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```									World Geography & Archeology, Grade 6, Unit 1

World Geography &
Archeology

Unit 1
Student Handouts

Pittsburgh Public Schools                       Page 1
World Geography & Archeology, Grade 6, Unit 1

For use with Module 1, Lesson #2

Pittsburgh Public Schools                       Page 2
World Geography & Archeology, Grade 6, Unit 1

For use with Module 1, Lesson #2

Name ___________________________                    Date ___________________

The World of Geography

MapMaster Skills: Understanding Grids
Maps often have grids drawn on them to help you find the exact location of a place. A grid is a system of
horizontal and vertical lines that cross each other to form squares. The squares are labeled with numbers
from left to right and with letters from top to bottom. That way, each square has its own number/letter
combination. A grid map of a city zoo appears below.
Directions: Study the map and the grid below. Then, answer the questions that follow.

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1. In what square are the bears located?

2.   What animals are located in A3?

3. In what two squares are the zoo entrances?

4. If you were to follow the walkway from the west entrance to the elephant house, what
squares would you pass through?

5. What squares would you pass through if you came in at the north entrance and followed
the walkway to the elephant house?

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                                 Page 3
World Geography & Archeology, Grade 6, Unit 1

For use with Module 1, Lesson #2

Name ___________________________                             Date ___________________

The World of Geography
MapMaster Skills: Using a Grid

Map grids are very useful for locating places on a street map or a road map. Imagine that you arrive in a
city you’ve never visited before and that you need to locate a particular street. You don’t want to read all of
the street names on the map to find the one you need. Instead, you use the map index. The map index will
give the number and the letter of the square in which the street you want is located. Once you find the
correct square, you will find the street in that square.

Directions: Label the squares across the top of the map with the letters A, B, C, D and the squares along
the right side of the map with the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4. Study the street map of Lima, Peru, and the index to
some of its main buildings. Then, answer the questions that follow.

Index
1.    Church of Santa Rosa, A1
2.    Church of Santo Domingo, A2
3.    Government Palace, A3
4.    San Francisco Church, A3
5.    City Hall, A2
6.    Archbishop's Palace, A3
7.    Cathedral, B3
8.    Congress, A4
9.    Church of Las Nazarenas, C1
10.   Municipal Theater, B1
11.   Church of San Augustin, B2
12.   Church of La Merced, C3
13.   Trinity Church, C3

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                                    Page 4
World Geography & Archeology, Grade 6, Unit 1

1. At the intersection of which two streets is the Church of Santa Rosa?

2. What is the grid location of San Marcos University?

3. If you were walking from the Church of La Merced to Trinity Church, what avenue
would you walk along?

4. What street would you take to get from the Church of San Augustin to the Church
of Jesus Maria?

5. If you were telling someone the location of the building where Congress meets,
what two streets would you name?

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                      Page 5
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1

Name ___________________________                      Date ___________________

The World of Geography
MapMaster Skills: Understanding Latitude and Longitude
Lines of latitude and longitude work somewhat like a map grid, but on a global scale. These two sets
of imaginary lines circle the globe. Lines of latitude run east and west; lines of longitude run north and
south. Together, they form a grid. Locations on these lines are stated in degrees. Each degree is divided
into 60 minutes.
Lines of latitude are also called parallels because they are parallel to each other. The Equator is located
at 0° latitude. All the other lines of latitude are said to be so many degrees north or south of the Equator.
Lines of longitude are also called meridians. All lines of longitude pass through the North Pole and the
South Pole. The line for 0° longitude passes through Greenwich, England. It is called the Prime Meridian.
All other lines of longitude are measured in degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian. East and west
meridians meet at 180° in the Pacific Ocean.
Directions: Study the illustrations of latitude and longitude below. Then, answer the questions that
follow.
Lines of Latitude                   Lines of Longitude

90°                                     0°

1. What are two names for the lines that run north to south?

2. What are two names for the lines that run east to west?

3. What would be the line of latitude for a place that is halfway between the Equator and the
North Pole?

4. What would be the line of longitude for a place that is west of the Prime Meridian,
halfway between the Prime Meridian and the 180° line of longitude?

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                                     Page 6
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1

For use with Module1, Lesson #3

Name ___________________________                             Date ___________________

The World of Geography

MapMaster Skills: Using the Compass Rose
Most maps include a symbol to tell you which direction on the map is north. On some maps the symbol
is a single arrow pointing toward the letter N. The N stands for north, and the arrow is pointing toward the
North Pole. You can figure out the other directions from that single arrow.
Other maps show the four main directions of the compass—north, east, south, and west. These are
called the cardinal directions. However, some maps provide a compass rose that indicates intermediate
directions as well as the cardinal directions. Intermediate directions are northeast, southeast, southwest, and
northwest.

