        303,000       305,000
         International educational exchange
            activities ........................................          6,395            396              47             —             —              —              —       14,000         16,000        16,000
   Russian, Eurasian, and East European
         Research and Training65 ..................                         —           —                —             —             —           2,167          3,000             —              —             —
Department of Transportation22 .....................                        —       11,197           11,885        12,530        55,569         46,025         59,257         60,300         60,300        76,900
   Merchant Marine Academy49 .................                              —           —                —             —         19,898         20,926         30,850         32,000         34,000        47,000
   State marine schools66 ..........................                        —           —                —             —         19,777          8,269          8,980          7,000          7,000         8,000
   Coast Guard Academy23 ........................                           —        9,342            9,780        10,000        11,857         12,074         13,500         14,500         15,500        15,200
   Postgraduate training for Coast Guard
      officers67 ..............................................             —           1,655            1,855         2,230         3,499          4,173          5,513          5,800       2,500         3,100
   Tuition assistance to Coast Guard
         military personnel23 .........................                     —             200           250           300              538           582            414           1,000        1,300        3,600
Department of the Treasury ...........................                   8,208             —        268,605       296,750               —             —              —               —            —            —
                                                                                                                                                                            FEDERAL PROGRAMS 425



Table 364.—Federal on-budget funds for education, by level or other educational purpose, by agency and program:
                                    Fiscal years 1965 to 2001—Continued
                                                                                               [In thousands of current dollars]

Level or educational purpose, by agency and                        1965          1970              1975           1980           1985          1990 1         1995 2         1999 3         2000 4        2001 5
                  program

                               1                                     2             3                4              5              6              7              8              9              10            11

    General revenue sharing—estimated
       state share to
          higher education 24,25 ......................                     —             —        268,605        296,750                —              —              —              —              —             —
    Coast Guard Academy23 ........................                       6,815            —             —              —                 —              —              —              —              —             —
    Postgraduate training for Coast Guard
       officers67 ..............................................         1,293            —                —              —              —              —              —              —              —             —
    Tuition assistance to Coast Guard
          military personnel23 .........................                100            —                 —              —             —              —               —              —              —             —
Department of Veterans Affairs26 ...................                 55,650       693,490         3,029,600      1,803,847       944,091        599,825       1,010,114      1,134,910      1,132,322     1,678,775
    Vietnam-era veterans:68 .........................                33,950       638,260         2,840,600      1,579,974       694,217         46,998              —              —              —             —
          College student support ..................                     —             —                 —       1,560,081       679,953         39,458              —              —              —             —
          Work-study ......................................              —             —                 —          19,893        14,264          7,540              —              —              —             —
    Service persons college support69 .........                          —         18,900            74,690         46,617        35,630          8,911              —              —              —             —
    Post-Vietnam veterans70 ........................                     —             —                 —             922        82,554        161,475          33,596          3,710          3,958         4,300
    All-volunteer-force educational
          assistance:71 ....................................             —             —                —              —             196        269,947        868,394        988,724        984,068      1,494,844
          Veterans72 .......................................             —             —                —              —              —         183,765        760,390        886,059        876,434      1,378,994
          Reservists73 ....................................              —             —                —              —             196         86,182        108,004        102,665        107,634        115,850
    Veteran dependents’ education74 ..........                       21,700        36,330          114,310        176,334        131,494        100,494         95,124        129,476        131,296        165,631
    Payments to state education agencies75                               —             —                —              —              —          12,000         13,000         13,000         13,000         14,000
Other agencies:
    Appalachian Regional Commission31 ....                                  —          4,105            2,545          1,751             —              —           2,741          3,366        2,286         2,300
    National Endowment for the
          Humanities33 ....................................              —          3,349           25,320         56,451         49,098         50,938         56,481         28,518         28,395        28,500
    National Science Foundation .................                    27,170        42,000           60,283         64,583         60,069        161,884        211,800        369,000        389,000       478,000
          Science and engineering education
             programs .......................................        27,170        37,000           60,283         64,583         60,069        161,884        211,800        369,000        389,000       478,000
          Sea Grant Program48 ......................                     —          5,000               —              —              —              —              —              —              —             —
    United States Information Agency76 ......                         7,512         8,423            9,405         51,095        124,041        181,172        260,800             —              —             —
          Educational and cultural affairs64 ...                         —             —                —          49,546         21,079         35,862         13,600             —              —             —
          Educational and cultural exchange
             programs77 ....................................                —             —                —              —      101,529        145,307        247,200                —              —             —
          Educational exchange activities,
             international ..................................               —             —                —           1,549          1,433             3              —              —              —             —
          Information center and library
                activities78 .................................           7,512         8,423            9,405             —              —              —              —              —              —             —
Other programs:
    Barry Goldwater Scholarship and
          Excellence in Education
          Foundation79 ....................................                 —             —                —              —              —           1,033          3,000          3,000       3,000          3,000
    Estimated education share of federal aid
          to the District of Columbia ................                   1,895         5,513        10,564         13,143         15,266         14,637             9,468          8,636      13,199        12,539
    Harry S Truman Scholarship fund 42,80 ..                                —             —             —          –1,895          1,332          2,883             3,000          3,000       3,000         3,000
    Institute of American Indian and Alaskan
          Native Culture and Arts
          Development81 .................................                   —             —                —              —              —           4,305      13,000             4,000        2,000         4,000
    James Madison Memorial Fellowship
       Foundation82 ........................................                —             —                —              —              —            191           2,000          2,000       7,000          2,000

Other education programs ..........................                $374,652      $964,719       $1,608,478      $1,548,730     $2,107,588     $3,383,031     $4,719,655     $5,318,020     $5,485,121    $5,976,416

Department of Education6 ..............................             182,021       630,235         1,045,659       747,706       1,173,055      2,251,801      2,861,000      3,123,291      3,223,355     3,430,388
   Administration .........................................          17,732        47,456           108,372       187,317         284,900        328,293        404,000        439,941        458,054       555,819
   Libraries83 ...............................................       26,111       108,284           225,810       129,127          85,650        137,264        117,000             —              —             —
   Rehabilitative services and disability
        research ............................................       137,313       473,091          709,483        426,886        798,298       1,780,360      2,333,000      2,675,165      2,755,468     2,858,738
   American Printing House for the Blind ...                            865         1,404            1,994          4,349          4,230           5,736          7,000          7,725          9,368        15,203
   Trust funds and contributions42 .............                         —             —                —              27            –23             148             —             460            465           628
Department of Agriculture ...............................            87,551       135,637          220,395        271,112        336,375         352,511        422,878        428,311        444,477       453,788
   Extension Service ...................................             85,924       131,734          215,523        263,584        325,986         337,907        405,371        408,311        424,174       433,429
   National Agricultural Library ...................                  1,627         3,903            4,872          7,528         10,389          14,604         17,507         20,000         20,303        20,359
Department of Commerce ..............................                   251         1,226            2,317          2,479             —               —              —              —              —             —
   Maritime Administration:
        Training for private sector
             employees49 ..............................                    251      1,226            2,317          2,479             —              —              —              —              —             —
Department of Health and Human Services14                                3,953     24,273           31,653         37,819         47,195         77,962        138,000        181,000        214,000       246,000
   National Library of Medicine ..................                       3,953     24,273           31,653         37,819         47,195         77,962        138,000        181,000        214,000       246,000
Department of Housing and Urban
   Development ............................................               512             —                —              —              —              —              —              —              —             —
   Urban mass transportation—managerial
        training grants84 ..............................                512            —                —              —              —              —              —              —              —             —
Department of Justice .....................................           3,850         5,546           42,818         27,642         25,517         26,920         36,296         33,759         34,727        24,442
   FBI National Academy ...........................                   1,850         2,066            5,100          7,234          4,189          6,028         12,831         18,815         22,479        14,776
   FBI Field Police Academy ......................                    1,450         2,500            5,254          7,715         10,220         10,548         11,140         14,410         11,962         9,280
   Narcotics and dangerous drug training ..                             550           980            1,152          2,416             83            850            325            534            286           386
   National Institute of Corrections85 ..........                        —             —            31,312         10,277         11,025          9,494         12,000             —              —             —
Department of State .......................................          10,780        20,672           28,113         25,000         23,791         47,539         51,648         56,921         69,349        73,268
   Foreign Service Institute ........................                 6,395        15,857           20,750         25,000         23,791         47,539         51,648         56,921         69,349        73,268
   Center for Cultural and Technical
        Interchange64 ...................................                4,385         4,815         7,363             —                 —              —             —              —              —             —
Department of Transportation22 .....................                        —          3,964        11,877         10,212             3,785          1,507           650            720            700           700
   Highways training and education
      grants86 ................................................             —          2,418            3,250          3,412          1,500             —              —              —              —             —
   Maritime Administration:
        Training for private sector
             employees49 ..............................                     —             —                —              —           1,135          1,507           650            720            700           700
   Urban mass transportation—managerial
        training grants84 ..............................                    —          1,546            2,627            500          1,150             —              —              —              —             —
   Federal Aviation Administration87
        Air traffic controllers second career
           program88 .....................................                  —             —             6,000          6,300             —              —              —              —              —             —
426 FEDERAL PROGRAMS



Table 364.—Federal on-budget funds for education, by level or other educational purpose, by agency and program:
                                    Fiscal years 1965 to 2001—Continued
                                                                                                  [In thousands of current dollars]

Level or educational purpose, by agency and                           1965           1970             1975           1980           1985         1990 1        1995 2        1999 3         2000 4        2001 5
                  program

                               1                                       2              3                4              5              6             7             8             9              10            11

Department of the Treasury ...........................                        —              18            3,096      14,584         16,160        41,488        48,000        65,000         83,000        92,000
    Federal Law Enforcement Training
          Center89 ............................................               —              18            3,096      14,584         16,160        41,488        48,000        65,000         83,000        92,000
Other agencies:
    ACTION90 ...............................................               —              —             7,045          2,833          1,761         8,472            —             —              —             —
          Estimated education funds91 ..........                           —              —             7,045          2,833          1,761         8,472            —             —              —             —
    Agency for International Development ...                           63,329         88,034           78,896         99,707        141,847       170,371       260,408       313,047        299,000       396,000
          Education and human resources ....                           53,968         61,570           58,349         80,518        115,104       142,801       248,408       313,047        299,000       396,000
          American schools and hospitals
             abroad ...........................................            9,361      26,464           20,547         19,189         26,743        27,570        12,000               —            —            —
    Appalachian Regional Commission30 ....                                    —          572            1,574          8,124            113            —          5,709            3,411        2,369        2,400
    Corporation for National and Community
      Service90 ..............................................                —              —                —              —              —             —     214,600       372,000        386,000       498,000
          Estimated education funds91 ..........                              —              —                —              —              —             —     214,600       372,000        386,000       498,000
    Federal Emergency Management
          Agency92 ..........................................                 —             290              290            281            405          215     170,400        14,356         14,894        12,500
    Estimated architect/engineer student
          development program93 ..................                            —              40               40             31            155          200          —             —              —             —
          Estimated other training programs94                                 —             250              250            250            250           15          —             —              —             —
          Estimated disaster relief95 ..............                          —              —                —              —              —            —      170,400        14,356         14,894        12,500
    General Services Administration
          Libraries and other archival
               activities 96 .................................             4,013      14,775           22,532         34,800                —             —             —             —              —             —
    Institute of Museum and Library
          Services83 .........................................                —              —                —              —              —             —             —     142,000        166,000       165,000
    Japanese-United States Friendship
      Commission97 ......................................                  —              —                —           2,294          2,236         2,299         2,000         2,000          3,000         3,000
    Library of Congress ................................               15,111         29,478           63,766        151,871        169,310       189,827       241,000       350,000        299,000       305,000
          Salaries and expenses ....................                   11,421         20,700           48,798        102,364        130,354       148,985       198,000       301,000        247,000       253,000
          Books for the blind and the
               physically handicapped .............                        2,317          6,195        11,908         31,436         32,954        37,473        39,000        45,000         46,000        47,000
          Special foreign currency program ...                             1,187          2,273         2,333          3,492          4,621            10            —             —              —             —
          Furniture and furnishings ................                         186            310           727         14,579          1,381         3,359         4,000         4,000          6,000         5,000
    National Aeronautics and Space
          Administration
          Aerospace education services
             project ...........................................             100            350              600            882          1,800         3,300         5,923         6,649       6,800          6,200
    National Archives and Records
          Administration98
          Libraries and other archival
               activities .....................................               —              —                —              —       52,118        77,397       105,172       131,707        121,879       142,713
    National Commission on Libraries and
          Information Science99 .....................                         —              —               449          2,090            723         3,281         1,000         1,000       2,000         1,000
    National Endowment for the Arts32 ........                                —             340            1,068            231          1,137           936         2,304         6,275       4,046         5,265
    National Endowment for the
          Humanities33 ....................................                   —           5,090        38,486         85,805         76,252        89,706        94,249        63,221         70,807        71,000
    Smithsonian Institution ...........................                    2,233          2,461         5,509          5,153          7,886         5,779         9,961        10,135         25,764        31,794
          Museum programs and related
               research ....................................               2,133          2,261            4,203          3,254          4,665          690          3,190         3,400      18,000        19,000
          National Gallery of Art extension
             service ...........................................             100            200              300            426            675          474           771           735            764           794
          Woodrow Wilson International
               Center for Scholars ...................                        —              —             1,006          1,473          2,546         4,615         6,000         6,000       7,000        12,000
    U.S. Information Agency—Center for
          Cultural and Technical Inter-
             change64 .......................................                 —              —                —       15,115         18,966        20,375        34,000            —              —             —
    U.S. Institute of Peace100 .......................                        —              —                —           —              —          7,621        12,000        12,000         13,000        15,000
Other programs:
    Estimated education share of federal aid
          for the District of Columbia ..............                        948          1,758            2,335          2,990          7,156         3,724         2,457         1,217           954           958

Research programs at universities and
   related institutions101 ............................             $1,816,276     $2,283,641      $3,418,410      $5,801,204     $8,844,575 $12,606,035 $15,677,919 $19,956,467 $21,198,044 $22,781,065

      Department of        Education102      ...................       13,248         87,823           82,770          78,742         28,809        89,483       279,000       478,532        116,464       365,418
      Department of Agriculture ......................                 58,362         64,796          108,162         216,405        293,252       348,109       434,544       492,374        581,395       501,500
      Department of Commerce ......................                     4,015          4,487           21,677          48,295         52,951        50,523        85,442       102,200        104,600       126,900
      Department of Defense ..........................                436,912        356,188          364,929         644,455      1,245,888     1,871,864     1,853,955     1,750,068      1,799,611     1,788,911
      Department of Energy ............................               439,334        548,327          761,376       1,470,224      2,205,316     2,520,885     2,651,641     3,354,514      3,373,918     3,535,161
      Department of Health and Human
          Services ............................................       474,362        623,765         1,273,037      2,087,053      3,228,014     4,902,714     6,418,969     9,044,402     10,422,554    11,037,433
      Department of Housing and Urban
          Development ....................................                    —          510            2,650          5,314            438           118         1,613         1,000          1,000         1,100
      Department of the Interior ......................                    9,839      18,521           28,955         42,175         34,422        49,790        50,618        47,800         46,800        48,000
      Department of Justice ............................                      —        1,945            8,902          9,189          5,168         6,858         7,204        22,900         18,100        18,000
      Department of Labor ..............................                      —        3,567            6,124         12,938          3,417         5,893        10,114         5,300          5,400         5,600
      Department of State ...............................                     —        8,220           10,973            188             29         1,519            23            —              —             —
      Department of Transportation ................                           —       12,328           28,478         31,910         22,621        28,608        75,847        53,860         59,066        61,172
      Department of the Treasury ...................                          —           —                —             226            388           227         1,496            —              —             —
      Department of Veterans Affairs ..............                          337         518            1,112          1,600          1,000         2,300         2,500            —              —             —
      ACTION ..................................................               —           —                36             —              —             —             —             —              —             —
      Agency for International Development ...                                —           —                —          77,063         56,960        79,415        30,172        13,000         14,000        13,700
      Corporation for National and Community
        Service .................................................             —           —                —              —              —             —             —             —              —             —
      Environmental Protection Agency ..........                              —       19,446           33,875         41,083         60,521        87,481       125,721       127,800        153,500       151,600
      Federal Emergency Management
          Agency ..............................................               —              —                —           1,665          1,423            —             —             —              —             —
      National Aeronautics and Space
          Administration ...................................          208,688        258,016          197,301        254,629         485,824     1,090,003     1,751,977     2,087,700      2,089,738     2,091,720
      National Science Foundation .................                   154,046        253,628          475,011        743,809       1,087,046     1,427,007     1,874,395     2,360,717      2,396,298     3,017,505
                                                                                                                                                                    FEDERAL PROGRAMS 427



Table 364.—Federal on-budget funds for education, by level or other educational purpose, by agency and program:
                                    Fiscal years 1965 to 2001—Continued
                                                                                           [In thousands of current dollars]

Level or educational purpose, by agency and                      1965         1970             1975         1980           1985          1990 1         1995 2        1999 3         2000 4         2001 5
                  program

                            1                                     2            3                4            5               6              7             8              9             10             11

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission ............                           —         —                7,093    32,590          30,261         42,328        22,188             8,900       9,100        10,800
    Office of Economic Opportunity .............                      7,078    20,035                  —         —               —              —             —                 —           —             —
    U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament
      Agency .................................................        —              100               —           661            395            25            —                —           —              —
    U.S. Information Agency ........................                  —               —                —            —              —             —             —                —           —              —
    Other agencies .......................................        10,055           1,421            5,949          990            432           885           500            5,400       6,500          6,545


