Romanesque Art_________________________________________Art History Romanesque Art (1000 – 1150) Theme: “Build it (block by block) and they will come.” Key Concepts: Pilgrimage; experiments with vaulting methods to solve the problems associated with building with stone; Crusades; church architectural vocabulary; Romanesque sculpture style; tympanums—style and content; historiated capitals; Hildegard of Bingen; illuminated manuscripts and the debate over decoration; the Bayeux Tapestry and historical document. Vocabulary 1. bay 2. buttress 3. choir 4. compound pier 5. crossing 6. diaphragm arch 7. groin vault 8. mandorla 9. radiating chapel 10. rib vault 11. sexpartite vault 12. transverse arch 13. tribune Romanesque Art________________________________________Art History Architecture________________________________________________________________________ 1. Map: Europe About 1100 , pigrimage routes to Santiago de Compostelo 2. Reliquary statue of Saint Foy, made in the Auvergne region,France, for the Abbey Church of Saint-Foy, Conques, Rouergue, France. 10th-11th century. 3. Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela Languedoc-Burgundy 4. Interior of St.-Philbert, Tournus, France, c. 950-1080 5. Plan and Section of St.-Philibert 6. Interior of St.-Philibert 7. St.-Sernin, Toulouse, France, c. 1080-1120 8. Plan of St.-Sernin 9. The nave of St.-Sernin. 10. Reconstruction drawing of the Abbey Church (Cluny III), Cluny, Bugundy France. 1088-1130. 11. Model of the Abbey Church (Cluny III), Germany-Lombardy 12. Speyer Cathedral, West Germany, begun 1030 13. Plan-Speyer Cathedral 14. Interior of Speyer Cathedral 15. Sant’Ambrogio, Milan, Italy, late 11th to early 12th century 16. Interior of Sant’Ambrogio. Normandy-England 17. St. Etienne, Caen, France, begun 1067 18. Plan of Saint-Étienne, Caen, France. 19. Interior of St. Etienne, vaulted c. 1115-1120 20. Interior/Nave of Durham Cathedral, England, begun c. 1093 21. Plan of Durham Cathedral, England and lateral section (right) (after Kenneth John Conant). Tuscany 22. Baptistry, Cathedral and Campanile of Pisa, Italy,1053-1272 23. The nave of the cathedral of Pisa 24. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence, Italy, 11th century. 25. Interior, dome, Baptistry of San Giovanni. 26. San Miniato al Monte, Florence, Italy, 1062 and 12th century 27. Interior of San Miniato al Monte. Romanesque Sculpture___________________________________________ 28. Diagram Romanesque church portal 29. Bernardus Gelduinus, Christ in Majesty, from the ambulatory of St.-Sernin, Toulouse, France 30. Wiligelmus, Creation and Temptation of Adam and Eve, frieze on the west façade, Cathedral of Moderna, Italy, c. 1110. Approx. 36” high 31. South portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France. ca. 1115–1135. 32. Tympanum of the south portal of St.-Pierre, Moissac, France, c. 1115-1135. diameter 16’6” 33. The Prophet Jeremiah (Isaiah?) from the trumeau of the south portal of St.-Pierre 34. Capitals from the cloister of St.-Pierre 35. Gislebertus, west tympanum of St.-Lazare, Autun, France, c. 1130. 11’4” wide. 21” high at base 36. The Ascension of Christ and the Pentecost Mission of the Apostles, center portal of the narthex of La Madeleine, Velzelay, frame, 1120-1132 37. Portal on the west façade of St-Trophime, Aries, frame, late 12th century. 38. Cloister of St-Trophime Painting_________________________________________________________ 39. Norman Calvalry Charging in the Battle of Hastings, from Bayeux Tapestry, 1070-1080, Embroidered wool on linen, 20” high 40. Embroidery Techniques 41. Christ in Majesty, detached apse fresco from Santa Maria de Mur, Catalonia, Spain, early 12th century. 22’x 24’ Illumination 42. The Life and Miracles of St. Audomarus (Omer), 11th c. Illuminated manuscript. 43. Initial R with St. George and the Dragon, from the Maralia in Job, Citeaux, France, early 12th century Illuminated manuscript. 44. Master Hugo, Moses Expounding the Law, from the Book of Deuteromony, Bury Bible, the abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, England, early 12th century. Illuminated manuscript, approx. 20”x 14” 45. The Revelation to St. John: Enthroned Christ with Signs of the Enangelists and Twenty-four Elders, from the Apocalypse of St.-Sever, painted in the Abbey of St.