Romanesque Art - Download as DOC by 1wzKru

VIEWS: 66 PAGES: 9

									Romanesque Art_________________________________________Art History

Romanesque Art (1000 – 1150)

Theme: “Build it (block by block) and they will come.”

Key Concepts: Pilgrimage; experiments with vaulting methods to solve the problems associated with building with
stone; Crusades; church architectural vocabulary; Romanesque sculpture style; tympanums—style and content;
historiated capitals; Hildegard of Bingen; illuminated manuscripts and the debate over decoration; the Bayeux
Tapestry and historical document.


Vocabulary

   1.   bay


   2.   buttress


   3.   choir


   4.   compound pier


   5.   crossing


   6.   diaphragm arch


   7.   groin vault


   8.   mandorla


   9.   radiating chapel


   10. rib vault


   11. sexpartite vault


   12. transverse arch


   13. tribune
Romanesque Art________________________________________Art History
Architecture________________________________________________________________________


      1. Map: Europe About 1100 , pigrimage routes to Santiago de Compostelo

      2. Reliquary statue of Saint Foy, made in the Auvergne region,France,
      for the Abbey Church of Saint-Foy, Conques, Rouergue, France. 10th-11th century.

      3. Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela

Languedoc-Burgundy



      4. Interior of St.-Philbert, Tournus, France, c. 950-1080



      5. Plan and Section of St.-Philibert



      6. Interior of St.-Philibert



      7. St.-Sernin, Toulouse, France, c. 1080-1120



      8. Plan of St.-Sernin



      9. The nave of St.-Sernin.




      10. Reconstruction drawing of the Abbey Church (Cluny III),
      Cluny, Bugundy France. 1088-1130.




      11. Model of the Abbey Church (Cluny III),
Germany-Lombardy


     12. Speyer Cathedral, West Germany, begun 1030



     13. Plan-Speyer Cathedral



     14. Interior of Speyer Cathedral



     15. Sant’Ambrogio, Milan, Italy, late 11th to early 12th century



     16. Interior of Sant’Ambrogio.



Normandy-England



     17. St. Etienne, Caen, France, begun 1067



     18. Plan of Saint-Étienne, Caen, France.




     19. Interior of St. Etienne, vaulted c. 1115-1120




     20. Interior/Nave of Durham Cathedral, England, begun c. 1093




     21. Plan of Durham Cathedral, England and lateral section (right)
         (after Kenneth John Conant).
Tuscany


     22. Baptistry, Cathedral and Campanile of Pisa, Italy,1053-1272



     23. The nave of the cathedral of Pisa



     24. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence, Italy, 11th century.



     25. Interior, dome, Baptistry of San Giovanni.




     26. San Miniato al Monte, Florence, Italy, 1062 and 12th century




     27. Interior of San Miniato al Monte.




Romanesque Sculpture___________________________________________


     28. Diagram Romanesque church portal




     29. Bernardus Gelduinus, Christ in Majesty,
         from the ambulatory of St.-Sernin, Toulouse, France




     30. Wiligelmus, Creation and Temptation of Adam and Eve,
         frieze on the west façade, Cathedral of Moderna, Italy,
         c. 1110. Approx. 36” high
   31. South portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France. ca. 1115–1135.


   32. Tympanum of the south portal of St.-Pierre,
       Moissac, France, c. 1115-1135. diameter 16’6”



   33. The Prophet Jeremiah (Isaiah?) from the trumeau
       of the south portal of St.-Pierre



   34. Capitals from the cloister of St.-Pierre




   35. Gislebertus, west tympanum of St.-Lazare,
       Autun, France, c. 1130. 11’4” wide. 21” high at base




   36. The Ascension of Christ and the Pentecost
       Mission of the Apostles, center portal
       of the narthex of La Madeleine, Velzelay,
       frame, 1120-1132




   37. Portal on the west façade of St-Trophime,
       Aries, frame, late 12th century.




   38. Cloister of St-Trophime




Painting_________________________________________________________



   39. Norman Calvalry Charging in the Battle of Hastings,
       from Bayeux Tapestry, 1070-1080,
       Embroidered wool on linen, 20” high
   40. Embroidery Techniques




   41. Christ in Majesty, detached apse fresco
       from Santa Maria de Mur, Catalonia, Spain,
       early 12th century. 22’x 24’




Illumination




   42. The Life and Miracles of St. Audomarus (Omer),
       11th c. Illuminated manuscript.



   43. Initial R with St. George and the Dragon,
       from the Maralia in Job, Citeaux, France,
       early 12th century Illuminated manuscript.