   —Not available or applicable.                                                                                     30 The purpose of this program is to provide stable and permanent employment to
   1 Excludes $4,440,000,000 for federal support for medical education benefits under                            those men and women who have served on active duty on or after August 2, 1990, and
Medicare in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Is not included in the                             are unemployed. Program expired in 1997.
total because data before fiscal year 1990 are not available. This program has existed                               31 This agency was established March 9, 1965. Its first year of appropriations was

since Medicare began, but was not available as a separate budget item until FY 90.                               1966. The outlays were larger in the years 1970 and 1975 for elementary and secondary
   2 Excludes $7,510,000,000 for federal support for medical education benefits under
                                                                                                                 education because of the construction of facilities for vocational schools.
Medicare. See footnote 1.                                                                                            32 This agency was established in 1965. In 1970, $900,000 was appropriated through
   3 Excludes $10,290,000,000 for federal support for medical education benefits under
                                                                                                                 the Office of Education, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, for the Na-
Medicare. See footnote 1.                                                                                        tional Endowment for the Arts, Arts in Education program.
   4 Excludes $8,020,000,000 for federal support for medical education benefits under                                33 This agency was established in 1965. First year of appropriations was 1966.
Medicare. See footnote 1.                                                                                            34 The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 authorized 10 major action programs, includ-
   5 Estimated. Excludes $8,030,000,000 for federal support for medical education bene-
                                                                                                                 ing Job Corps, Neighborhood Youth Corps, Adult Literacy, Work Experience, College
fits under Medicare. See footnote 1.                                                                             Work-Study, and Community Action programs, including Head Start, Follow Through,
   6 The U.S. Department of Education was created in May 1980. It formerly was the Of-
                                                                                                                 and Upward Bound, and authorized the establishment of Volunteers in Service to Amer-
fice of Education in the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.                                      ica (VISTA). These programs were transferred to the U.S. Department of Health, Edu-
   7 Section 6 of public law 81–874 (the former Impact Aid statute) was funded and ad-
                                                                                                                 cation, and Welfare, U.S. Department of Labor, and the Action Agency in the 1970s. An
ministered by the U.S. Department of Education during 1951–1981. This program al-                                act on January 4, 1975 established the Community Services Administration as the suc-
lowed the Secretary to make arrangements for the education of children who reside on                             cessor agency to the Office of Economic Opportunity.
federal property when no suitable local school district could or would provide for the edu-                          35 Head Start program funds were transferred to the U.S. Department of Health, Edu-
cation of these children. Since 1981, the provision was funded by the Department of De-                          cation, and Welfare, Office of Child Development, in 1972.
fense and in 1994, when public law 81–874 was repealed, the Department of Defense                                    36 Most of these programs were transferred to the U.S. Department of Health, Edu-
was authorized to fund and administer similar provisions.                                                        cation, and Welfare, Office of Education, in 1972.
   8 This program creates a national framework for education reform and meeting the Na-
                                                                                                                     37 The Job Corps programs were transferred to the U.S. Department of Labor in 1971
tional Education Goals. This program includes the School-To-Work Opportunities pro-                              and 1972.
gram administered jointly by the U.S. Departments of Education and Labor. This pro-                                  38 These programs were transferred to the U.S. Department of Labor in 1971 and
gram helps states create statewide systems to help youth acquire the knowledge, skills,                          1972.
abilities, and labor market information they need to make an effective transition from                               39 These programs were transferred to the Action Agency in 1972.
school to work or to further their education or training.                                                            40 Similar programs were included in the ‘‘higher education’’ program in 1965 through
   9 Starting in FY 94, the Special Milk program was included in the Child Nutrition pro-
                                                                                                                 1975.
gram.                                                                                                                41 The Student Loan Reform Act of 1993 authorized a new Federal Direct Student
   10 These commodities are purchased under Section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935,
                                                                                                                 Loan (FDSL) program, renamed the William D. Ford Direct Loan program. This program
for use in the child nutrition programs.
   11 This program assisted in the construction of public facilities, such as vocational
                                                                                                                 is a new streamlined lending system that simplifies the process of obtaining and repay-
                                                                                                                 ing loans for student and parent borrowers and provides borrowers with greater choice
schools, through grants or loans. No funds have been appropriated for this account since
                                                                                                                 in repayment plans.
FY 77, and it was completely phased out in FY 84.                                                                    42 Negative amounts occur when program receipts exceed outlays.
   12 The U.S. Department of Energy was created in 1977. It formerly was the Energy
                                                                                                                     43 Similar programs were included in the ‘‘higher education’’ program in 1965 through
Research and Development Administration and before that the Atomic Energy Commis-
                                                                                                                 1975, formerly called the ‘‘Guaranteed Student Loan’’ program.
sion. No funds were designated for any of the education programs listed on this table                                44 This program was transferred from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban De-
in FYs 96 and 97.
   13 This program was established in 1979. Funds were first appropriated for this pro-                          velopment to the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Edu-
gram in FY 80.                                                                                                   cation, in FY 79.
                                                                                                                     45 The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Capital Financing program
   14 The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services was part of the U.S. Depart-

ment of Health, Education, and Welfare until May 1980.                                                           was authorized by the Higher Education Act Amendments of 1992 to provide HBCUs
   15 The Head Start program was formerly in the Office of Economic Opportunity, and                             with private funds for repair, renovation, and construction projects.
                                                                                                                     46 First year of appropriations for this program was 1967.
funds were appropriated to the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Of-
                                                                                                                     47 Program funds were first appropriated for Tuskegee Institute in 1972.
fice of Child Development, beginning in 1972.
                                                                                                                     48 The Sea Grant College Program Act of 1966 established a matching fund grant pro-
   16 This program was created by the Family Support Act of 1988. It provides funds for

the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training program. This activity is being replaced                         gram that provides for the establishment of a network of programs in fields related to
by Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program.                                                              development and preservation of the nation’s coastal and marine resources. This pro-
   17 After age 18, benefits terminate at the end of the school term or in 3 months, which-                      gram was transferred from the National Science Foundation to the U.S. Department of
ever is less.                                                                                                    Commerce, October 1970.
   18 This program provides funding for supplemental programs for eligible American In-                              49 This program was transferred to the U.S. Department of Transportation in FY 81

dian students in public schools.                                                                                 by Public Law 97–31, from the U.S. Department of Commerce.
   19 This program finances the cost of academic, social, and occupational education                                 50 The U.S. Department of Defense funds for FYs 90 to 96 exclude military pay and

courses for inmates in federal prisons.                                                                          reserve accounts which were included in previous years. FY 65 data are not available
   20 The Job Corps program was formerly in the Office of Economic Opportunity, and                              except for service academies.
                                                                                                                     51 Included in total above.
funds were appropriated to the U.S. Department of Labor beginning in 1971 and 1972.
   21 Some of the work and training programs included in this program were in the Office                             52Instructional costs only are included. These include academics, audiovisual, aca-

of Economic Opportunity and were transferred to the U.S. Department of Labor in 1971                             demic computing center, faculty training, military training, physical education, and librar-
and 1972. Beginning in FY 94, the School-to-Work Opportunities program is included.                              ies.
                                                                                                                     53 Includes special education programs (military and civilian); legal education program;
This program is administered jointly by the U.S. Departments of Education and Labor.
   22 The U.S. Department of Transportation was created in 1967.                                                 flight training; advanced degree program; college degree program (officers); and ‘‘Armed
   23 This program was transferred from the U.S. Department of the Treasury to the U.S.                          Forces Health Professions Scholarship’’ program.
                                                                                                                     54 No funds have been appropriated since FY 82.
Department of Transportation in 1967.
   24 This program was established in FY 72 and closed in FY 86.                                                     55 This program receives funds periodically.
   25 The states’ share of revenue-sharing funds could not be spent on education in FYs                              56 Appropriations began in FY 84.
                                                                                                                     57 Appropriations began in FY 89.
81–86.
   26 The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, formerly the Veterans Administration, was                             58 Does not include higher education assistance loans.

created in March 1989.                                                                                               59 Appropriations began in FY 78.
   27 This program provides educational assistance allowances in order to restore lost                               60 Alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health training programs are included starting in

educational opportunities to those individuals whose careers were interrupted or impeded                         fiscal year 1992.
by reason of active military service between January 31, 1955, and January 1, 1977.                                  61 Beginning in fiscal year 1992, data were included in the National Institutes of Health

Includes ‘‘Readjustment Benefits,’’ Chapter 34, for education other than college and also                        training grants program.
includes the Veterans Job Training program for service persons and veterans. The                                     62 Postsecondary student benefits were ended by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation

Chapter 34 program closed December 31, 1989. The Veterans Job Training Program                                   Act of 1981 (Public Law 97–35) and were completely phased out by August 1985.
was put in the program Payments to State Education Agencies. Veterans who were still                                 63 Includes adult education, tribally-controlled community colleges, postsecondary in-

eligible to receive benefits under Chapter 34 were covered by Chapter 30 (The All-Vol-                           struction, and other education.
unteer-Force Educational Assistance program).                                                                        64 This program was transferred from the U.S. Department of State to the International
   28 This program is in ‘‘Readjustment Benefits’’ program, Chapter 31, and covers the                           Communication Agency (I.C.A.) in 1977, which consolidated the functions of the U.S. In-
costs of subsistence, tuition, books, supplies, and equipment for disabled veterans re-                          formation Agency and the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural
quiring vocational rehabilitation.                                                                               Affairs. In FY 82 the I.C.A. became the U.S.I.A. In FY 98 pursuant to the Foreign Affairs
   29 This program is in the ‘‘Readjustment Benefits’’ program, Chapter 35, and provides                         Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998, this program from the United States Information
benefits to children and spouses of veterans.                                                                    Agency was transferred to the U.S. Department of State.
428 FEDERAL PROGRAMS


   65 This program provides funds for advanced study and research projects of the Rus-            82 Public Laws 99–500 and 99–591 established the James Madison Memorial Fellow-

sian, Eurasian, and Eastern European countries by American institutions of higher edu-         ship Foundation to operate a fellowship program to encourage graduate study of the
cation and private research firms. Appropriations began in FY 88.                              American Constitution. First year of appropriations was FY 88.
   66 This program was transferred to the U.S. Department of Transportation in FY 81              83 This program was transferred to the Institute of Museum and Library Services in fis-

by Public Law 97–31 from the U.S. Department of Commerce.                                      cal year 1997. Program was formerly in the U.S. Department of Education.
   67 Includes flight training. This program was in the U.S. Department of the Treasury           84 This program was transferred to the U.S. Department of Transportation in FY 68

in 1965 and was transferred to the U.S. Department of Transportation in 1967.                  from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
   68 Includes benefits for Vietnam-era veterans under Chapter 34 (GI Bill) of the ‘‘Read-        85 This program was established by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

justment Benefits’’ education and training program. This program provides educational          Act of 1974 to provide education and training and to provide leadership in improving cor-
assistance allowances, primarily on a monthly basis, in order to restore lost educational      rectional programs and practices in prisons. This program was transferred in 1997 to the
opportunities to those individuals whose careers were interrupted or impeded by reason         Federal Prison System, Salaries and Expenses, budget in the Contract Confinement pro-
of active military service between January 31, 1955, and January 1, 1977. This program         gram.
                                                                                                  86 Appropriations for this program began in FY 70.
closed December 31, 1989. Some veterans who were still eligible were put in Chapter
                                                                                                  87 The Federal Aviation Administration, an independent agency, was transferred to the
30 (the All-Volunteer-Force Educational Assistance program).
   69 Includes service persons under Chapter 34 (GI Bill) of the ‘‘Readjustment Benefits’’     U.S. Department of Transportation in FY 67.
                                                                                                  88 Appropriations began in FY 72.
education and training program. Service persons with over 180 days of active duty, any
                                                                                                  89 First year of appropriations was FY 70.
part of which was before January 1, 1977, are eligible to participate in this program.
   70 Includes post-Vietnam-era veterans, under Chapter 32, of the post-Vietnam-era               90 The National Service Trust Act of 1993 established the Corporation for National and

‘‘Veterans Education Account.’’ Provides education and training assistance payments to         Community Service. In 1993, ACTION became part of this agency.
                                                                                                  91 These programs included the Service Learning programs, University Year for AC-
veterans and service persons with no active duty time before January 1, 1977. Funding
is provided through participants’ contributions while on active duty and through transfers     TION, Volunteers in Service to America, Youth Challenge program, and the National Stu-
from the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs             dent Volunteer program in FY 1975. In FY 80, programs included were the University
funds are not appropriated for this program, so these data represent obligations, which        Year for ACTION, Young Volunteers for ACTION, and National Service Learning pro-
are funded through other agencies’ appropriations.                                             grams. In fiscal year 1985, the program included was the Service Learning programs,
   71 Public Law 98–525, enacted October 19, 1984 (New GI Bill), established two new           and in FYs 89 to 94, programs included were the Literacy Corps and the Student Com-
peacetime educational programs: an assistance program for veterans who entered active          munity Services program. In FYs 94 through 98 the AmeriCorps program was included.
duty during the period beginning July 1, 1985, to June 30, 1988, and an assistance pro-        This program provides education grants to help pay for college or to repay student loans
gram for certain members of the Selected Reserve.                                              for people who perform community service before, during or after postsecondary edu-
   72 Chapter 30, also called the Montgomery Bill, and the new GI Bill are for eligible vet-   cation.
                                                                                                  92 The Federal Emergency Management Agency was created in 1979, representing a
erans who have agreed to have their military pay reduced $100 per month for their first
12 months of active duty. The ‘‘Readjustment Benefits’’ account under the U.S. Depart-         combination of five existing agencies. The two largest were the Defense Civil Prepared-
ment of Veterans Affairs pays only the basic allowance, up to a maximum of $536 per            ness Agency in the U.S. Department of Defense and the Federal Preparedness Agency
month, for full-time training. ‘‘Supplemental Benefits’’ are paid by the U.S. Department       in the General Services Administration. The funds for the Federal Emergency Manage-
of Defense (DOD).                                                                              ment Agency in FY 70 to FY 75 were in the other agencies.
                                                                                                  93 First year of appropriations was FY 68.
   73 Chapter 106 is for members of the Selected Reserve. The reserve components in-
                                                                                                  94 First appropriations for the ‘‘other training programs’’ were in the late 1960s. These
clude the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps Reserve, Army National Guard and Air
National Guard under the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the Coast Guard Re-             programs include the Fall-Out Shelter Analysis, Blast Protection Design through 1992.
serve, which is under the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) when it is not oper-         Starting in FY 1993, earthquake training and safety for teachers and administrators for
ating as a service in the Navy. Eligible persons can receive up to $255 per month for          grades 1 through 12 are included.
                                                                                                  95 The disaster relief program repairs and replaces damaged and destroyed school
full-time training. The DOD and DOT pay for this program, and the U.S. Department of
Veterans Affairs administers it.                                                               buildings. In FY 94 and FY 95 funds were for repairs due to the Northridge Earthquake
   74 Includes dependents of veterans under Chapter 35, the ‘‘Readjustment Benefits’’          in California. In FY 94, $37.2 million was spent on school districts; $4.2 million was spent
education and training program. Provides education and training benefits to dependents         on community colleges and $43.8 million spent on universities. In FY 95, $74.4 million
of veterans who died of a service-connected disability or whose service-connected dis-         was spent on school districts; $8.4 million on community colleges and $87.6 million on
ability is rated permanent and total.                                                          colleges and universities.
                                                                                                  96 This program was transferred from the General Services Administration to the Na-
   75 Payments have been made to state education agencies for a number of years but
                                                                                               tional Archives and Records Administration in April 1985.
were not listed separately until FY 88.                                                           97 This program makes grants for the promotion of scholarly, cultural, and artistic ex-
   76 The U.S.I.A. was called the ‘‘International Communication Agency’’ in FYs 80 and
                                                                                               changes between Japan and the United States. Appropriations began in FY 76.
81. This program was transferred from the U.S. Department of State to the International           98 The National Archives and Records Administration became an independent agency
Communication Agency (I.C.A.) in 1977, which consolidated the functions of the U.S. In-
                                                                                               in April 1985.
formation Agency and the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural            99 This program was established by the act of July 20, 1970, Public Law 91–345.
Affairs. In FY 82 the I.C.A. became the U.S.I.A. In FY 98 pursuant to the Foreign Affairs         100 This program was established by Congress to conduct and support research and
Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998, this program from the United States Information
                                                                                               scholarships in the fields of peace, arms control, and conflict resolution.
Agency was transferred to the U.S. Department of State and the newly created Broad-               101 Includes federal obligations for research and development centers administered by
casting Board of Governors.
   77 This program was in the ‘‘Educational and Cultural Affairs’’ program in FYs 80–83,
                                                                                               colleges and universities. FY 2000 and FY 2001 are estimated.
                                                                                                  102 Total outlays for FYs 65 and 70 include the ‘‘Research and Training’’ program. FY
and became an independent program in FY 84.
   78 This program was combined with the ‘‘Educational and Cultural Affairs’’ program in
                                                                                               75 includes the ‘‘National Institute of Education’’ program. FYs 80 to FY 2001 include
                                                                                               outlays for the Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
FY 77.
   79 Public Law 99–661 established this program to operate the Foundation which
                                                                                                  NOTE: Some data have been revised from previously published figures. To the extent
awards scholarships and fellowships to outstanding graduate and undergraduate stu-             possible, amounts reported represent outlays rather than obligations. Detail may not sum
dents who intend to pursue careers or advanced degrees in science or mathematics. It           to totals due to rounding.
may also award honoraria to outstanding individuals who have made significant contribu-
tions to improve the instruction of science and mathematics in secondary schools.                 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
   80 Appropriations for this program began in FY 76.                                          compiled from data appearing in U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the
   81 Public Law 99–498 established this Institute as an independent non-profit corpora-       U.S. Government, Appendix fiscal years 1967 to 2002; National Science Foundation,
tion to provide Native Americans with an opportunity to obtain a postsecondary edu-            Federal Funds for Research and Development, fiscal years 1965 to 2001; and unpub-
cation in various fields of Indian art and culture.                                            lished data obtained from various federal agencies. (This table was prepared April 2001.)
                                                                                                                                                                          FEDERAL PROGRAMS 429



