English and Edible Pod Peas

Document Sample
English and Edible Pod Peas Powered By Docstoc
					    University of Kentucky                         CDBREC Home                                 CDBREC Crop Profiles                              College of Agriculture

  English and Edible
  Pod Peas
  Peas (Pisum sativum) are a cool-season vegetable
  that must be planted in early spring to ensure
  good yields in Kentucky. Types include the
  English pEa (shelled for the fresh green seeds
  within non-edible pods), sugar snap typEs
  (round, fleshy edible pods), and asian pod
  typEs (thin, flat edible pods). The latter are also
  referred to as snow peas.                                                                  farmers market item. Their
                                                                                             popularity may be attributed
  Marketing                                                                                  to increased consumer
  Farm fresh pea sales at farmers markets account                                            interest in different types of
  for most of Kentucky’s commercial acreage.                                                 cuisine and a greater ethnic
  Other fresh market options include consumer                                                diversity of the population.
  supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions,                                                 The current emphasis on the health benefits of
  produce auctions, U-pick, and roadside stands.                                             eating fresh produce may also be a contributing
  Sales to locally owned retail grocery markets                                              factor.
  may be an option for edible pod peas.
                                                                                             Production Considerations
  Market Outlook                                                                             Site selection, cultivar selection, and planting
  English peas are a minor part of Kentucky’s                                                Peas are a cool-season crop that grow best
  commercial vegetable production.            Though                                         between 55o and 65o F. Seeds should be planted
  popular with many consumers, peas involve                                                  as soon as the soil can be worked and when soil
  intensive harvest labor and will demand                                                    temperatures reach 45o F. At soil temperatures
  mechanical harvest for profitable larger-scale                                             above 75o F, germination is greatly reduced; plant
  production. For most Kentucky growers, peas                                                growth slows dramatically above 85o F. High
  will be best used as an early season crop that offers                                      temperatures also lead to poor flower development
  flavor and variety for the direct market crop mix.                                         and fruit set. Stagger plantings for a continuous
                                                                                             harvest of peas throughout the spring.
  Fresh edible pod peas, on the
  other hand, are frequently                                                                                                Peas can be grown on almost
  used in Asian and other ethnic                                                                                            any soil and will tolerate a
  dishes and are a popular                                                                                                  wide pH range from 6.0 to 7.5.

Agriculture & Natural Resources • Family & Consumer Sciences • 4-H/Youth Development • Community & Economic Development

        Educational programs of the Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service serve all people regardless of race, color, age, sex, religion, disability, or national origin.
However, lighter, sandy loam soils are preferred        cooled to maintain freshness and to preserve
since they warm up sooner in the spring, yielding       sugar content. Much like sweet corn, the sugars
an earlier harvest. Although peas do benefit from       in peas can quickly turn to starch if they are
supplemental moisture they are very sensitive to        not stored at cool (32o to 34o F) temperatures
excessive moisture. Select a well-drained site to       immediately after harvest. Peas stored in plastic
reduce the potential of root and stem rots that often   bags will keep for 10 days under refrigeration
plague peas in wet soils. Peas should not follow        without loss of quality.
other legumes, such as beans or southernpeas.
                                                        English   pEas   are picked as soon as the pods
Most pea varieties that are used for commercial         are well-filled, but before they harden and fade
wholesale      production    are    mechanically        in color. A single planting may yield 2 to 3
harvested, are self-supporting, and tend to have        harvests. These peas are generally sold in the pod
a determinate habit with large bunches of pea           for shelling by the consumer. EdiblE asian pod
pods near the tops of plants. Varieties can have        typEs are harvested while the peas are immature
heavy foliage with lots of leaflets or they can         and pods are flat. Pods should be harvested
be virtually leafless, with most leaflets forming       every other day to prevent development of large
tendrils instead. Leafless types are preferred for      seeds and tough pods. EdiblE pod sugar snap
wholesale production due to the ease of harvest.        pEas can be harvested when peas begin to form,
                                                        continuing up until pods are well-filled.
Indeterminate types are often used for smaller
plantings. These cultivars can be planted in            Labor requirements
either double or single rows; plants in double
                                                        Labor needs per 1/5 acre yielding 1,000 pounds
rows will support each other. However, tall-
                                                        are approximately 40 hours for production
growing indeterminate varieties over 3 feet high
                                                        (including hand weeding), 80 hours for harvest,
will require the construction of plant supports.
                                                        and 6 hours for packing/grading.
Trellising helps keep pods from touching the
ground and promotes better air circulation,
resulting in increased yields and quality. Trellising
                                                        Economic Considerations
                                                        Initial investments include land preparation and
does add to labor and input costs.
                                                        purchase of seed. Additional start-up costs can
Pest management                                         include the installation of an irrigation system
Damping-off and root rot diseases can pose a            and trellis.
serious problem in wet soils. Other common
diseases include anthracnose, Ascochyta leaf spot       The following projected budget figures for 2008
and pod blight, powdery mildew, and viruses.            are based on 1/5 acre of irrigated snow peas
Cutworms, wireworms, seedcorn maggot,                   yielding 1,000 pounds. Production costs are
alfalfa loopers, green cloverworms, aphids, and         estimated at $700, with harvest and marketing
armyworms are some of the potential insect pests        costs at $1,245. Total expenses, including both
occurring on peas.                                      variable and fixed, would come to approximately
                                                        $2,135. Presuming gross returns of $2,750,
Harvest and storage                                     returns to land, operator labor, capital, and
English peas mature rapidly in the pod, while           management would be approximately $640.
snow peas and sugar snap peas mature at a               Assuming 40 hours of operator labor are necessary
much slower rate. Nonetheless, peas should be           for production and assuming an operator wage
monitored closely during pod fill to ensure that        rate of $15 per hour, a return of approximately
quality is maintained. Peas are either machine-         $40 to land, capital and management can be
or hand-harvested and then must be promptly             expected for 1/5 acre snow peas.
Selected Resources                                    •   Legume Production in Florida: Snapbean,
•   Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial         Lima bean, Southernpea, Snowpea (University
Growers, ID-36 (University of Kentucky)               of Florida, 2010)
•   Edible Pod Pea Production in California           •   Production Guide for Organic Peas for
(University of California, 1997)                      Processing (Cornell University, 2011) 1.16 MB            file
•   Edible-Pod Peas (Oregon State University,

Reviewed by Tim Coolong, Extension Specialist (Issued 2009)
Photos by Rosie Lerner, Purdue University (pea plants in bloom) and
Heinz Schneider, Botanical Institute of the University of Basel, Switzerland,
Botanical Image Database, (snow pea pod)                       February 2009

            For additional information, contact your local County Extension agent

Shared By:
Tags: Peas
Description: Peas are rich in dietary fiber, not only can enhance satiety, but also along the intestinal catharsis, is one of the best weight loss.