-Sever, France, c. 1050 46. Eadwine the Scribe, The scribe Eadwine, from the Canterbury Psalter, c. 1150 Glossary alternate-support system In church architecture, the use of alternating wall supports in the nave, usually piers and columns or compound piers of alternating form. arcade A series of arches supported by piers or columns. archivolt The continuous molding framing an arch. In Romanesque or Gothic architecture, one of the series of concentric bands framing the tympanum. baptistery In Christian architecture, the building used for baptism, usually situated next to a church. bestiary A collection of illustrations of real and imaginary animals. buttress An exterior masonry structure that opposes the lateral thrust of an arch or a vault. A pier buttress is a solid mass of masonry; a flying buttress consists typically of an inclined member carried on an arch or a series of arches and a solid buttress to which it transmits lateral thrust. campanile A bell tower of a church, usually, but not always, freestanding. cathedral A bishop’s church. centaur In ancient Greek mythology, a fantastical creature, with the front or top half of a human and the back or bottom half of a horse. central plan See plan. cloister A monastery courtyard, usually with covered walks or ambulatories along its sides. cluster pier See compound pier. compound pier A pier with a group, or cluster, of attached shafts, or responds, especially characteristic of Gothic architecture. crossing tower The tower over the crossing of a church. Crusades In medieval Europe, armed pilgrimages aimed at recapturing the Holy Land from the Muslims. crypt A vaulted space under part of a building, wholly or partly underground; in churches, normally the portion under an apse or a chevet. diaphragm arch A transverse, wall-bearing arch that divides a vault or a ceiling into compartments, providing a kind of firebreak. embroidery The technique of sewing threads onto a finished ground to form contrasting designs. enamel A decorative coating, usually colored, fused onto the surface of metal, glass, or ceramics. feudalism The medieval political, social, and economic system held together by the relationship of a liege lord and vassal. historiated Ornamented with representations, such as plants, animals, or human figures, that have a narrative as distinct from a purely decorative-function. incrustation Wall decoration consisting of bright panels of different colors. jambs In architecture, the side posts of a doorway. lintel A beam used to span an opening. lunette A semicircular area (with the flat side down) in a wall over a door, niche, or window; also, a painting or relief with a semicircular frame. oratory The church of a Christian monastery. pillar Usually a weight-carrying member, such as a pier or a column; sometimes an isolated, freestanding structure used for commemorative purposes. quadrant arch An arch whose curve extends for one quarter of a circle’s circumference. radiating chapels In medieval churches, chapels for the display of relics that opened directly onto the ambulatory and the transept. rib A relatively slender, molded masonry arch that projects from a surface. In Gothic architecture, the ribs form the framework of the vaulting. A diagonal rib is one of the ribs that form the X of a groin vault. A transverse rib crosses the nave or aisle at a 90-degree angle. rib vault A vault in which the diagonal and transverse ribs compose a structural skeleton that partially supports the masonry web between them. Romanesque “Romanlike.” A term used to describe the history, culture, and art of medieval western Europe from ca. 1050 to ca. 1200. sculpture in the round Freestanding figures, carved or modeled in three dimensions. sexpartite vault See vault. springing The lowest stone of an arch, resting on the impost block. In Gothic vaulting, the lowest stone of a diagonal or transverse rib. tapestry A weaving technique in which the weft threads are packed densely over the warp threads so that the designs are woven directly into the fabric. terracotta Hard-baked clay, used for sculpture and as a building material. It may be glazed or painted. thrust The outward force exerted by an arch or a vault that must be counterbalanced by a buttress. tribune In church architecture, a gallery over the inner aisle flanking the nave. trumeau In church architecture, the pillar or center post supporting the lintel in the middle of the doorway. tympanum The space enclosed by a lintel and an arch over a doorway. vault A masonry roof or ceiling constructed on the arch principle. A barrel or tunnel vault, semicylindrical in cross-section, is in effect a deep arch or an uninterrupted series of arches, one behind the other, over an oblong space. A quadrant vault is a half-barrel vault. A groin or cross vault is formed at the point at which two barrel vaults intersect at right angles. In a ribbed vault, there is a framework of ribs or arches under the intersections of the vaulting sections. A sexpartite vault is a vault whose ribs divide the vault into six compartments. A fan vault is a vault characteristic of English Perpendicular Gothic, in which radiating ribs form a fanlike pattern. wabi A 16th-century Japanese art style characterized by refined rusticity and an appreciation of simplicity and austerity.
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