     Table 365.—Estimated federal support for education, by agency and type of ultimate recipient: Fiscal year 2001
                                                                                                       [In millions of dollars]

                                                                                                                   Local          State                   Institutions                  Multiple
                                                                                                                                              College
                                           Agency                                                     Total      education      education                  of higher       Federal      types of     Other 1
                                                                                                                                              students
                                                                                                                 agencies       agencies                   education                   recipients

                                                1                                                       2            3              4             5            6             7             8           9

Total 2 .........................................................................................   $128,149.7 $28,184.7          $7,309.5 $25,082.9       $41,866.2 $3,821.6 $14,783.7              $7,100.9

   Total program funds - on-budget ........................................                          $92,774.5 $28,184.7          $6,259.0 $10,190.5       $29,735.4 $3,821.6 $14,783.7              –$200.6

Department         of   Education ............................................................        36,754.1    17,635.0         4,919.4     6,187.3        6,104.1        614.3       2,332.8     –1,039.1
Department         of   Agriculture ..........................................................        11,029.5     9,564.5           477.1          —           534.2         20.4            —         433.4
Department         of   Commerce ..........................................................              130.5          —               —           —           130.5           —             —            —
Department         of   Defense ..............................................................         4,476.2       218.4              —        368.1        2,066.6      1,507.7         315.3           —
Department         of   Energy ................................................................        3,535.2          —               —           —         3,535.2           —             —            —
Department         of   Health and Human Services ..............................                      19,467.4       584.2              —      1,236.4       11,572.1        246.0       5,828.7           —
Department         of   Housing and Urban Development ......................                               1.1          —               —           —             1.1           —             —            —
Department         of   the Interior ..........................................................        1,095.1        27.5             4.4        30.2          191.7        488.4         352.9           —
Department         of   Justice ................................................................         286.8          —               —           —            18.0        268.8            —            —
Department         of   Labor ..................................................................       5,633.6          —            844.2          —             5.6           —        4,783.8           —
Department         of   State ...................................................................        394.3          —               —           —              —          73.3         321.0           —
Department         of   Transportation ....................................................              139.0          —               —          4.0           64.1         62.2           0.7          8.0
Department         of   the Treasury .......................................................              92.0          —               —           —              —          92.0            —            —
Department         of   Veterans Affairs ..................................................            2,106.0          —             14.0     2,092.0             —            —             —            —

                          Other agencies and programs
Agency for International Development .......................................                            409.7              —            —             —            13.7          —              —      396.0
Appalachian Regional Commission ............................................                              7.3              —            —             —             2.3          —             5.0        —
Barry Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence in
  Education Foundation ............................................................                       3.0              —            —             —            —             —           3.0           —
Corporation for National and Community Service .....................                                    498.0              —            —             —            —             —         498.0           —
Environmental Protection Agency ..............................................                          151.6              —            —             —         151.6            —            —            —
Estimated education share of federal aid to the
  District of Columbia ...............................................................                  158.1        144.6              —             —            12.5          —             1.0         —
Federal Emergency Management Agency .................................                                    12.5         10.5              —             —              —           —             2.0         —
General Services Administration ................................................                           —            —               —             —              —           —              —          —
Harry S Truman scholarship fund ..............................................                            3.0           —               —             —              —           —             3.0         —
Institute of American Indian and Alaskan Native
  Culture and Arts Development ..............................................                              4.0             —            —             —            —            —            4.0           —
Institute of Library and Museum Services ..................................                              165.0             —            —             —            —            —          165.0           —
James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation .....................                                         2.0             —            —             —            —            —            2.0           —
Japanese-United States Friendship Commission ......................                                        3.0             —            —             —            —            —            3.0           —
Library of Congress ....................................................................                 305.0             —            —             —            —         305.0            —            —
National Aeronautics and Space Administration ........................                                 2,097.9             —            —             —       2,091.7           —            6.2           —
National Archives and Records Administration ..........................                                  142.7             —            —             —            —         142.7            —            —
National Commission on Libraries and
  Information Science ...............................................................                      1.0             —            —            —             —              —           —            1.0
National Endowment for the Arts ...............................................                           10.1             —            —            —             —              —         10.1            —
National Endowment for the Humanities ....................................                               100.3             —            —            —             —              —        100.3            —
National Science Foundation .....................................................                      3,495.5             —            —         272.5       3,223.0             —           —             —
Nuclear Regulatory Commission ................................................                            10.8             —            —            —           10.8             —           —             —
Smithsonian Institution ...............................................................                   31.8             —            —            —             —             0.8        31.0            —
U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency ...........................                                        —              —            —            —             —              —           —             —
U.S. Information Agency3 ...........................................................                        —              —            —            —             —              —           —             —
U.S. Institute of Peace ...............................................................                   15.0             —            —            —             —              —         15.0            —
Other agencies ...........................................................................                 6.5             —            —            —            6.5             —           —             —

   Off-budget support and nonfederal funds
     generated by federal legislation .........................................                       35,375.2             —       1,050.5    14,892.4       12,130.8            —             —      7,301.5

  —Not available or applicable.                                                                                            SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary, unpublished
  1 Other recipients include Indian tribes, private nonprofit agencies, and banks.
                                                                                                                         tabulations; U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government,
  2 Includes on-budget support, off-budget support, and nonfederal funds generated by
                                                                                                                         Fiscal Year 2002; National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Devel-
federal legislation. Excludes federal tax expenditures.                                                                  opment, Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001; and unpublished data obtained from var-
  3 This agency’s education funds were transferred to the U.S. Department of State.
                                                                                                                         ious federal agencies. (This table was prepared April 2001.)
   NOTE: Outlays by type of recipient are estimated based on obligation data. Negative
amounts occur when program receipts exceed outlays. Detail may not sum to totals due
to rounding.
430 FEDERAL PROGRAMS



    Table 366.—Federal on-budget funds obligated for programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education:
                                             Fiscal years 1980 to 2001
                                                                                                         [In thousands of dollars]

                                                                                                                                            In current dollars
                                      Program
                                                                                              1980        1985         1990          1995         1997             1998            1999           2000 2        20013

                                            1                                                  2           3            4             5             6               7               8               9             10

   Total ................................................................................... $14,102,165 $18,818,201 $25,214,923 $31,453,000 $35,830,000 $35,663,000 $33,506,000 $40,048,000 $48,360,000

Elementary and secondary education ...................................                       4,239,022   4,732,864    7,169,693    9,124,000    10,387,000       11,009,000       8,578,000      12,582,000    16,371,000
   Grants for the disadvantaged ...........................................                  3,204,664   3,745,855    5,383,960    7,200,000     7,831,000        7,801,000       3,723,000       8,680,000     9,020,000
   School improvement programs .........................................                       788,918     748,000    1,524,001    1,343,000     1,428,000        1,538,000       3,085,000       1,628,000     4,928,000
   Bilingual education ............................................................            169,540     171,605      188,152      206,000       261,000          354,000         379,000         406,000       460,000
   Indian education ...............................................................             75,900      67,404       73,580       81,000        61,000           63,000          66,000          77,000       116,000
   Education Reform - Goals 2000 .......................................                            —           —            —       294,000       806,000        1,253,000       1,325,000       1,791,000     1,847,000

School assistance in federally affected areas .......................                         812,873     695,746      815,573       783,000       737,000         843,000         912,000         910,000      1,001,000
   Maintenance and operations ............................................                    690,000     665,000      717,354       715,000       680,000         738,000         782,000         825,000       983,000
   Construction ......................................................................        110,873      23,037       22,929         2,000        12,000          16,000          24,000          11,000        13,000
   Disaster assistance ...........................................................             12,000       7,709       75,290        66,000        45,000          89,000         106,000          74,000         5,000

Education for the handicapped .............................................                  1,555,253   2,666,056    3,480,122    5,767,000     6,552,000        7,489,000       7,993,000       4,872,000     9,177,000
   State grant programs ........................................................              815,805    1,245,219    1,258,871    2,467,000     3,066,000        3,841,000       4,346,000       1,204,000     5,198,000
   Early childhood education 4 ..............................................                  38,745       27,625      280,341      661,000       723,000          798,000         747,000         711,000       894,000
   Special centers, projects, and research ...........................                         55,075       53,430       72,966      132,000       124,000          123,000         129,000         130,000       157,000
   Captioned films and media services ................................                         17,778       35,670       15,191       19,000        46,000           52,000          35,000          36,000        39,000
   Personnel training .............................................................            55,375       68,025       70,838       91,000        81,000           81,000          81,000          82,000        81,000
   Handicapped rehabilitation service and research ............                               572,475    1,236,087    1,781,915    2,397,000     2,512,000        2,594,000       2,655,000       2,709,000     2,808,000

Vocational education and adult programs .............................                        1,153,743    856,271     1,138,674    1,461,000     1,484,000        1,506,000       1,524,000        866,000      1,819,000
   Basic programs 5 ...............................................................           744,653     725,624      858,716     1,004,000     1,015,000        1,027,000       1,023,000        284,000      1,132,000
   Consumer and homemaking ............................................                        63,169      33,138       34,517         1,000            —                —               —              —              —
   Program improvement and supportive services ...............                                162,512       5,202           —             —        100,000          106,000         105,000        103,000        106,000
   State planning and advisory councils ...............................                        13,423       7,584        7,923         9,000            —                —               —              —              —
   Adult education, grants to states ......................................                   153,724      84,723      188,280       299,000       354,000          360,000         379,000        463,000        558,000
   Other 6 ...............................................................................     16,262          —        49,238       148,000        15,000           13,000          17,000         16,000         23,000

Postsecondary student financial assistance .........................                         5,108,534   8,534,205   11,112,068   11,976,000    14,416,000       12,635,000      11,685,000      17,918,000    16,512,000
   Educational opportunity grants 7 .......................................                  2,534,378   3,558,440    4,919,264    6,484,000     8,158,000        7,327,000       6,688,000      11,406,000     9,406,000
   Work-study ........................................................................         596,065     599,467      615,269      620,000       825,000          838,000         876,000         944,000     1,014,000
   Perkins loan program .......................................................                322,749     219,850      157,415      187,000       182,000          169,000         132,000         134,000       160,000
   Federal Family Education Loan program 8 .......................                           1,597,877   4,130,920    5,341,039    3,481,000     4,278,000        3,320,000       3,379,000       4,587,000     3,900,000
   Other student assistance programs 9 ...............................                          57,465      25,528       79,081    1,204,000       973,000          981,000         610,000         847,000     2,032,000

Direct aid to postsecondary institutions ................................                     277,068     329,714      341,634       780,000       887,000         946,000        1,304,000       1,418,000     1,822,000
   Aid to minority and developing institutions .......................                        114,680     140,374       99,812       231,000       321,000         326,000         407,000         459,000        655,000
   Special programs for the disadvantaged ..........................                          147,389     174,940      241,822       549,000       566,000         620,000         897,000         959,000      1,167,000
   Cooperative education ......................................................                14,999      14,400           —             —             —               —               —               —              —

Postsecondary facilities .........................................................            268,493     194,556       84,305        46,000        24,000          26,000          24,000          22,000        17,000
   Construction loans and insurance ....................................                       35,362      33,188       30,000        15,000         1,000           1,000           2,000           2,000         3,000
   Interest subsidy grants .....................................................               24,626      24,968       38,741        21,000            —               —               —               —             —
   College housing loans ......................................................               208,505     136,400       15,564        10,000        23,000          25,000          22,000          20,000        14,000

Other postsecondary education programs ............................                            34,927      74,340      188,999       120,000              —                —               —               —            —
   International education and foreign languages 10 ............                               19,977      32,050       86,337            —               —                —               —             —              —
   Funds for Improvement of Postsecondary Education 11 ..                                      12,000      12,710       99,450       116,000             (12)             (12)            (12)          (12)           (12)
   Other .................................................................................      2,950      29,580        3,212         4,000              —                —               —             —              —

Public library services ............................................................          101,218     116,027      132,583       150,000             (13)             (13)            (13)          (13)           (13)
   Public library services .......................................................             66,451      75,000       82,505        83,000             (13)             (13)            (13)          (13)           (13)
   Interlibrary cooperation .....................................................                  —       18,000       19,551        24,000             (13)             (13)            (13)          (13)           (13)
   Public library construction .................................................                   —       16,027       14,837        24,000             (13)             (13)            (13)          (13)           (13)
   Research libraries .............................................................             5,992       6,000        6,593            —              (13)             (13)            (13)          (13)           (13)
   Other .................................................................................     28,775       1,000        9,097        19,000             (13)             (13)            (13)          (13)           (13)

Payments to special institutions ............................................                 273,860     253,622      292,736       340,000       324,000         343,000         349,000         367,000       386,000
   American Printing House for the Blind .............................                          4,349       5,500        5,663         7,000         7,000           8,000           9,000          10,000        12,000
   National Technical Institute for the Deaf ..........................                        19,799      31,400       35,594        43,000        43,000          44,000          46,000          48,000        53,000
   Gallaudet College .............................................................             49,409      59,092       67,643        80,000        79,000          81,000          83,000          86,000        89,000
   Howard University .............................................................            200,303     157,630      183,836       210,000       195,000         210,000         211,000         223,000       232,000

Departmental accounts ..........................................................              277,174     364,800      458,536       906,000     1,019,000         866,000        1,137,000       1,093,000     1,255,000
   Educational research and improvement ...........................                            51,415      60,556       87,074       327,000       598,000         425,000         675,000         595,000       730,000
   Departmental management account ................................                           223,857     300,885      370,844       579,000       416,000         434,000         462,000         498,000       525,000
   Other .................................................................................      1,875       3,349           —             —          5,000           7,000              —               —             —
   Trust funds ........................................................................            27          10          618            —             —               —               —               —             —
                                                                                                                                                                                      FEDERAL PROGRAMS 431



    Table 366.—Federal on-budget funds obligated for programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education:
                                       Fiscal years 1980 to 2001—Continued
                                                                                                             [In thousands of dollars]

                                                                                                                                             In constant 2001 dollars 1
                                      Program
                                                                                                1980         1985         1990            1995          1997            1998            1999           2000 2         2001 3

                                            1                                                    11           12           13              14            15               16             17              18             19

   Total ................................................................................... $28,840,479 $28,696,849 $33,020,892 $35,612,394 $38,831,337 $38,164,275 $35,259,073 $41,099,450 $48,360,000

Elementary and secondary education ...................................                         8,669,266    7,217,389    9,389,268     10,330,572    11,257,078       11,781,132       9,026,811      12,912,337     16,371,000
   Grants for the disadvantaged ............................................                   6,553,890    5,712,248    7,050,712      8,152,139      8,486,972       8,348,134       3,917,792       8,907,891      9,020,000
   School improvement programs ..........................................                      1,613,424    1,140,664    1,995,797      1,520,600      1,547,618       1,645,870       3,246,411       1,670,743      4,928,000
   Bilingual education .............................................................             346,728      261,689      246,400        233,242        282,863         378,828         398,830         416,659        460,000
   Indian education .................................................................            155,224      102,788       96,359         91,712         66,110          67,419          69,453          79,022        116,000
   Education Reform - Goals 2000 ........................................                             —            —            —         332,879        873,515       1,340,881       1,394,326       1,838,022      1,847,000

School assistance in federally affected areas .......................                          1,662,415    1,060,979    1,068,056        886,545       798,736         902,125         959,717         933,892       1,001,000
   Maintenance and operations .............................................                    1,411,126    1,014,093     939,431         809,553       736,961         789,761         822,915         846,660        983,000
   Construction .......................................................................          226,747       35,130      30,027           2,264        13,005          17,122          25,256          11,289         13,000
   Disaster assistance ............................................................               24,541       11,756      98,598          74,728        48,769          95,242         111,546          75,943          5,000

Education for the handicapped .............................................                    3,180,663    4,065,607    4,557,489      6,529,637      7,100,835       8,014,252       8,411,203       4,999,913      9,177,000
   State grant programs .........................................................              1,668,411    1,898,899    1,648,589      2,793,240      3,322,827       4,110,394       4,573,388       1,235,611      5,198,000
   Early childhood education 4 ...............................................                    79,238       42,127      367,128        748,412        783,563         853,969         786,084         729,667        894,000
   Special centers, projects, and research ............................                          112,634       81,478       95,555        149,456        134,387         131,627         135,749         133,413        157,000
   Captioned films and media services ..................................                          36,358       54,395       19,894         21,513         49,853          55,647          36,831          36,945         39,000
   Personnel training ..............................................................             113,248      103,735       92,768        103,034         87,785          86,681          85,238          84,153         81,000
   Handicapped rehabilitation service and research .............                               1,170,774    1,884,973    2,333,556      2,713,983      2,722,420       2,775,934       2,793,913       2,780,124      2,808,000

Vocational education and adult programs .............................                          2,359,531    1,305,772    1,491,182      1,654,205      1,608,309       1,611,625       1,603,737        888,737       1,819,000
   Basic programs 5 ................................................................           1,522,897    1,106,542    1,124,555      1,136,771      1,100,023       1,099,030       1,076,525        291,456       1,132,000
   Consumer and homemaking ..............................................                        129,188       50,534       45,203          1,132             —               —               —              —               —
   Program improvement and supportive services ................                                  332,355        7,933           —              —         108,377         113,434         110,494        105,704         106,000
   State planning and advisory councils ................................                          27,452       11,565       10,376         10,190             —               —               —              —               —
   Adult education, grants to states .......................................                     314,382      129,198      246,567        338,540        383,653         385,249         398,830        475,156         558,000
   Other 6 ................................................................................       33,258           —        64,481        167,572         16,256          13,912          17,889         16,420          23,000