   44. Master Hugo, Moses Expounding the Law,
       from the Book of Deuteromony, Bury Bible,
       the abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, England,
       early 12th century. Illuminated manuscript,
       approx. 20”x 14”




   45. The Revelation to St. John: Enthroned Christ
       with Signs of the Enangelists and Twenty-four Elders,
       from the Apocalypse of St.-Sever, painted
        in the Abbey of St.-Sever, France, c. 1050




   46. Eadwine the Scribe, The scribe Eadwine,
       from the Canterbury Psalter, c. 1150
Glossary
alternate-support system In church architecture, the use of alternating wall supports in the nave,
usually piers and columns or compound piers of alternating form.

arcade A series of arches supported by piers or columns. archivolt The continuous molding framing
an arch. In Romanesque or Gothic architecture, one of the series of concentric bands framing the
tympanum.

baptistery In Christian architecture, the building used for baptism, usually situated next to a
church.

bestiary A collection of illustrations of real and imaginary animals.

buttress An exterior masonry structure that opposes the lateral thrust of an arch or a vault. A pier
buttress is a solid mass of masonry; a flying buttress consists typically of an inclined member
carried on an arch or a series of arches and a solid buttress to which it transmits lateral thrust.

campanile A bell tower of a church, usually, but not always, freestanding.

cathedral A bishop’s church.

centaur In ancient Greek mythology, a fantastical creature, with the front or top half of a human
and the back or bottom half of a horse.

central plan See plan. cloister A monastery courtyard, usually with covered walks or ambulatories
along its sides. cluster pier See compound pier.

compound pier A pier with a group, or cluster, of attached shafts, or responds, especially
characteristic of Gothic architecture.

crossing tower The tower over the crossing of a church. Crusades In medieval Europe, armed
pilgrimages aimed at recapturing the Holy Land from the Muslims.

crypt A vaulted space under part of a building, wholly or partly underground; in churches,
normally the portion under an apse or a chevet.

diaphragm arch A transverse, wall-bearing arch that divides a vault or a ceiling into compartments,
providing a kind of firebreak.

embroidery The technique of sewing threads onto a finished ground to form contrasting designs.

enamel A decorative coating, usually colored, fused onto the surface of metal, glass, or ceramics.

feudalism The medieval political, social, and economic system held together by the relationship of a
liege lord and vassal.
historiated Ornamented with representations, such as plants, animals, or human figures, that have a
narrative as distinct from a purely decorative-function.

incrustation Wall decoration consisting of bright panels of different colors.

jambs In architecture, the side posts of a doorway.

lintel A beam used to span an opening.

lunette A semicircular area (with the flat side down) in a wall over a door, niche, or window; also, a
painting or relief with a semicircular frame.

oratory The church of a Christian monastery.

pillar Usually a weight-carrying member, such as a pier or a column; sometimes an isolated,
freestanding structure used for commemorative purposes.

quadrant arch An arch whose curve extends for one quarter of a circle’s circumference.

radiating chapels In medieval churches, chapels for the display of relics that opened directly onto
the ambulatory and the transept.

rib A relatively slender, molded masonry arch that projects from a surface. In Gothic architecture,
the ribs form the framework of the vaulting. A diagonal rib is one of the ribs that form the X of a
groin vault. A transverse rib crosses the nave or aisle at a 90-degree angle.

rib vault A vault in which the diagonal and transverse ribs compose a structural skeleton that
partially supports the masonry web between them.

Romanesque “Romanlike.” A term used to describe the history, culture, and art of medieval
western Europe from ca. 1050 to ca. 1200.

sculpture in the round Freestanding figures, carved or modeled in three dimensions.

sexpartite vault See vault.

springing The lowest stone of an arch, resting on the impost block. In Gothic vaulting, the lowest
stone of a diagonal or transverse rib.

tapestry A weaving technique in which the weft threads are packed densely over the warp threads so
that the designs are woven directly into the fabric.

terracotta Hard-baked clay, used for sculpture and as a building material. It may be glazed or
painted.
thrust The outward force exerted by an arch or a vault that must be counterbalanced by a buttress.

tribune In church architecture, a gallery over the inner aisle flanking the nave.

trumeau In church architecture, the pillar or center post supporting the lintel in the middle of the
doorway.

tympanum The space enclosed by a lintel and an arch over a doorway.

vault A masonry roof or ceiling constructed on the arch principle.
A barrel or tunnel vault, semicylindrical in cross-section, is in effect a deep arch or an
uninterrupted series of arches, one behind the other, over an oblong space.
A quadrant vault is a half-barrel vault.
A groin or cross vault is formed at the point at which two barrel vaults intersect at right angles.
In a ribbed vault, there is a framework of ribs or arches under the intersections of the vaulting
sections.
A sexpartite vault is a vault whose ribs divide the vault into six compartments.
A fan vault is a vault characteristic of English Perpendicular Gothic, in which radiating ribs form a
fanlike pattern.

wabi A 16th-century Japanese art style characterized by refined rusticity and an appreciation of
simplicity and austerity.

								
To top