Postsecondary student financial assistance .........................                          10,447,514   13,014,251   14,552,113     13,559,725    15,623,571       13,521,173      12,296,373      18,388,433     16,512,000
   Educational opportunity grants 7 ........................................                   5,183,082    5,426,449    6,442,157      7,341,454      8,841,363       7,840,889       7,037,924      11,705,462      9,406,000
   Work-study .........................................................................        1,219,018      914,158      805,742        701,990        894,107         896,774         921,833         968,784      1,014,000
   Perkins loan program .........................................................                660,057      335,261      206,147        211,729        197,245         180,853         138,906         137,518        160,000
   Federal Family Education Loan program 8 ........................                            3,267,834    6,299,454    6,994,504      3,941,333      4,636,351       3,552,853       3,555,793       4,707,431      3,900,000
   Other student assistance programs 9 ................................                          117,522       38,929      103,563      1,363,219      1,054,504       1,049,804         641,916         869,238      2,032,000

Direct aid to postsecondary institutions ................................                       566,635      502,798      447,396         883,148       961,300        1,012,349       1,372,227       1,455,229      1,822,000
   Aid to minority and developing institutions ........................                         234,533      214,064      130,712         261,548       347,889         348,864         428,295         471,051         655,000
   Special programs for the disadvantaged ...........................                           301,427      266,775      316,685         621,601       613,412         663,485         943,932         984,178       1,167,000
   Cooperative education .......................................................                 30,675       21,959           —               —             —               —               —               —               —

Postsecondary facilities .........................................................              549,098      296,689      110,404          52,083         26,010          27,824         25,256          22,578         17,000
   Construction loans and insurance .....................................                        72,319       50,610       39,287          16,984          1,084           1,070          2,105           2,053          3,000
   Interest subsidy grants .......................................................               50,363       38,075       50,734          23,777             —               —              —               —              —
   College housing loans .......................................................                426,416      208,003       20,382          11,322         24,927          26,753         23,151          20,525         14,000

Other postsecondary education programs ............................                              71,430      113,365      247,509         135,869               —               —               —               —              —
   International education and foreign languages 10 ..............                               40,855       48,875      113,065              —                —               —               —              —              —
   Funds for Improvement of Postsecondary Education 11 ...                                       24,541       19,382      130,237         131,340              (12)            (12)            (12)           (12)           (12)
   Other ..................................................................................       6,033       45,108        4,206           4,529               —               —               —              —              —

Public library services ............................................................            207,002      176,936      173,628         169,836              (13)            (13)            (13)           (13)           (13)
   Public library services ........................................................             135,900      114,371      108,047          93,976              (13)            (13)            (13)           (13)           (13)
   Interlibrary cooperation ......................................................                   —        27,449       25,604          27,174              (13)            (13)            (13)           (13)           (13)
   Public library construction ..................................................                    —        24,440       19,430          27,174              (13)            (13)            (13)           (13)           (13)
   Research libraries ..............................................................             12,254        9,150        8,634              —               (13)            (13)            (13)           (13)           (13)
   Other ..................................................................................      58,848        1,525       11,913          21,513              (13)            (13)            (13)           (13)           (13)

Payments to special institutions ............................................                   560,074      386,761      383,360         384,962       351,140         367,057         367,260         376,635        386,000
   American Printing House for the Blind ..............................                           8,894        8,387        7,416           7,926         7,586           8,561           9,471          10,263         12,000
   National Technical Institute for the Deaf ...........................                         40,491       47,883       46,613          48,686        46,602          47,086          48,407          49,260         53,000
   Gallaudet College ..............................................................             101,047       90,112       88,584          90,579        85,618          86,681          87,343          88,258         89,000
   Howard University ..............................................................             409,642      240,378      240,747         237,771       211,334         224,729         222,040         228,855        232,000

Departmental accounts ..........................................................                566,851      556,302      600,488       1,025,811      1,104,358        926,738        1,196,489       1,121,696      1,255,000
   Educational research and improvement ............................                            105,149       92,345      114,030         370,243       648,092         454,808         710,317         610,622        730,000
   Departmental management account ..................................                           457,812      458,835      485,649         655,568       450,847         464,439         486,172         511,075        525,000
   Other ..................................................................................       3,835        5,107           —               —          5,419           7,491              —               —              —
   Trust funds .........................................................................             55           15          809              —             —               —               —               —              —

   —Not available or applicable.                                                                                                  10 Starting in fiscal year 1994, this program is included under the program, ‘‘Funds for
   1 Data adjusted by the federal funds composite deflator prepared by the U.S. Office                                          Improvement of Postsecondary Education.’’
of Management and Budget.                                                                                                         11 International education and foreign languages are included under this program start-
   2 Revised from previously published data.                                                                                    ing in fiscal year 1994.
   3 Estimated.                                                                                                                   12 This program is included under the ‘‘Special programs for the disadvantaged’’ pro-
   4 Includes preschool incentive grants.                                                                                       gram.
   5 Includes programs of national significance and special programs for the disadvan-                                            13 This program was transferred to the Institute of Museum and Library Services in fis-

taged.                                                                                                                          cal year 1997.
   6 Includes national programs for research, demonstrations, evaluation and technical

assistance, literacy training for homeless adults, and some other small programs.                                                 NOTE: Data presented in this tabulation are obligations, which differ from outlay fig-
   7 Includes Pell Grants; Supplemental Education Opportunity Grants; Leveraging Edu-                                           ures reported in other tables in this chapter. Detail may not sum to totals due to round-
cational Assistance Partnership Program, formerly the State Student Incentive Grants;                                           ing.
and Income Contingent Loans.
   8 Formerly the Guaranteed Student Loan program.                                                                                SOURCE: U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Gov-
   9 Includes Federal Direct Student Loan program starting in fiscal year 1994. Other pro-                                      ernment, fiscal years 1982 to 2002. (This table was prepared May 2001.)
grams include teacher quality enhancement and community scholarship mobilization.
432 FEDERAL PROGRAMS



                    Table 367.—U.S. Department of Education outlays, by level of education and type of recipient:
                                                    Fiscal years 1980 to 2001
                                                                          [In millions of current dollars]

                                                                        Local         State                           Postsec-                           Multiple
                                                                                                       College
         Year and area of education                        Total      education     education                        ondary insti-      Federal          types of         Other
                                                                                                       students
                                                                      agencies      agencies                           tutions                          recipients

                          1                                 2            3                4                5               6                7               8                9

                    1980 total                            $13,137.8     $5,313.7         $1,103.2        $2,137.4        $2,267.2           $249.8          $693.8         $1,372.7
Elementary/secondary ..............................         6,629.1      5,309.4              662.2          34.2             22.0               62.5           513.4          25.5
Postsecondary education .........................           5,682.2           —                99.5       2,103.2          2,166.5                 —               —        1,313.0
Other programs ........................................       747.7          4.3              341.5            —                —               187.3           180.4          34.2
Education research and statistics ............                 78.7           —                  —             —              78.7                 —               —             —

                    1984 total                             15,534.7      5,256.5          1,879.0         2,193.4          2,167.4              330.2           516.7       3,191.4
Elementary/secondary ..............................         6,220.8      5,252.4            536.0            55.5             35.3               22.9           259.9          58.8
Postsecondary education .........................           7,341.2           —             211.5         2,137.9          1,972.5                 —               —        3,019.3
Other programs ........................................     1,813.1          4.1          1,131.5              —                —               307.3           256.8         113.3
Education research and statistics ............                159.6           —                —               —             159.6                 —               —             —

                    1986 total                             17,740.1      6,435.1          1,823.3         2,685.9          2,637.2              265.4           625.8       3,267.5
Elementary/secondary ..............................         7,552.0      6,432.1            558.5            68.3             45.2                2.2           372.0          73.8
Postsecondary education .........................           8,444.9           —             215.6         2,617.6          2,523.0                 —               —        3,088.7
Other programs ........................................     1,674.2          3.0          1,049.2              —                —               263.2           253.8         105.0
Education research and statistics ............                 69.0           —                —               —              69.0                 —               —             —

                    1988 total                             18,326.9      6,614.8          2,234.6         3,103.4          2,519.5              319.4           838.8       2,696.3
Elementary/secondary ..............................         8,098.4      6,606.3            717.9            66.2             39.5               23.8           616.7          28.0
Postsecondary education .........................           8,247.1           —             184.6         3,037.2          2,437.6                 —               —        2,587.7
Other programs ........................................     1,939.0          8.5          1,332.1              —                —               295.6           222.1          80.6
Education research and statistics ............                 42.4           —                —               —              42.4                 —               —             —

                    1990 total                             23,198.6      8,000.7          2,490.3         3,859.6          3,649.8              441.4           912.2       3,844.4
Elementary/secondary ..............................         9,681.3      7,995.0            700.3            80.5             85.4              113.1           650.7          56.3
Postsecondary education .........................          11,176.0           —             261.6         3,779.1          3,475.0                 —               —        3,660.4
Other programs ........................................     2,251.8          5.7          1,528.5              —                —               328.3           261.5         127.8
Education research and statistics ............                 89.5           —                —               —              89.5                 —               —             —

                    1996 total                             29,977.8     11,077.8          3,669.6         5,129.8          5,053.4              562.1       1,682.3         2,802.9
Elementary/secondary ..............................        14,323.8     11,073.1          1,650.7           161.1            141.5               59.2       1,201.4            36.8
Postsecondary education .........................          12,257.6           —              90.7         4,968.7          4,601.0                 —             —          2,597.2
Other programs ........................................     3,085.6          4.7          1,928.2              —                —               502.9         480.9           168.9
Education research and statistics ............                310.9           —                —               —             310.9                 —             —               —

                    1998 total                             31,559.0     12,094.5          3,978.2         5,362.0          5,910.2              465.8       1,769.0         1,979.3
Elementary/secondary ..............................        16,001.8     12,086.7          1,920.5           265.5            162.4               52.7       1,454.7            59.3
Postsecondary education .........................          12,122.3           —              57.8         5,096.5          5,206.6                 —             —          1,761.4
Other programs ........................................     2,893.7          7.8          1,999.9              —                —               413.1         314.3           158.6
Education research and statistics ............                541.2           —                —               —             541.2                 —             —               —

                    1999 total                             34,344.1     13,145.3          4,156.3         6,076.1          6,474.8              502.0       1,750.4         2,239.1
Elementary/secondary ..............................        17,026.7     13,137.6          1,901.5           285.6            175.2               62.1       1,395.2            69.4
Postsecondary education .........................          13,715.6           —              79.5         5,790.5          5,821.1                 —             —          2,024.5
Other programs ........................................     3,123.3          7.7          2,175.2              —                —               439.9         355.2           145.2
Education research and statistics ............                478.5           —                —               —             478.5                 —             —               —

                    2000 total                             34,106.7     16,016.0          4,316.5         4,711.7          5,005.7              506.6       1,820.2         1,730.1
Elementary/secondary ..............................        20,039.6     16,003.5          1,989.6           260.5            198.9               48.5       1,461.8            76.8
Postsecondary education .........................          10,727.3           —              55.2         4,451.2          4,690.3                 —             —          1,530.6
Other programs ........................................     3,223.4         12.5          2,271.7              —                —               458.1         358.4           122.7
Education research and statistics ............                116.5           —                —               —             116.5                 —             —               —

                    2001 total                             36,754.1     17,635.0          4,919.4         6,187.3          6,104.1              614.3       2,332.8        –1,039.1
Elementary/secondary ..............................        22,931.4     17,619.8          2,523.8           380.5            280.2               58.5       1,969.5            99.0
Postsecondary education .........................          10,026.8           —              51.0         5,806.8          5,458.5                 —             —         –1,289.5
Other programs ........................................     3,430.4         15.2          2,344.6              —                —               555.8         363.3           151.4
Education research and statistics ............                365.4           —                —               —             365.4                 —             —               —

  —Not available or applicable.                                                                   SOURCE: U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government,
                                                                                                Fiscal Years 1982 to 2002, and Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance; National
   NOTE: Negative amounts occur when program receipts exceed outlays. Other recipi-             Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, Fiscal Years 1980
ents include American Indian tribes, private nonprofit agencies, and banks. Outlays by          to 2001; and unpublished data obtained from various federal agencies. (This table was
type of recipient are estimated based on obligation data. Some data have been revised           prepared April 2001.)
from previously published figures. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.
                                                                                                                                                                        FEDERAL PROGRAMS 433



                  Table 368.—U.S. Department of Education appropriations for major programs, by state or other area:
                                                          Fiscal year 2000
                                                                                                       [In thousands]

                                                                                     Block       School
                                                                                   grants to     assist-                  Education
                                                                      Grants for                            Vocational                Bilingual   Indian       Higher and    Student      Rehabili-
                                                                                   states for    ance in                   for the                                                                      Goals
            State or other area                            Total      the disad-                             and adult                  edu-       edu-        continuing    financial      tation
                                                                                    school      federally                  handi-                                                                      2000 10
                                                                      vantaged 1                            education 4               cation 6    cation       education 7 assistance 8   services 9
                                                                                   improve-     affected                  capped 5
                                                                                     ment 2      areas 3

                          1                                 2             3            4           5            6            7           8           9             10           11           12          13
   Total ............................................ $33,317,494 $8,720,086 $2,468,800         $797,252 $1,625,650 $5,754,685        $400,336    $62,000 $1,496,901        $8,668,857 $2,439,927      $883,000
Alabama ..........................................          560,928     140,529       38,444       2,279        30,179       90,546        823      1,056         50,167       142,453       50,507      13,944
Alaska ..............................................       183,006      27,461       11,809      86,997         5,292       17,491      1,832      6,772          6,203         6,350        8,803       3,995
Arizona ............................................        642,204     137,811       38,390     123,391        27,336       84,540     16,387      7,388         15,228       137,900       40,416      13,416
Arkansas .........................................          309,420      88,797       23,384         483        18,129       55,705        418        136         18,049        65,031       30,680       8,608
California .........................................      3,817,718   1,146,489      278,400      44,807       181,684      591,409    107,368      4,395        110,155     1,013,210      235,975     103,827
Colorado ..........................................         369,229      82,336       28,706       6,011        19,136       71,288      9,205        483         16,938        96,151       29,870       9,105
Connecticut .....................................           294,560      78,685       24,401       6,263        14,747       69,624      4,234         16          9,320        60,613       18,291       8,367
Delaware .........................................           89,081      23,304       11,809          24         5,923       16,286        160          0          4,774        14,136        8,845       3,821
District of Columbia .........................              406,171      28,293       11,810         774         6,008        8,708      3,480          0        295,124        36,053       11,941       3,978
Florida ..............................................    1,602,261     411,790      111,473       7,796        81,062      310,874     29,208         51         36,922       454,756      117,857      40,473
Georgia ............................................        793,071     232,414       63,820       6,707        46,044      147,275      3,884          0         43,970       156,986       68,948      23,023
Hawaii ..............................................       141,887      22,788       11,809      29,818         7,556       19,472      2,329          0         13,012        21,365        9,882       3,856
Idaho ...............................................       137,379      29,651       11,809       4,872         8,529       26,409      2,392        256          4,095        32,011       13,332       4,023
Illinois ..............................................   1,251,873     351,095      103,257       9,658        63,185      257,164     16,983         56         46,238       278,992       88,493      36,752
Indiana .............................................       614,929     128,995       43,285          98        35,603      132,528        556          8         20,421       181,781       57,284      14,371
Iowa .................................................      294,331      58,323       20,389         142        17,035       63,504      2,055        133         15,107        82,905       28,074       6,665
Kansas ............................................         290,373      71,403       20,410      11,188        15,185       54,665      3,621        401         16,164        66,335       23,990       7,012
Kentucky ..........................................         473,509     146,282       37,741         288        28,284       85,232        848          0         20,906        94,553       45,481      13,894
Louisiana .........................................         620,131     206,779       54,055       4,831        32,660       89,743      1,829        532         32,482       136,519       40,864      19,838
Maine ...............................................       160,957      38,495       11,821       2,005         7,632       29,529      1,880         72          7,192        43,747       14,352       4,232
Maryland ..........................................         449,923     111,558       37,613       5,215        24,475      101,790      2,611        137         25,967        92,118       36,015      12,424
Massachusetts .................................             731,823     166,944       47,038         996        27,763      147,718      9,978         99         25,716       244,424       44,317      16,830
Michigan ..........................................       1,072,981     365,274       98,019       2,073        55,435      193,507      4,625      2,484         27,613       203,475       85,039      35,437
Minnesota ........................................          489,513      96,754       35,744       7,833        24,194       99,098      3,355      2,427         18,834       150,104       39,857      11,315
Mississippi .......................................         450,504     133,656       34,936       2,724        20,933       58,086        250        228         24,249       125,964       36,741      12,736
Missouri ...........................................        605,672     146,046       43,550       8,959        33,087      116,832      1,679         20         20,055       167,146       53,047      15,252
Montana ..........................................          161,892      29,030       11,809      34,772         6,783       18,292      4,903      2,137         11,012        28,545       10,578       4,029
Nebraska .........................................          183,278      39,439       12,530      10,503         9,747       38,714      2,498        465          7,437        41,139       16,182       4,622
Nevada ............................................         124,192      25,655       12,361       3,427         8,517       31,979      1,723        519          2,779        21,157       12,005       4,072
New Hampshire ...............................               114,716      21,716       11,809           6         7,281       25,219        600          0          3,028        31,266        9,999       3,791
New Jersey ......................................           742,337     192,633       58,911      12,010        37,677      187,560      7,938         55         16,762       160,034       48,564      20,194
New Mexico .....................................            339,892      71,822       18,918      68,844        11,842       46,939     11,017      4,976         14,408        64,179       20,004       6,942
New York .........................................        2,742,061     788,665      196,075      10,401        91,096      399,007     49,571      1,106         58,737       947,674      126,578      73,151
North Carolina .................................            740,448     167,593       53,930       7,991        45,672      154,116      2,770      2,158         47,310       167,267       73,908      17,734
North Dakota ...................................            120,139      21,724       11,809      17,868         5,716       13,363      1,994      1,005          5,862        28,163        8,829       3,804
Ohio .................................................    1,253,437     325,709       94,757       1,315        65,537      213,123      1,471          0         30,856       380,623      106,084      33,961
Oklahoma ........................................           449,009     104,671       28,622      21,442        22,984       72,632     10,785     12,702         30,425        97,273       37,007      10,465
Oregon ............................................         337,792      86,601       24,523       2,260        18,082       64,268      5,236      1,524          8,783        88,913       29,030       8,572
Pennsylvania ...................................          1,303,844     367,086      102,298       1,019        65,572      210,747      3,320          0         33,396       375,100      108,253      37,054
Rhode Island ...................................            136,848      27,035       11,809       2,207         7,814       23,624      1,828          0          4,311        44,520        9,687       4,012
South Carolina ................................             460,646     108,708       30,640       2,802        26,310       90,283        631         40         30,165       117,282       42,762      11,026
South Dakota ..................................             179,554      22,458       11,809      26,434         5,833       16,064      2,313      1,898          3,665        76,241        8,983       3,855
Tennessee .......................................           559,590     143,936       42,120       1,225        34,579      115,548      1,199          0         27,215       123,339       55,474      14,955
Texas ...............................................     2,487,610     761,842      196,647      34,588       123,329      447,709     34,834        166         86,574       556,314      173,698      71,910
Utah .................................................      246,698      39,773       16,940       6,058        15,240       52,370      3,812        690          7,734        76,778       22,023       5,279
Vermont ...........................................         103,645      20,118       11,809           3         5,497       13,033        325         90          5,769        34,348        8,850       3,802
Virginia ............................................       931,946     128,079       45,696      26,640        37,012      139,696      3,616         16         32,543       449,013       55,079      14,557
Washington .....................................            566,031     131,009       42,116      31,333        28,432      107,819      6,692      3,146         25,216       134,306       42,063      13,898
West Virginia ...................................           247,791      78,314       20,273          10        13,445       40,267        152          0         16,066        47,984       23,846       7,435
Wisconsin ........................................          560,242     135,901       42,422       9,021        30,337      108,416      3,076      1,852         27,379       137,714       49,350      14,773
Wyoming .........................................            88,031      19,715       11,809       7,819         5,236       13,737        761        287          3,798        13,403        7,708       3,759
Indian Tribe (Set-Aside) ..................                 172,002      54,926        9,632           0        13,196       65,803          0          0              0             0       23,445       5,000
Other ...............................................       146,244      26,450        2,529      79,788        12,011       20,243        460         19              0             0          969       3,775

            Outlying areas
American Samoa .............................                15,927        5,757        1,923           0           388        5,546        177             0          259           33        1,098         746
Guam ...............................................        31,826        5,277        4,476           0           792       13,281        995             0        1,283        2,694        2,281         746
Marshall Islands ..............................                908            0            0           0            81            0        211             0          449           33            0         134
Micronesia .......................................           7,463            0            0           0            81            0        587             0        1,675        4,724            0         395
Northern Mariana Islands ................                   11,059        3,064        1,095           0           538        3,449        341             0        1,025           72        1,074         402
Palau ...............................................          803            0            0           0            81            0        488             0            0          234            0           0
Puerto Rico .....................................          864,794      283,611       69,083       1,056        30,946       52,966      1,689             0       24,407      311,911       63,525      25,600
Virgin Islands ...................................          31,365        9,814        3,694         179           872        9,848        338             0        1,672        1,503        2,088       1,357

   1 Title I, formerly called Chapter 1, Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of                             Cooperative Education, Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, Fellow-
1981, includes Grants to Local Education Agencies, Title 1 Accountability grants, Migrant                           ships and Scholarships, and annual interest subsidy grants for facilities construction.
                                                                                                                       8 Includes Pell Grants, Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership, formerly the
Education—Basic State Grants, Program for Neglected and Delinquent Children, Capital
Expenses for Private School Children, Demonstrations of Comprehensive School Re-                                    State Student Incentive Grants, Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants,
form, and Even Start—State Educational Agencies.                                                                    Federal Work-Study, and Federal Perkins Loans-Capital Contributions, and Guaranteed
   2 Title VI, formerly called Chapter 2, Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of                            Student Loan interest subsidies.
                                                                                                                       9 Includes Rehabilitation Services—Vocational Rehabilitation Grants to States, Sup-
1981, includes Eisenhower Professional Development Grants, Safe and Drug-Free
Schools and Communities—State Grants, Education for Homeless Children and Youth,                                    ported Employment State Grants, Client Assistance State Grants, and Independent Liv-
                                                                                                                    ing State Grants, Services for Older Blind Individuals, Protection and Advocacy for As-
Class Size Reduction, School Renovation, and Innovative Education Program Strategies.
   3 Impact Aid—Basic Support Payments and Impact Aid—Payments for Children with
                                                                                                                    sistive Technology, and Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights.
                                                                                                                       10 Includes State and Local Education Systemic Improvement Grants and Technology
Disabilities.                                                                                                       Literacy Challenge Fund Grants.
   4 Includes Vocational Education State Grants, State Grants for Incarcerated Youth Of-

fenders, English Literacy and Civics Education State Grants, Tech-Prep Education, and                                 NOTE: Data reflect revisions to figures in the Budget of the United States Govern-
Adult Education State Grant Program.                                                                                ment, Fiscal Year 2002. To the extent possible, data represent appropriations rather than
   5 Includes Special Education—Grants to States, Preschool Grants, and Grants for In-                              outlays. Because of the exclusion of certain programs, totals in this table are lower than
                                                                                                                    those reported in other tables. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.
fants and Families with Disabilities.
   6 Includes Immigrant Education Grants, Foreign Language Assistance Grants, and Bi-
                                                                                                                      SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
lingual Education State Grants.                                                                                     based on unpublished tabulations from the Office of Management and Budget; and U.S.
   7 Includes Institutional Aid to Strengthen Higher Education Institutions serving signifi-                        Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Federal Expenditures by State for Fis-
cant numbers of low-income students, Other Special Programs for the Disadvantaged,                                  cal Year 2000. (This table was prepared July 2001.)
434 FEDERAL PROGRAMS



      Table 369.—Appropriations for Title I and Title VI, Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1994, by
                         state or other area and type of appropriation: 1999–2000 and 2000–01
                                                                                                                        [In thousands]

                                                                                                                                        Title I, 2 school year 2000–01 3                                            Title VI 4
                                                                                          Title I total,                        Local education grants                                                        1999
                                                                                             school                                                                                                                          2000
                                                                                                                                                                    Neglected                                appro-
                           State or other area                                                year                                                                                                                          appro-
                                                                                                                                                                        and          Migrant                priations
                                                                                             1999–           Total                                                                               Other 5                   priations
                                                                                                                                       Basic         Concentra-     delinquent       children                  for
                                                                                             2000 1                       Total 6                                                                                             for
                                                                                                                                       grants        tion grants     children                                1999–         2000–01
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2000

                                          1                                                     2              3            4             5               6              7              8           9          10                11

   Total 7     ........................................................................   $8,289,582       $8,500,086   $7,807,397   $6,578,695      $1,146,813         $42,000      $354,689    $296,000   $375,000       $365,750

Alabama ........................................................................             133,972          137,037     129,133       108,479          20,655                506      2,921       4,477      5,520              5,266
Alaska ............................................................................           27,672           26,916      19,089        16,079           3,011                170      6,628       1,029      1,862              1,816
Arizona ..........................................................................           130,818          134,330     121,897       101,967          19,930              1,715      6,343       4,375      6,408              6,443
Arkansas ........................................................................             85,004           86,627      79,071        67,442          11,629                274      4,485       2,797      3,443              3,278
California .......................................................................         1,065,523        1,119,928     972,870       833,272         139,598              3,522    107,211      36,325     44,575             43,634
Colorado ........................................................................             78,218           80,052      71,304        60,668          10,636                315      6,052       2,381      5,258              5,280
Connecticut ....................................................................              74,468           76,604      70,351        59,917          10,434                883      2,804       2,566      4,078              4,144
Delaware .......................................................................              22,269           22,764      21,268        16,447           4,822                109        319       1,066      1,862              1,816
District of Columbia .......................................................                  26,910           27,684      25,547        21,837           3,710                356        443       1,338      1,862              1,816
Florida ............................................................................         391,594          401,481     363,366       309,157          54,209              1,266     23,565      13,284     17,857             17,779
Georgia ..........................................................................           218,637          226,462     210,268       180,821          29,447              2,337      6,253       7,604     10,131             10,030
Hawaii ............................................................................           21,021           22,149      20,158        17,291           2,867                102        834       1,055      1,862              1,816
Idaho ..............................................................................          28,500           28,904      23,516        19,861           3,655                108      4,164       1,115      1,862              1,816
Illinois .............................................................................       337,019          341,790     326,711       278,814          47,897              1,747      1,621      11,712     16,090             15,647
Indiana ...........................................................................          122,821          125,342     116,422       101,953          14,469                750      4,051       4,120      7,726              7,575
Iowa ...............................................................................          55,659           56,614      53,287        47,051           6,236                343      1,121       1,862      3,838              3,647
Kansas ...........................................................................            67,096           69,683      56,306        48,828           7,478                359     10,995       2,023      3,604              3,495
Kentucky ........................................................................            141,131          142,853     127,790       108,142          19,649                646      9,934       4,484      4,992              4,798
Louisiana .......................................................................            198,517          201,813     191,236       161,738          29,498                909      2,842       6,826      6,216              5,949
Maine .............................................................................           36,798           37,596      31,963        27,453           4,511                133      4,238       1,262      1,862              1,816
Maryland ........................................................................            105,879          108,414     102,604        87,769          14,834              1,678        472       3,660      6,531              6,538
Massachusetts ...............................................................                159,039          162,717     153,374       126,656          26,718                935      2,703       5,706      7,456              7,311
Michigan ........................................................................            351,442          356,370     334,366       278,187          56,179                732      9,612      11,660     13,123             12,948
Minnesota ......................................................................              92,688           93,893      87,986        76,903          11,083                224      2,538       3,145      6,625              6,454
Mississippi .....................................................................            128,450          130,421     124,796       106,154          18,642                316      1,005       4,304      3,907              3,739
Missouri .........................................................................           138,513          142,176     134,785       114,383          20,403                866      1,581       4,944      7,367              7,040
Montana .........................................................................             27,542           28,302      26,320        22,393           3,927                 62        744       1,176      1,862              1,816
Nebraska .......................................................................              37,699           38,392      32,207        28,851           3,356                224      4,621       1,340      2,342              2,235
Nevada ..........................................................................             23,883           24,814      23,322        20,455           2,867                154        232       1,107      2,217              2,367
New Hampshire .............................................................                   20,503           21,100      19,698        15,856           3,842                256        100       1,047      1,862              1,816
New Jersey ....................................................................              182,896          187,507     177,216       148,612          28,604              2,245      1,589       6,456     10,135              9,916
New Mexico ...................................................................                68,112           70,054      66,240        56,467           9,773                297      1,070       2,447      2,590              2,474
New York .......................................................................             751,931          769,871     731,360       621,037         110,323              2,574      7,977      27,959     23,004             21,917
North Carolina ...............................................................               155,311          163,038     150,973       131,039          19,934                948      5,690       5,427      9,598              9,555
North Dakota .................................................................                20,736           21,194      19,821        16,447           3,374                 44        263       1,067      1,862              1,816
Ohio ...............................................................................         312,305          317,133     302,372       257,785          44,587              2,239      2,034      10,488     14,810             14,290
Oklahoma ......................................................................               99,005          101,976      96,338        82,527          13,811                208      2,014       3,417      4,622              4,411
Oregon ...........................................................................            83,282           84,506      68,819        59,765           9,054              1,230     12,070       2,388      4,237              4,129
Pennsylvania .................................................................               352,608          357,840     335,858       283,187          52,671                679      8,470      12,833     15,064             14,538
Rhode Island .................................................................                25,943           26,323      24,654        21,229           3,425                345        108       1,215      1,862              1,816
South Carolina ...............................................................               101,870          105,883     100,734        86,321          14,413              1,089        459       3,601      4,972              4,771
South Dakota .................................................................                21,417           21,892      19,734        16,677           3,057                253        846       1,058      1,862              1,816
Tennessee .....................................................................              137,269          140,149     134,693       112,564          22,129                520        365       4,570      6,822              6,616
Texas .............................................................................          727,313          743,579     665,787       567,427          98,360              2,764     50,946      24,082     28,121             27,710
Utah ...............................................................................          38,152           38,550      35,293        29,501           5,792                461      1,479       1,317      3,489              3,375
Vermont .........................................................................             19,294           19,630      17,739        15,146           2,593                193        678       1,021      1,862              1,816
Virginia ...........................................................................         119,224          124,366     118,413       102,850          15,563              1,055        656       4,241      8,445              8,247
Washington ....................................................................              125,513          127,592     108,940        93,186          15,753                733     14,218       3,702      7,571              7,447
West Virginia .................................................................               75,111           76,445      73,480        61,854          11,626                307        124       2,535      2,184              2,056
Wisconsin ......................................................................             129,977          132,030     125,862       113,863          11,999              1,032        630       4,506      7,165              6,904
Wyoming ........................................................................              18,553           19,251      17,754        14,887           2,867                317        167       1,013      1,862              1,816
                              Other activities
Bureau of Indian Affairs ................................................                      50,205         51,343        51,343               0              0               0           0           0             0               0
Migrant coordination activities .......................................                         8,500          8,500             0               0              0               0       8,500           0             0               0
Even Start Migrant, Indian, and Territory (Set-Aside) ..                                        6,200          7,500             0               0              0               0           0       7,500             0               0
Even Start Evaluation/Technical Assistance .................                                    3,720          3,000             0               0              0               0           0       3,000             0               0
Even Start/State Literacy Initiative ................................                           1,000              0             0               0              0               0           0           0             0               0
Competitive grants ........................................................                     9,054          5,000         5,000               0              0               0           0           0             0               0
Other non state allocations ...........................................                             0          2,500         2,500               0              0               0           0           0             0               0
                              Outlying areas
American Samoa ...........................................................                     5,355           5,572        5,572             0                0                0           0           0        451                440
Guam .............................................................................             5,023           5,023        5,023             0                0                0           0           0      1,051                250
Northern Marianas .........................................................                    2,848           2,964        2,964             0                0                0           0           0        257              1,025
Puerto Rico ....................................................................             273,453         277,159      262,416       221,502           40,914              472       3,903      10,369      6,040              5,629
Virgin Islands .................................................................               9,118           9,487        9,487             0                0                0           0           0        866                845

   1 Data are based on fiscal year 2000 budget authorizations. Excludes $6,977,000 for                                                 7 Total   includes other activities and outlying areas.
Title I evaluation.                                                                                                                     NOTE: Elementary and Secondary Education Act was most recently revised through
   2 Formerly Chapter 1.
                                                                                                                                     the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA) of 1994. Detail may not sum to totals due
   3 Data are based on fiscal year 2001 budget authorizations. Excludes $8,900,000 for
                                                                                                                                     to rounding.
Title I evaluation.
   4 Formerly Chapter 2.
                                                                                                                                       SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Budget Service, Elementary, Secondary,
   5 Includes Capital Expenses, Even Start grants, and Accountability grants.                                                        and Vocational Education Analysis Division, unpublished data. (This table was prepared
   6 Includes other programs not shown separately.                                                                                   April 2001.)
                                                                                                                                                                       FEDERAL PROGRAMS 435



         Table 370.—Federal obligations for research and development and R&D plant, by state and selected agency:
                                                      Fiscal year 1999
                                                                                                    [In thousands of dollars]

                                                                                                                                                                                       National
                                                                                                                                                                           Environ-
                                                                                                                                    Department     Depart-     Depart-                   Aero-
                                                                            Depart-       Depart-                     Depart-                                               mental                  National
                                                                                                       Department                    of Health     ment of     ment of                  nautics
              State or other area                               Total       ment of       ment of                     ment of                                              Protec-                  Science
                                                                                                       of Defense                   and Human     the Inte-   Transpor-               and Space
                                                                           Agriculture   Commerce                     Energy                                                 tion                  Foundation
                                                                                                                                     Services        rior       tation                 Adminis-
                                                                                                                                                                           Agency       tration

                            1                                    2             3             4             5             6              7            8           9           10          11           12

   Total ..............................................      $75,840,468   $1,741,439    $1,008,826    $35,668,310   $6,873,603     $16,118,704   $640,999    $680,858     $667,543   $9,773,986   $2,666,200

Alabama ............................................           1,873,532      25,844         1,171       1,030,863       25,678         181,635      6,338       4,877        5,100      577,269      14,757
Alaska ................................................          115,015       9,901        26,346          18,043        3,264           3,904     26,214       3,416          789        9,504      13,634
Arizona ..............................................         1,118,044      25,317         3,267         790,936        5,149         107,304     14,725       3,492        5,620       70,804      91,430
Arkansas ............................................            109,449      33,563             0           1,548          100          56,018      5,467       2,695          639        1,400       8,019
California ...........................................        16,067,865     100,699        83,792       9,258,919    1,512,958       1,732,105     40,721      37,903       33,478    2,874,774     392,516

Colorado ............................................          1,481,920      30,514        96,520         577,014     156,683         220,110      56,598      26,055       11,982     147,327      159,117
Connecticut ........................................             657,480       7,589         9,302         184,209      51,170         282,829       1,406      16,175          934      76,266       27,600
Delaware ...........................................              53,341       5,415         2,304          13,541       2,046           9,029         504       1,465          874       4,256       13,907
District of Columbia ...........................               2,505,293     175,034        16,630       1,087,274     422,778         235,552       2,678     168,268       83,029     209,229      104,821
Florida ................................................       2,340,593      44,946        38,426       1,493,366      13,064         185,551      23,259       9,765       13,948     445,276       72,992

Georgia ..............................................         2,031,780       57,267        3,794       1,503,844      12,347         354,329      10,189       6,479       17,732      21,149       44,650
Hawaii ................................................          208,112       21,579       15,068          93,367       2,984          28,991       6,605         835            0      18,860       19,823
Idaho ..................................................         208,899       20,664        1,403          11,679     150,207           3,718      11,862       1,724          594       1,552        5,496
Illinois .................................................     1,467,563       54,509        4,953         131,538     622,468         461,206       7,257      13,249        6,146      17,336      148,901
Indiana ...............................................          420,611       18,057        1,902         190,939      16,858         117,659       5,138       5,854          645      13,344       50,215

Iowa ...................................................        270,289        50,281           226        20,870        31,547        129,573       6,280       3,660          896      10,624       16,332
Kansas ...............................................          195,563        18,659           524        55,646         4,700         81,015       8,587       2,647        2,542       5,111       16,132
Kentucky ............................................           146,976         9,136           364        12,060         3,715         97,365       4,220       4,906          451       1,573       13,186
Louisiana ...........................................           248,021        49,304         6,004        34,860         6,464         79,490      18,905       3,166        6,420      29,031       14,377
Maine .................................................         152,084         4,615         2,158        89,409         1,394         37,097       4,896       1,306          224       2,883        8,102

Maryland ............................................          8,396,532     165,703       367,279       2,577,875      51,119        3,722,186     16,506      37,969       12,138    1,370,616      75,141
Massachusetts ...................................              3,149,654      28,359        41,887       1,280,130     100,902        1,309,072      5,935      44,697        9,985      142,013     186,674
Michigan ............................................            845,619      24,644        25,046         252,328      20,064          350,421     13,480      12,039       28,364       22,259      96,974
Minnesota ..........................................             892,384      26,896         7,493         516,905       8,056          242,895     10,299      17,914       19,228        7,657      35,041
Mississippi .........................................            378,351      75,668        10,297         156,322       1,731           15,848      8,010       3,088          640       94,729      12,018

Missouri .............................................          930,514        24,721           237       522,212        4,601         309,316      18,557       3,896        8,049      12,266       26,659
Montana .............................................            96,867        22,539           365         5,863        1,120          26,044      17,493       2,455        2,422       5,620       12,946
Nebraska ...........................................             94,967        30,628           650         5,130          939          34,480       7,556       1,238          300       2,148       11,898
Nevada ..............................................           293,832         3,229           282        16,211      210,501          15,502      11,592       6,893       18,767       2,703        8,152
New Hampshire .................................                 292,251         5,237         8,998       192,622          620          48,007       2,045       3,237        1,000      16,032       14,453

New Jersey ........................................            2,691,966        6,938       30,325       2,253,555       74,708         149,077      5,839      67,372        4,443      44,530       55,179
New Mexico .......................................             2,168,105        8,950          971         629,531    1,381,734          56,807     12,496       7,923        4,042      50,328       15,323
New York ...........................................           2,778,009       40,687       20,689         549,377      635,098       1,220,363      9,801      12,482       12,437      64,242      212,833
North Carolina ...................................             1,045,471       40,434       12,707         136,847       16,501         607,636      8,740       6,524      154,013      13,048       49,021
North Dakota .....................................                62,258       29,943          508           3,820        6,027           6,199      8,525       1,138          292       1,794        4,012

Ohio ...................................................       3,795,905       17,173        6,617       2,683,279      18,047         418,995       6,551      19,283       80,009     499,730       46,221
Oklahoma ..........................................              173,585       22,066        7,153          29,737      18,156          42,089       7,208      14,269       15,638       2,683       14,586
Oregon ...............................................           417,043       39,379       16,365          28,149      37,184         209,202      16,731       2,796       23,605       9,494       34,138
Pennsylvania .....................................             1,935,185       55,757        4,803         516,972     336,332         848,167       8,188      10,114        5,718      40,124      109,010
Rhode Island .....................................               407,142        2,598        5,762         287,981       2,716          61,896       2,991         992       14,885       3,818       23,503

South Carolina ...................................               234,487       33,368         9,159        63,174       40,176          57,180       4,907       1,165        1,960        3,156      20,242
South Dakota .....................................                39,107        7,357           608         1,387           50           3,893      14,501         952          432        6,561       3,366
Tennessee .........................................              820,140        9,831         1,509        80,299      471,795         190,482       7,024       6,732          916       31,913      19,639
Texas .................................................        3,897,469       76,878         9,309       949,892       24,562         631,292      32,860      15,838       24,166    2,052,648      80,024
Utah ...................................................         306,191       16,272         1,931       126,497        7,806          96,460      10,918       3,215          808       15,846      26,438

Vermont .............................................             62,215        6,743          423          10,017         917          37,376       1,507         578          561         625        3,468
Virginia ...............................................       5,811,710       10,374       25,272       4,703,638      89,937         206,489      52,033      40,177       21,295     602,865       59,630
Washington ........................................            1,321,618       41,234       73,046         384,888     177,931         481,242      13,524       6,735        7,475      76,276       59,267
West Virginia .....................................              252,030       38,124          395          19,191      63,056          56,376       8,065       2,593            0      18,639       45,591
Wisconsin ..........................................             380,985       39,300        3,127          14,219      20,468         219,342      15,862       3,886        1,912      17,862       45,007
Wyoming ............................................              35,541        8,727           25             729       4,190           1,646       9,905       3,737            0         438        6,144

   Outlying areas ..............................                140,605        14,624         1,434        53,473            985        38,244       9,501           994          0       3,755       17,595

Puerto Rico ........................................             74,019        10,385            966        1,363            985        37,087       1,847            74          0       3,755       17,557
Other areas .......................................              66,586         4,239            468       52,110              0         1,157       7,654           920          0           0           38

Offices abroad ...................................               20,300         4,165             0        16,135               0            0            0            0          0           0            0


   NOTE: Only the following 10 agencies are required to report to this section of the sur-                            proximately 98 percent of total Federal R&D obligations in fiscal year 1999. Detail may
vey: the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Energy, Interior, Transpor-                                   not sum to totals due to rounding.
tation, and Health and Human Services; the Environmental Protection Agency; the Na-
tional Aeronautics and Space Administration; and the National Science Foundation. The                                  SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Develop-
obligations of the 10 major R&D supporting agencies included in this table represent ap-                              ment: Fiscal Years 1998, 1999, and 2000. (This table was prepared March 2001.)
436 FEDERAL PROGRAMS



           Table 371.—Federal science and engineering obligations to colleges and universities, by agency and state:
                                                      Fiscal year 1999
                                                                                                [In thousands of dollars]

                                                                                                                                                     Department    National Aer-
                                                                  Department                                                        Environmental                                    National
                                                                                Department        Department       Department                         of Health    onautics and
         State or other area                          Total           of                                                             Protection                                      Science     Other 1
                                                                                of Defense        of Education      of Energy                        and Human      Space Ad-
                                                                  Agriculture                                                          Agency                                       Foundation
                                                                                                                                                      Services      ministration

                       1                                2             3             4                  5                6                7               8              9              10          11

   United      States 2      ....................   $17,974,786      $924,637    $1,800,511          $323,031         $650,028          $178,767      $9,805,548    $1,034,500      $2,684,786   $572,978

Alabama ...................................             297,999        25,903       11,865              6,310            4,639             4,352         175,271         46,474         20,352      2,833
Alaska ......................................            54,316         6,740          660                816            2,982               589           1,831          9,078         12,543     19,077
Arizona .....................................           233,332        12,277       18,048              5,289            5,565             5,721          87,121         30,981         64,601      3,729
Arkansas ..................................              72,055        25,359        1,993              3,327              100               111          28,324          1,420          9,078      2,343
California ..................................         2,500,871        39,851      239,899             37,586           89,477            24,694       1,394,386        214,341        421,271     39,366

Colorado ..................................            504,673         12,554       22,423              8,578           13,945               8,628      170,677          73,265        142,144     52,459
Connecticut ..............................             334,784          7,127       10,296              2,614           10,743                 527      269,728           4,797         28,114        838
Delaware ..................................             50,166          6,919        9,629              1,197            1,962                 950        6,951           3,508         16,178      2,872
District of Columbia .................                 184,265          1,639       28,873              6,398            1,813               2,063      110,721           9,474          9,501     13,783
Florida ......................................         394,086         22,944       31,460             11,164           21,851               2,826      178,350          26,199         79,555     19,737

Georgia ....................................           386,797         32,324       55,447              7,667           11,501               4,047      200,350          17,784         48,751      8,926
Hawaii ......................................           95,456         11,988       11,228              2,982            2,846                  64       20,065          10,281         19,814     16,188
Idaho ........................................          30,008          8,894        1,243              1,787            1,760                 724        2,698             713          6,176      6,013
Illinois .......................................       676,939         25,935       48,093             11,699           24,852               2,759      378,219          13,601        161,012     10,769
Indiana .....................................          245,967         23,438       14,376              1,341           17,018               1,092      122,647           4,208         57,311      4,536

Iowa .........................................         214,975         30,762        5,120              3,599               5,101            2,915      136,574             6,365       20,294      4,245
Kansas .....................................           109,403         15,309        4,681             12,685               4,580            2,558       45,225             5,352       18,196        817
Kentucky ..................................            117,801         25,784        3,146              4,030               3,715              815       62,742             2,896       13,635      1,038
Louisiana ..................................           193,566         20,640       29,679              4,189               8,428            6,760       75,877             6,104       16,988     24,901
Maine .......................................           26,306          8,005        3,611              1,557                  88                0        3,741               354        6,968      1,982

Maryland ..................................           1,120,503        13,755      365,458              8,024           10,498               6,376      470,790         162,288         56,027     27,287
Massachusetts .........................               1,047,036        11,058      126,097              8,769           85,968               8,968      554,182          42,779        187,417     21,798
Michigan ...................................            562,483        27,930       30,378             10,634           20,850               8,896      323,459          10,770        118,243     11,323
Minnesota ................................              267,724        21,864       19,243              4,258            8,053               1,699      163,141           5,995         38,686      4,785
Mississippi ................................            136,787        35,074       22,367              4,078            6,195                 180       21,330          15,185         18,373     14,005

Missouri ....................................          399,909         27,379       10,302                 6,871         4,578               8,868      298,238           8,223         32,343      3,107
Montana ...................................             62,880         12,639        2,762                 3,673           259               2,095        9,659          10,715         15,372      5,706
Nebraska ..................................             79,037         16,631        3,209                 2,050           939                 270       30,998           2,812         18,576      3,552
Nevada .....................................            47,780          4,648        2,638                   899        13,378                 702       10,147           1,214          8,442      5,712
New Hampshire .......................                  104,233          5,080        3,299                 1,125           617               1,464       49,404          10,621         13,432     19,191

New Jersey ..............................               272,009        11,144       22,963              4,683           18,482             4,130        124,295          10,048         66,487      9,777
New Mexico .............................                139,445         9,240       37,398              2,310            6,460               274         40,520          23,816         16,433      2,994
New York .................................            1,450,921        30,585       74,600             16,751           64,990             8,857        939,187          36,005        226,336     53,610
North Carolina ..........................               662,013        38,178       41,936             13,893           12,668            11,484        456,301           9,632         57,412     20,509
North Dakota ............................                43,901        11,971        2,684              1,106            6,781               222          6,100           4,487          8,589      1,961

Ohio .........................................          492,676        22,893       48,275             10,515           10,851               4,477      316,948          18,748         51,384      8,585
Oklahoma .................................               99,634        20,170        6,133              2,253            6,053               3,087       30,124           7,908         16,372      7,534
Oregon .....................................            227,420        18,062       13,190             12,484            3,642               2,495      120,249           7,103         37,654     12,541
Pennsylvania ............................             1,098,534        24,011      156,814             12,414           21,016               4,093      708,384          24,475        138,644      8,683
Rhode Island ............................                80,778         4,544        8,836                787            2,598                 282       30,844           4,179         22,300      6,408

South Carolina .........................               140,886         18,844       13,950              2,736           10,504               140         56,567           3,936         21,707     12,502
South Dakota ...........................                19,955          8,633          966                998               50                 0          2,059             950          4,840      1,459
Tennessee ...............................              258,662         24,811       12,561              7,059            8,013             3,020        166,504           7,074         24,830      4,790
Texas .......................................          972,851         41,540      102,943             12,862           23,510            12,404        601,468          48,165        110,797     19,162
Utah .........................................         182,410         10,616       32,325              5,142            7,191             1,012         90,658           6,620         26,985      1,861

Vermont ...................................             54,024          8,266        1,063              2,309              621                 140       36,343             718          3,714        850
Virginia .....................................         311,110         21,756       33,646              9,486           13,958               1,825      144,118          26,516         48,470     11,335
Washington ..............................              498,367         20,196       38,571              7,640           25,474               7,637      306,509           9,531         63,291     19,518
West Virginia ............................              46,444         10,486        1,690                945              868                   5       11,941          13,282            961      6,266
Wisconsin .................................            354,820         23,627       11,532             10,935           20,813               1,445      212,375          12,847         52,279      8,967
Wyoming ..................................              15,789          4,614          912                527            1,184                  25        1,208             663          5,908        748

   Outlying areas .....................                 83,141         21,409           1,489              2,909            1,010               0        35,785             4,083       14,439      2,017

American Samoa .....................                     1,734          1,709               0                  0              25                0             0                 0            0          0
Guam .......................................             3,081          2,148              64                196               0                0           468                 0            0        205
Puerto Rico ..............................              72,419         13,036           1,425              2,247             985                0        35,235             4,083       13,794      1,614
Trust Territory of the Pacific ....                      4,006          3,500               0                466               0                0             0                 0            0         40
Virgin Islands ...........................               1,901          1,016               0                  0               0                0            82                 0          645        158

  1 Includes U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban De-                                   NOTE: Data are not comparable with previous years because starting in fiscal year
velopment, U.S. Department of the Interior, Agency for International Development, U.S.                             1999, data no longer include obligations to federally funded research and development
Department of Labor, U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of Transportation, Bu-                              centers administered by colleges and universities. Detail may not sum to totals due to
reau of Engraving and Printing, General Services Administration, Office of Justice pro-                            rounding.
grams, Social Security Administration, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
  2 Dollars reflect actual obligations during the fiscal year regardless of when the funds                           SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Federal Support to Universities, Colleges,
were actually spent by a recipient institution.                                                                    and Nonprofit Institutions, Fiscal Year 1999. (This table was prepared February 2001.)
                                                                                                                                                                                  FEDERAL PROGRAMS 437



                                         Table 372.—Summary of federal funds for research, development, and R&D plant:
                                                                  Fiscal years 1993 to 2001
                                                                                                              [In millions of current dollars]

                                                                                                                                        Actual                                                     Estimate

                                                                                                                                                                                                               Percent
                                            Item                                                                                                                                                               change,
                                                                                                    1993         1994        1995        1996        1997        1998        1999        2000        2001      2000 to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2001

                                              1                                                      2             3           4           5          6           7           8           9           10         11

Total outlays for research, development, and
  R & D plant .............................................................................       $68,385.8    $68,335.9   $68,410.0   $67,756.1   $70,892.0   $72,295.6   $72,613.9   $75,864.5   $79,400.0          4.7

      Research and development ................................................                    65,241.3     66,158.8    66,374.6    65,909.9    68,897.2    70,434.5    70,585.2    73,774.2    77,254.7          4.7
      R & D plant .........................................................................         3,144.5      2,177.1     2,035.4     1,846.2     1,994.8     1,861.1     2,028.7     2,090.3     2,145.3          2.6

Total obligations for research, development, and
  R & D plant .............................................................................        70,414.7     69,427.0    71,011.8    69,408.7    71,744.7    73,743.5    77,386.6    81,772.8    83,609.3          2.2

   Research and development obligations .................................                          67,314.0     67,255.8    68,754.9    67,662.6    69,829.9    71,903.3    75,340.8    79,470.4    81,526.1          2.6

     Performers
   Federal intramural 1 ................................................................           16,556.2     16,139.1    17,342.7    16,596.4    16,720.0    17,114.0    18,084.7    19,072.8    19,352.4        1.5
   Industrial firms ........................................................................       30,326.1     30,454.4    30,468.7    30,361.4    31,418.0    31,839.7    31,901.6    32,815.2    33,026.4        0.6
   FFRDCs 2 administered by industrial firms ............................                           1,451.3      1,293.5     1,203.9     1,137.0     1,128.2     1,188.8     1,328.1     1,335.5     1,385.6        3.7
   Universities and colleges ........................................................              11,156.1     11,828.7    11,933.0    11,944.7    12,561.1    13,365.9    14,959.1    16,612.2    17,723.7        6.7
   FFRDCs 2 administered by universities and colleges ............                                  3,666.5      3,292.9     3,574.3     3,447.7     3,701.1     3,890.2     3,896.5     3,992.6     4,189.1        4.9
   Other nonprofit institutions .....................................................               2,811.9      2,929.6     2,806.5     2,886.9     2,962.1     3,155.1     3,608.8     4,047.1     4,175.6        3.2
   FFRDCs 2 administered by nonprofit institutions ...................                                753.4        735.5       831.4       754.5       821.0       603.0       913.3       898.1       978.0        8.9
   State and local governments ..................................................                     320.3        325.4       316.5       246.7       261.1       447.5       357.5       389.6       410.7        5.4
   Foreign ....................................................................................       272.2        256.6       277.8       287.4       257.5       299.1       291.3       307.5       284.8       –7.3

      Research obligations ..........................................................              26,890.5     27,440.4    28,573.4    28,265.1    29,365.6    30,922.3    33,527.5    36,329.5    38,688.1          6.5
        Performers
          Federal intramural 1 .....................................................                7,360.1      7,488.2     7,787.8     7,528.2     7,667.2     7,964.7     8,685.8     9,203.5     9,792.8        6.4
          Industrial firms .............................................................            4,018.9      4,063.5     4,727.9     4,291.3     4,392.1     4,635.1     4,579.8     4,888.1     5,118.0        4.7
          FFRDCs 2 administered by industrial firms ..................                                795.8        737.2       818.0       696.2       759.6       844.1       879.3       850.1       911.3        7.2
          Universities and colleges .............................................                   9,844.1     10,323.5    10,371.6    10,673.7    11,173.2    11,741.0    13,203.8    14,699.1    15,696.1        6.8
          FFRDCs 2 administered by universities and colleges                                        2,347.6      2,181.1     2,235.6     2,386.0     2,598.9     2,743.0     2,554.1     2,673.6     2,948.4       10.3
          Other nonprofit institutions ...........................................                  2,041.3      2,094.9     2,056.1     2,179.5     2,294.9     2,425.2     2,806.7     3,178.3     3,340.6        5.1
          FFRDCs 2 administered by nonprofit institutions .........                                   173.4        178.0       210.1       195.8       217.5       214.5       469.5       450.6       470.4        4.4
          State and local governments .......................................                         211.8        230.8       221.4       187.4       144.0       240.1       232.4       267.9       287.8        7.4
          Foreign .........................................................................            97.4        143.3       144.8       126.8       118.1       114.5       116.1       118.3       122.7        3.8

         Fields of science
           Life sciences ................................................................          10,772.1     11,078.8    11,979.0    12,099.7    12,661.3    13,557.6    15,422.5    17,422.5    18,249.2        4.7
           Psychology ...................................................................             550.7        550.2       653.6       513.0       545.4       591.0       632.6       719.9       751.8        4.4
           Physical sciences ........................................................               4,427.0      6,792.7     4,851.2     3,964.4     4,148.7     4,209.7     4,066.2     4,183.1     4,430.2        5.9
           Environmental sciences ...............................................                   2,608.5      2,032.0     2,722.9     2,997.0     3,045.7     3,062.0     3,095.3     3,102.4     3,243.2        4.5
           Mathematics and computer sciences ..........................                             1,225.4      1,242.3     1,667.9     1,554.1     1,671.8     1,836.8     1,980.6     2,178.5     2,517.3       15.6
           Engineering ..................................................................           5,499.4      4,023.3     4,952.7     5,679.6     5,690.3     5,895.4     6,263.4     6,548.3     7,088.7        8.3
           Social sciences ............................................................               674.9        655.0       682.9       674.2       696.3       806.1       854.9       901.8       995.9       10.4
           Other sciences .............................................................             1,132.5      1,066.1     1,063.2       783.0       906.1       963.7     1,212.1     1,273.0     1,411.8       10.9

         Basic research obligations ..............................................                 13,399.1     13,552.9    13,895.5    14,462.4    14,942.2    15,613.0    17,443.7    18,981.7    20,274.4          6.8
           Performers
             Federal intramural 1 ..................................................                2,605.1      2,505.0     2,712.9     2,689.2     2,688.6     2,917.8     3,255.2     3,482.5     3,650.5          4.8
             Industrial firms ..........................................................              959.2      1,109.1     1,221.2     1,131.0     1,166.7     1,119.7     1,082.8     1,192.0     1,192.8          0.1
             FFRDCs2 administered by industrial firms ...............                                 237.3        237.6       239.1       272.8       294.7       326.4       313.4       308.2       325.1          5.5
             Universities and colleges .........................................                    6,798.5      7,024.2     6,951.3     7,406.1     7,695.8     7,952.2     9,107.1    10,043.7    10,906.4          8.6
             FFRDCs 2 administered by universities and col-
                leges ......................................................................        1,437.8      1,336.0     1,438.3     1,522.0     1,600.0     1,642.3     1,565.5     1,621.1     1,747.2          7.8
             Other nonprofit institutions .......................................                   1,164.9      1,125.7     1,134.2     1,235.2     1,289.6     1,397.6     1,650.0     1,871.2     1,980.3          5.8
             FFRDCs 2 administered by nonprofit institutions .....                                     71.3         73.9        75.2        76.5        88.4       121.8       354.9       338.1       340.2          0.6
             State and local governments ...................................                           71.7         75.2        78.7        80.2        68.4        84.9        61.4        66.8        68.7          2.9
             Foreign .....................................................................             53.3         66.1        44.5        49.5        49.9        50.4        53.4        58.1        63.3          8.9

             Fields of science
               Life sciences ............................................................           6,288.8      6,429.8     6,746.7     6,911.0     7,203.8     7,853.4     9,197.1    10,374.4    10,964.6        5.7
               Psychology ...............................................................             246.8        247.4       279.8       281.5       293.9       312.0       347.3       408.7       425.6        4.1
               Physical sciences .....................................................              2,907.1      3,649.2     2,709.3     2,901.7     2,976.4     2,941.4     3,089.8     3,217.6     3,401.0        5.7
               Environmental sciences ...........................................                   1,533.5        997.2     1,410.7     1,531.2     1,543.5     1,528.7     1,615.7     1,630.6     1,722.3        5.6
               Mathematics and computer sciences ......................                               511.3        503.6       626.1       622.0       661.4       705.5       734.9       760.8       920.1       20.9
               Engineering ..............................................................           1,207.4      1,061.7     1,432.2     1,606.6     1,583.0     1,594.4     1,639.7     1,716.9     1,870.3        8.9
               Social sciences ........................................................               194.1        191.7       210.8       230.0       221.0       224.8       246.5       273.4       299.8        9.7
               Other sciences .........................................................               510.1        472.4       479.9       378.3       459.3       452.7       572.5       599.3       670.6       11.9

         Applied research obligations ...........................................                  13,491.4     13,887.5    14,677.9    13,802.7    14,423.4    15,309.3    16,083.7    17,347.9    18,413.7          6.1
           Performers
             Federal intramural 1 ..................................................                4,755.0      4,983.2     5,074.9     4,839.0     4,978.7     5,046.9     5,430.6     5,721.0     6,142.3          7.4
             Industrial firms ..........................................................            3,059.7      2,954.4     3,506.7     3,160.3     3,225.5     3,515.4     3,497.0     3,696.1     3,925.1          6.2
             FFRDCs 2 administered by industrial firms ..............                                 558.6        499.6       578.9       423.4       464.9       517.7       565.8       541.9       586.2          8.2
             Universities and colleges .........................................                    3,045.5      3,299.3     3,420.3     3,267.6     3,477.4     3,788.9     4,096.7     4,655.3     4,789.8          2.9
             FFRDCs 2 administered by universities and col-
               leges ......................................................................          909.8         845.1       797.3       864.0       998.8     1,100.7       988.6     1,052.5     1,201.2       14.1
             Other nonprofit institutions .......................................                    876.4         969.2       921.9       944.3     1,005.3     1,027.7     1,156.7     1,307.1     1,360.4        4.1
             FFRDCs2 administered by nonprofit institutions ......                                   102.2         104.0       134.9       119.4       129.2        92.6       114.6       112.6       130.1       15.6
             State and local governments ...................................                         140.1         155.5       142.7       107.3        75.5       155.2       171.0       201.2       219.2        8.9
             Foreign .....................................................................            44.1          77.2       100.3        77.4        68.2        64.1        62.8        60.2        59.4       –1.3

             Fields of science
               Life sciences ............................................................           4,483.3      4,649.0     5,232.3     5,188.7     5,457.6     5,704.1     6,225.3     7,048.1     7,284.6        3.4
               Psychology ...............................................................             303.9        302.9       373.9       231.5       251.5       279.0       285.3       311.2       326.2        4.8
               Physical sciences .....................................................              1,519.8      3,143.5     2,141.9     1,062.7     1,172.4     1,268.3       976.4       965.5     1,029.1        6.6
               Environmental sciences ...........................................                   1,075.0      1,034.8     1,312.3     1,465.8     1,502.2     1,533.2     1,479.5     1,471.8     1,521.0        3.3
               Mathematics and computer sciences ......................                               714.1        738.7     1,041.7       932.1     1,010.5     1,131.4     1,245.7     1,417.7     1,597.2       12.7
               Engineering ..............................................................           4,292.0      2,961.6     3,520.5     4,073.0     4,107.3     4,301.0     4,623.7     4,831.4     5,218.3        8.0
438 FEDERAL PROGRAMS



                                       Table 372.—Summary of federal funds for research, development, and R&D plant:
                                                         Fiscal years 1993 to 2001—Continued
                                                                                                        [In millions of current dollars]

                                                                                                                                   Actual                                                 Estimate

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Percent
                                         Item                                                                                                                                                         change,
                                                                                              1993         1994        1995        1996        1997       1998       1999       2000        2001      2000 to
                                                                                                                                                                                                       2001

                                            1                                                  2             3           4           5          6          7           8          9          10         11


              Social sciences ........................................................         480.8         463.3       472.0       444.2      475.3      581.3       608.3      628.4      696.0        10.8
              Other sciences .........................................................         622.4         593.8       583.3       404.7      446.8      510.9       639.6      673.7      741.2        10.0

     Development obligations .....................................................           40,423.5     39,815.4    40,181.4    39,397.5   40,464.3    40,981.0   41,813.1   43,140.7    42,838.1       –0.7
       Performers
         Federal intramural 1 .....................................................           9,196.2      8,650.9     9,554.9     9,068.1    9,052.7     9,149.3    9,398.9    9,869.3     9,559.6      –3.1
         Industrial firms .............................................................      26,307.2     26,390.9    25,740.7    26,070.1   27,025.8    27,204.6   27,321.8   27,927.0    27,908.3      –0.1
         FFRDCs 2 administered by industrial firms ..................                           655.5        556.3       385.9       440.7      368.6       344.7      448.8      485.4       474.3      –2.3
         Universities and colleges .............................................              1,312.0      1,505.2     1,561.4     1,271.0    1,387.9     1,624.8    1,755.3    1,913.0     2,027.5       6.0
         FFRDCs 2 administered by universities and colleges                                   1,318.9      1,111.8     1,338.7     1,061.6    1,102.1     1,147.2    1,342.3    1,319.0     1,240.7      –5.9
         Other nonprofit institutions ...........................................               770.6        834.8       750.4       707.4      667.2       729.9      802.0      868.8       835.0      –3.9
         FFRDCs 2 administered by nonprofit institutions .........                              580.0        557.6       621.3       558.7      603.4       388.5      443.7      447.6       507.7      13.4
         State and local governments .......................................                    108.5         94.7        95.1        59.3      117.1       207.4      125.1      121.6       122.8       1.0
         Foreign .........................................................................      174.8        113.3       133.0       160.5      139.3       184.6      175.2      189.2       162.1     –14.3

  R & D plant obligations ..........................................................          3,100.7      2,171.2     2,256.9     1,746.1     1,914.8    1,840.2    2,045.8    2,302.3     2,083.1       –9.5
    Performers
      Federal intramural 1 .........................................................            432.0        392.6       482.6       405.1      608.3      475.3       483.3      787.8      441.9      –43.9
      Industrial firms .................................................................      1,048.2        746.8       696.6       465.4      389.8      487.7       544.7      526.7      561.7        6.6
      FFRDCs 2 administered by industrial firms .....................                           124.4        119.4        95.1        43.9       60.5       45.6       172.8      154.5      321.6      108.2
      Universities and colleges ................................................                361.4        209.0       323.8       243.1      238.6      139.5       141.2      192.8      194.4        0.8
      FFRDCs 2 administered by universities and colleges .....                                  619.5        608.8       543.9       497.8      548.8      663.6       615.5      552.8      469.5      –15.1
      Other nonprofit institutions ..............................................               415.6         20.9        25.6        23.4       16.7       10.9        12.2       24.6       14.3      –41.9
      FFRDCs 2 administered by nonprofit institutions ............                               65.5         72.9        62.6        66.1       52.0       12.1        70.7       61.9       79.8       28.9
      State and local governments ..........................................                      0.5          0.8         0.5         1.0         —          —          5.3        1.3         —          —
      Foreign ............................................................................       33.4          0.2        26.1         0.5        0.1        5.5          —          —          —          —


  —Not available.                                                                                                              NOTE: Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Detail may
  1 Includes costs associated with the administration of intramural and extramural pro-                                      not sum to totals due to rounding.
grams by federal personnel as well as actual intramural performance.
  2 Federally funded research and development centers.                                                                        SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Develop-
                                                                                                                             ment, various years. (This table was prepared February 2001.)
                                                                                                                                                            FEDERAL PROGRAMS 439



          Table 373.—U.S. Department of Agriculture obligations for child nutrition programs, by state or other area:
                                                Fiscal years 1999 and 2000
                                                                                               [In thousands]

                                                                                                                               Fiscal year 2000
                                                                     Total,                                                              State        Commodities
                   State or other area                               fiscal                               School         School       administra-      and cash in     Child and    Summer food
                                                                   year 1999    Total      Special milk   lunch 1       breakfast         tive           lieu of       adult care     service
                                                                                                                                       expenses       commodities 2

                               1                                      2           3             4           5              6               7               8               9            10

   Total ..................................................... $9,657,184 $9,938,238          $16,160 $5,564,283 $1,422,941            $120,201          $840,491      $1,690,472     $283,690
Alabama ...................................................          182,533     185,074             60   108,242         25,546           2,269            15,276        29,351         4,330
Alaska ......................................................         25,911      26,414              3    15,425          2,441             460             1,546         6,129           410
Arizona .....................................................        174,352     185,889            162   100,783         24,878           2,331            15,052        38,380         4,304
Arkansas ..................................................          109,232     109,910             24    60,559         19,334           1,444             9,315        17,666         1,568
California ..................................................      1,217,247   1,260,209            762   748,258        191,980          14,314            89,419       195,053        20,422
Colorado ..................................................          94,179      95,795             146    50,053           9,203          1,370             9,009         24,605        1,409
Connecticut ..............................................           74,144      75,715             438    44,497           9,586            944             7,198         10,077        2,976
Delaware ..................................................          25,358      25,958              51    11,613           2,955            476             1,991          7,643        1,229
District of Columbia .................................               25,589      25,385               7    14,200           3,719            376             1,055          2,899        3,128
Florida ......................................................      505,293     536,404             149   311,291          81,157          5,706            40,291         71,443       26,366
Georgia ....................................................        352,749     370,395             36    203,661          64,539          4,102            32,443         55,477       10,138
Hawaii ......................................................        42,466      43,731              3     27,515           6,101            595             4,532          4,498          486
Idaho ........................................................       36,724      38,549            182     23,994           4,088            527             4,390          4,152        1,216
Illinois .......................................................    357,753     370,241          2,592    214,952          34,528          4,493            27,568         72,817       13,292
Indiana .....................................................       138,998     148,865            319     84,817          17,473          1,821            17,985         24,450        2,000
Iowa .........................................................       79,493      82,817             113    46,304           9,194          1,123            10,872         14,520           691
Kansas .....................................................         88,752      90,013             128    43,585          10,145          1,344             7,808         25,897         1,105
Kentucky ..................................................         157,832     165,048              75    93,074          30,725          1,883            13,883         22,074         3,335
Louisiana ..................................................        250,673     254,036              56   139,989          43,598          3,226            17,472         42,920         6,776
Maine .......................................................        35,376      35,445             114    17,395           3,830            629             3,144          9,476           856
Maryland ..................................................         136,724     137,232             441    72,475          18,281          1,838            10,362         28,110         5,725
Massachusetts .........................................             161,468     161,398             498    79,428          19,119          2,167            14,187         40,991         5,009
Michigan ...................................................        234,470     248,731             898   140,361          32,139          3,131            23,880         44,817         3,505
Minnesota ................................................          150,878     159,721             982    70,076          16,552          2,400            13,817         52,770         3,125
Mississippi ................................................        165,147     168,374               7    97,922          32,855          1,974            11,228         21,089         3,299
Missouri ....................................................       170,455     179,792             385     96,262         26,692          2,147            18,588         30,476         5,244
Montana ...................................................          28,797      29,111              38     14,366          2,845            531             2,080          8,735           517
Nebraska ..................................................          62,317      64,770             133     28,828          5,498          1,077             7,289         21,398           547
Nevada .....................................................         37,468      41,715             184     25,241          6,781            513             3,775          2,910         2,311
New Hampshire .......................................                20,094      20,090             191     11,254          2,178            351             3,149          2,608           359
New Jersey ..............................................           181,924     190,932            898    115,798          16,610          2,167            18,570        30,022         6,866
New Mexico .............................................            106,626     108,729              2     48,368          14,328          1,588             6,057        32,598         5,787
New York .................................................          702,193     719,465          1,063    406,606          92,999          8,077            56,059       114,614        40,048
North Carolina ..........................................           281,564     292,429            134    156,987          47,330          3,533            24,578        55,468         4,399
North Dakota ............................................            24,105      24,460             73     10,634           1,843            512             2,417         8,633           348
Ohio .........................................................      261,230     274,468             753   156,800          35,127          3,317            27,955         45,796        4,719
Oklahoma .................................................          139,802     149,872              58    75,579          24,423          1,913            13,581         31,733        2,585
Oregon .....................................................         99,415     101,363             135    48,346          16,055          1,487             7,702         25,280        2,359
Pennsylvania ............................................           280,500     281,855             783   164,731          34,696          3,190            28,579         35,270       14,606
Rhode Island ............................................            25,768      28,822             114    16,480           3,152            408             2,604          4,850        1,216
South Carolina .........................................            168,181     173,766               9   100,157         31,660           1,909            14,001        18,991         7,039
South Dakota ...........................................             27,874      30,097              41    16,063          3,380             498             3,618         5,598           900
Tennessee ...............................................           187,436     197,077              26   109,507         30,179           2,359            18,148        30,690         6,167
Texas .......................................................       895,210     949,971             101   552,207        170,470          10,165            77,356       119,315        20,357
Utah .........................................................       77,659      80,119              80    38,822          5,795           1,292             8,613        23,557         1,960
Vermont ...................................................          16,119      16,293             70      7,599           2,093            350             1,727          4,078           377
Virginia .....................................................      172,156     176,117            225    104,585          26,040          1,418            16,405         24,156         3,288
Washington ..............................................           152,229     158,922            277     86,047          20,363          2,054            14,568         32,386         3,228
West Virginia ............................................           69,318      71,324             29     37,205          13,105            958             6,241         12,105         1,681
Wisconsin .................................................         121,645     124,872          1,403     68,912           8,771          1,693            14,027         27,887         2,180
Wyoming ..................................................           15,878      15,265             17      7,721           1,455            353             1,309          4,334            76
Administrative costs .................................                 5,573      6,936              —              —            —                —            6,936            —            —
Department of Defense dependents
  schools .................................................            6,779      7,287              —       6,227              31                —            1,028            —            —
               Outlying areas
American Samoa .....................................                     —        9,096               0     9,096               0              0                 0              0            0
Guam .......................................................          4,271       4,944               0     3,231           1,039            220               363             91            0
Northern Marianas ...................................                    —        4,022               0     4,022               0              0                 0              0            0
Puerto Rico ..............................................          175,189     167,880               0   109,439          24,615          1,874            11,392         15,406        5,155
Virgin Islands ...........................................            6,979       6,537               2     3,784             318            244             1,001            658          530
Undistributed 3 ..........................................          309,090     228,490             690   102,913          39,105          3,064            17,053         53,527       12,138

  —Not available.                                                                                           NOTE: Data are based on obligations as reported September 30, 2000. Detail may
  1 Special Meal Assistance program is combined with ‘‘School Lunch’’ program.
                                                                                                          not sum to totals due to rounding.
  2 Commodities are based on preliminary food orders for fiscal year 2000.
  3 Undistributed amount reflects the difference between preliminary state earnings re-
                                                                                                             SOURCE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Budget Divi-
ports and federal obligations as of September 30, 2000. Undistributed amount under                        sion, unpublished data. (This table was prepared January 2001.)
school lunch includes obligations for American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands.
440 FEDERAL PROGRAMS



Table 374.—U.S. Department of Health and Human Services allocations for Head Start and enrollment in Head Start,
                               by state or other area: Fiscal years 1997 to 2000
                                                                           1997                                   1998                                   1999                                   2000

              State or other area                              Head Start                             Head Start                             Head Start                             Head Start
                                                                                  Head Start                             Head Start                             Head Start                             Head Start
                                                                allocations                            allocations                            allocations                            allocations
                                                                                  enrollment 1                           enrollment 2                           enrollment 3                           enrollment 4
                                                             (in thousands)                         (in thousands)                         (in thousands)                         (in thousands)

                            1                                      2                   3                  4                   5                  6                   7                  8                   9

   Total ..............................................          $3,876,707             793,809         $4,232,433             822,316         $4,502,423             829,958         $5,102,907             857,657

Alabama ............................................                 65,970                14,979           67,517                15,118           71,983                15,263           82,414                15,823
Alaska ................................................               7,581                 1,212            8,209                 1,261            8,786                 1,281            9,738                 1,297
Arizona ..............................................               53,478                10,561           59,017                11,055           62,444                11,127           73,697                11,882
Arkansas ............................................                36,396                 9,637           39,367                 9,893           43,449                10,097           48,379                10,316
California ...........................................              458,841                79,929          528,339                86,368          554,366                86,459          642,512                95,280
Colorado ............................................                40,902                 8,952           42,368                 8,863           46,602                 9,135           52,226                 9,333
Connecticut ........................................                 32,985                 6,190           35,244                 6,476           37,906                 6,825           41,674                 6,857
Delaware ...........................................                  8,314                 2,077            8,446                 2,114            8,873                 2,126            9,820                 2,119
District of Columbia ...........................                     17,361                 3,273           18,276                 3,295           19,201                 3,279           20,926                 3,345
Florida ................................................            144,663                29,523          159,055                30,285          169,996                30,792          195,696                32,389
Georgia ..............................................               96,295                20,505          105,423                21,195          112,040                21,121          126,281                21,580
Hawaii ................................................              12,632                 2,539           13,983                 2,769           15,786                 2,799           18,199                 2,916
Idaho ..................................................             12,529                 2,213           13,058                 2,231           14,121                 2,266           16,098                 2,387
Illinois .................................................          170,193                33,924          182,050                34,871          192,580                35,211          214,965                37,767
Indiana ...............................................              55,293                12,415           61,337                12,930           65,226                13,057           72,467                13,323
Iowa ...................................................               28,458               6,341             33,451               6,922           36,038                 7,003           40,714                 7,235
Kansas ...............................................                 28,815               6,355             31,299               7,175           32,958                 7,000           37,061                 7,447
Kentucky ............................................                  65,587              14,828             71,283              15,163           76,409                15,281           85,198                15,701
Louisiana ...........................................                  87,261              19,998             94,565              20,402          100,196                20,703          110,318                20,975
Maine .................................................                15,536               3,392             17,233               3,537           18,695                 3,618           20,378                 3,631
Maryland ............................................                47,688                 9,514           51,664                 9,507           54,966                 9,626           61,920                 9,968
Massachusetts ...................................                    68,913                11,499           73,664                11,877           78,544                12,094           85,917                12,250
Michigan ............................................               150,074                32,440          162,316                33,316          171,121                33,422          186,842                33,769
Minnesota ..........................................                 43,536                 9,117           48,909                 9,545           51,740                 9,630           56,401                 9,715
Mississippi .........................................               103,523                24,693          110,564                24,953          117,375                25,091          129,843                25,455
Missouri .............................................                 66,763              14,899             73,482              15,415             78,622              16,191             93,475              16,574
Montana .............................................                  11,500               2,510             12,292               2,555             13,839               2,678             15,267               2,703
Nebraska ...........................................                   19,037               4,088             21,318               4,335             23,890               4,518             26,660               4,571
Nevada ..............................................                   9,942               2,019             11,280               2,035             11,484               2,035             12,369               2,035
New Hampshire .................................                         7,430               1,267              8,512               1,382              9,114               1,425              9,838               1,425
New Jersey ........................................                  82,650                13,746           89,319                14,201           94,945                14,443          104,743                14,567
New Mexico .......................................                   33,971                 7,187           32,470                 7,012           35,363                 7,108           38,374                 7,135
New York ...........................................                261,541                43,716          286,961                45,608          304,283                45,040          342,136                46,805
North Carolina ...................................                   80,559                16,825           87,978                17,221           93,979                17,394          104,684                17,808
North Dakota .....................................                    8,733                 2,121            9,721                 1,966           10,561                 2,002           11,973                 2,042
Ohio ...................................................            155,354                35,441          168,724                36,300          178,271                36,454          196,684                38,261
Oklahoma ..........................................                  45,865                11,631           50,997                12,142           54,422                12,217           61,555                12,655
Oregon ...............................................               34,466                 5,222           37,909                 5,400           40,118                 5,480           46,071                 5,771
Pennsylvania .....................................                  142,973                27,515          154,046                28,902          165,674                29,124          181,844                29,650
Rhode Island .....................................                   13,135                 2,676           13,901                 2,778           15,330                 2,817           17,378                 2,952
South Carolina ...................................                   51,714                10,822           52,826                11,110           56,280                11,207           64,060                11,604
South Dakota .....................................                   10,139                 2,374           11,088                 2,355           12,708                 2,485           14,045                 2,587
Tennessee .........................................                  69,365                14,553           76,803                14,748           81,387                14,753           92,040                15,747
Texas .................................................             253,186                54,624          279,640                57,281          299,891                58,173          361,846                63,171
Utah ...................................................             20,132                 4,419           21,728                 4,654           23,185                 4,679           27,840                 5,079
Vermont .............................................                   8,433               1,379              8,900               1,404              9,691               1,438             10,514               1,438
Virginia ...............................................               54,571              11,480             61,960              12,053             66,246              12,243             74,487              12,652
Washington ........................................                    59,644               9,387             64,841               9,682             69,601               9,831             78,359              10,287
West Virginia .....................................                    31,064               6,858             33,349               6,876             36,062               7,043             39,842               7,144
Wisconsin ..........................................                   58,550              12,556             63,218              12,905             67,582              13,113             72,177              12,953
Wyoming ............................................                    5,814               1,395              6,421               1,452              7,546               1,500              8,187               1,468
Migrant programs ..............................                     153,788                36,458          162,206                37,116          178,122                38,132          206,391                31,607
American Indian/Alaskan
  Native programs ............................                      113,920                21,019          121,272                21,612          130,191                21,237          144,768                22,391
Special projects .................................                       —                     —                —                     —                —                     —                —                     —
            Outlying areas
Puerto Rico ........................................                143,121                32,221          155,526                33,273          155,526                33,470          185,563                34,393
Pacific Territories ...............................                   9,963                 5,849           10,297                 5,989           10,297                 5,989           12,356                 5,989
Virgin Islands .....................................                  6,560                 1,446            6,811                 1,430            6,811                 1,430            7,697                 1,430


  —Not available.                                                                                                        years of age. Handicapped children accounted for 13 percent in Head Start programs.
  1 The distribution of enrollment by age was: 6 percent were 5 years old and over; 60                                   The racial/ethnic composition was: American Indian/Alaskan Native, 3 percent; Hispanic,
percent were 4-year-olds; 30 percent were 3-year-olds; and 4 percent were under 3                                        27 percent; black, 35 percent; white, 31 percent; and Asian, 3 percent.
years of age. Handicapped children accounted for 13 percent in Head Start programs.                                         4 The distribution of enrollment by age was: 5 percent were 5 years old and over; 56

The racial/ethnic composition was: American Indian/Alaskan Native, 4 percent; Hispanic,                                  percent were 4-year-olds; 33 percent were 3-year-olds; and 6 percent were under 3
26 percent; black, 36 percent; white, 31 percent; and Asian, 3 percent.                                                  years of age. Handicapped children accounted for 13 percent in Head Start programs.
  2 The distribution of enrollment by age was: 6 percent were 5 years old and over; 59
                                                                                                                         The racial/ethnic composition was: American Indian/Alaskan Native, 3 percent; Hispanic,
percent were 4-year-olds; 31 percent were 3-year-olds; and 4 percent were under 3                                        29 percent; black, 35 percent; white, 30 percent; Asian, 2 percent, and Hawaiian/Pacific
years of age. Handicapped children accounted for 13 percent in Head Start programs.                                      Islander, 1 percent.
The racial/ethnic composition was: American Indian/Alaskan Native, 3 percent; Hispanic,
                                                                                                                           NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.
26 percent; black, 36 percent; white, 32 percent; and Asian, 3 percent.
  3 The distribution of enrollment by age was: 6 percent were 5 years old and over; 59                                    SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Human Develop-
percent were 4-year-olds; 31 percent were 3-year-olds; and 4 percent were under 3                                        ment Services. (This table was prepared April 2001.)
                                                                                                                                                                                         FEDERAL PROGRAMS 441



    Table 375.—Public school students receiving federally funded free or reduced price lunches, by selected school
                                        characteristics: School year 1993–94
                                                                                                                                                                    Percent of students participating in program
                                                             School characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                  Total         Elementary       Secondary         Combined

                                                                             1                                                                                     2                3                 4                5

      Total ..................................................................................................................................................   33.2 (0.5)      38.8 (0.7)         22.0 (0.4)       39.1 (1.7)

Community type
  Central city ..........................................................................................................................................        44.9 (1.0)      52.1 (1.3)         28.9 (0.9)       52.2 (3.0)
  Urban fringe/large town .......................................................................................................................                23.5 (0.9)      28.3 (1.4)         14.6 (0.6)       23.9 (3.8)
  Rural/small town ..................................................................................................................................            32.2 (0.6)      36.3 (0.8)         23.0 (0.4)       39.9 (1.9)

School size (students)
  Less than 150 ......................................................................................................................................           38.6   (1.3)    38.4    (1.9)      35.8   (1.5)     50.2   (2.4)
  150–299 ...............................................................................................................................................        38.1   (0.9)    39.5    (1.2)      28.4   (1.1)     51.8   (4.9)
  300–499 ...............................................................................................................................................        37.0   (0.9)    38.8    (1.0)      26.2   (1.1)     37.3   (2.6)
  500–749 ...............................................................................................................................................        33.5   (0.9)    36.0    (1.0)      22.3   (0.7)     34.7   (2.2)
  750 or more .........................................................................................................................................          29.7   (0.9)    42.5    (1.8)      20.6   (0.5)     34.3   (3.2)

Minority students
  Less than 5% ......................................................................................................................................            22.0   (0.5)    24.4    (0.7)      17.0   (0.6)     28.6   (1.6)
  5 to 19% ..............................................................................................................................................        18.9   (0.5)    22.2    (0.8)      11.7   (0.4)     30.6   (2.3)
  20 to 49% ............................................................................................................................................         32.0   (0.7)    38.1    (1.0)      20.1   (0.4)     38.6   (5.0)
  50% or more ........................................................................................................................................           57.3   (1.1)    65.5    (1.2)      38.9   (1.0)     60.6   (3.2)

  NOTE: Combined includes schools beginning with grade 6 or below and ending with                                                    SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
grade 9 or above. Standard errors appear in parentheses.                                                                          ‘‘Schools and Staffing Survey, 1993–94.’’ (This table was prepared June 1998.)



 Table 376.—Public and private school students receiving federally funded Chapter 1 1 services, by selected school
                                      characteristics: School year 1993–94
                                                                                                                Percent of students participating in program

   School characteristics                                                                                   Public                                                                        Private
                                              All schools
                                                                          Total             Elementary              Secondary              Combined 2             Total         Elementary       Secondary         Combined 2

                   1                                  2                      3                      4                      5                       6               7                8                 9                10

      Total ..........................           13.1 (0.4)             14.3 (0.4)              18.5 (0.6)               6.1 (0.3)            13.6 (0.7)          3.3 (0.2)        4.6 (0.3)         1.9 (0.4)        1.4 (0.2)

Community type
  Central city ...................               17.0 (0.7)             19.4 (0.8)              24.2 (1.2)               9.2 (1.0)            14.4 (2.3)          4.4 (0.4)        6.7 (0.6)         2.5 (0.7)        0.8 (0.2)
  Urban fringe/large town                         9.1 (0.7)             10.1 (0.8)              13.0 (1.2)               4.6 (0.6)             8.3 (1.3)          2.0 (0.2)        2.4 (0.3)         0.9 (0.3)        1.9 (0.6)
  Rural/small town ..........                    13.2 (0.5)             13.7 (0.5)              18.2 (0.7)               5.2 (0.2)            14.9 (1.0)          3.0 (0.5)        4.0 (0.6)         2.3 (0.6)        1.8 (0.7)

School size (students)
  Less than 150 ..............                    9.8     (0.6)         16.7     (0.9)          20.0    (1.3)          11.1    (0.9)          15.6     (1.4)      3.8   (0.5)      3.3   (0.5)       8.1   (3.0)      3.8   (0.9)
  150–299 .......................                13.1     (0.6)         16.7     (0.8)          19.2    (1.0)           7.6    (0.8)          11.6     (1.7)      5.1   (0.4)      6.2   (0.5)       4.1   (1.9)      1.4   (0.5)
  300–499 .......................                14.7     (0.6)         16.3     (0.6)          18.0    (0.7)           7.0    (0.9)          13.1     (1.0)      2.6   (0.4)      3.7   (0.7)       0.9   (0.2)      0.8   (0.2)
  500–749 .......................                14.7     (0.6)         15.5     (0.7)          17.6    (0.9)           6.0    (0.7)          18.3     (2.4)      2.0   (0.6)      3.8   (1.3)       1.1   (0.3)      0.3   (0.2)
  750 or more .................                  11.3     (0.7)         11.7     (0.7)          20.1    (1.7)           5.8    (0.4)          11.4     (1.0)      1.3   (0.3)      4.5   (1.6)       0.8   (0.2)      0.4   (0.2)
Minority students
  Less than 5% ...............                    7.8     (0.2)          8.8     (0.2)          11.6    (0.3)           3.7    (0.3)           9.7     (0.6)      1.7   (0.1)     2.4    (0.2)       0.6   (0.2)      0.8   (0.3)
  5 to 19% .......................                6.0     (0.2)          6.6     (0.3)           8.6    (0.4)           2.3    (0.2)          14.2     (1.7)      2.1   (0.2)     3.0    (0.3)       1.6   (0.5)      0.9   (0.4)
  20 to 49% .....................                10.2     (0.7)         10.8     (0.7)          14.6    (1.1)           3.3    (0.2)          13.7     (1.5)      2.7   (0.4)     2.7    (0.6)       3.7   (1.2)      1.7   (0.5)
  50% or more ................                   27.8     (1.0)         29.0     (1.1)          35.8    (1.6)          14.9    (1.2)          18.2     (2.1)     10.0   (1.1)    12.4    (1.3)       2.5   (0.7)      5.2   (1.6)

  1 Chapter 1 was reauthorized under the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA) of                                                   SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
1994 and is now called Title I.                                                                                                   ‘‘Schools and Staffing Survey, 1993–94.’’ (This table was prepared June 1998.)
  2 Includes schools beginning with grade 6 or below and ending with grade 9 or above.


  NOTE: Standard errors appear in parentheses.

								
To top