Directions: Study the compass rose and the map of Madagascar beside it. Then, answer the questions that
follow.

1.       What is the direction from Fianarantsoa to Mahajanga?____________________

2.       In what direction would you travel to go from Toliara to Fianarantsoa? _____________

3.       Is the Mozambique Channel east or west of Madagascar? __________________

4.       On what coast is Antsiranana located? __________________________________

5.       If you flew from Antsiranana to Toliara, in what direction would you be traveling? ______

6.       Which coast of Madagascar is closest to the capital? _______________________

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                                    Page 7
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1
For use with Module 2, Lesson #1

Continent Challenge

Names of Team Members: _____________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

Continent Explored: _____________________________________

Physical               Obstacle or             Why?               Form(s) of
Feature                  Help?                                  Transportation

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                Page 8
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1
For use with Module 2, Lesson #1

Describe the journey that your team will take as you cross your assigned continent. Include all of the
physical features that you encounter. Explain how each is a help or a hindrance to you as you travel and
describe the modes of transportation that you will use on your expedition. Prepare a presentation to share
your findings with the class.

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Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                                 Page 9
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1
For use with Module 4, Lesson #1     http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/pf/60500406.html

Profile: African-American North Pole Explorer
Matthew Henson
By Anna Brendle
for National Geographic News
January 15, 2003

African-American Matthew A. Henson accompanied polar explorer Robert E. Peary on
a U.S. expedition to the North Pole on April 6, 1909. In 2000, the National Geographic
Society posthumously awarded Matthew Henson its highest honor—the Hubbard
Medal. Henson's great niece, Audrey Mebane, accepted the award at the Matthew
Henson Earth Conservation Center in Washington, D.C.

"The Hubbard Medal is awarded for distinction in exploration, discovery, and research.
Henson embodies what this award stands for. The honor is long overdue," said Society
president John Fahey at the 2000 celebration.

On May 8, 1900, Henson and Peary passed the farthest point north ever reached by
previous explorers, only to beat the record again several years later. In 1906, U.S.
President Theodore Roosevelt awarded Robert E. Peary the Hubbard Medal for
reaching the farthest point north, 175 miles (282 kilometers) from the Pole.

Henson and Peary first met in Washington D.C. in 1887, as Peary prepared for an
expedition to Nicaragua. Henson was working as a store clerk when Peary hired him as
a valet. "I can't get along without him," said Peary years later, according to National
Geographic magazine writer Wally Herbert, in his September 1988 article "Commander
Robert E. Peary: Did He Reach the Pole?"

Born in Maryland on August 6, 1866, Matthew Henson became an orphan when he
was only 11 years old. At age 13, he began working on a ship based in Baltimore,
Maryland, as a cabin boy. The ship's skipper taught Henson to read and write.

In 1890, Henson joined Peary's first Arctic expedition across the northern tip of
Greenland. From June 1891 to August 1902, Henson spent seven years in the Arctic
with Peary, covering 9,000 miles (14,500 kilometers) on dogsleds across northern
Greenland and Ellesmere Island, in Canada.

In 1906, after drifting pack ice repeatedly blocked earlier attempts to reach the Pole,
Henson and Peary set out again on their new three-masted steamship schooner, the
Roosevelt. "It'll work," said Henson, "if God, wind, leads, ice, snow, and all the hells of
this damned frozen land are willing." Blizzards and cracking ice sheets forced their
return once again, although Peary wrote in his diary, "When my observations were
taken … they showed that we had reached 87°6' north latitude, and had at last beaten
the record, for which I thanked God."

Then on August 18, 1909, Henson and Peary boarded the Roosevelt with 22 Inuit men,
17 Inuit women, 10 children, 246 dogs, 70 tons (64 metric tons) of whale meat from
Labrador, the meat and blubber of 50 walruses, hunting equipment, and tons of coal. In

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                                       Page 10
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1

February, Henson and Peary departed their anchored ship at Ellesmere Island's Cape
Sheridan, with the Inuit men and 130 dogs working to lay a trail and supplies along the
route to the Pole.

Many Inuits admired Henson for his hunting and sled-driving skills, as well as his ability
to speak their language. Peary said, "He was more of an Eskimo than some of them."
On April 6, 1909, Henson arrived at Camp Jesup, 89°47', 45 minutes ahead of Peary,
concluding by dead reckoning that he had reached the Pole. Henson greeted Peary, "I
think I'm the first man to sit on top of the world."

Henson later recalled that this angered Peary. "Oh, he got hopping mad … No, he
didn't say anything, but I could tell," wrote Henson. Henson wrote that Peary "fastened
the flag to a staff and planted it firmly on top of his igloo."

Clouds obscured the sun, preventing a coordinate reading. As Henson slept, Peary
caught a glimpse of the sun through breaking clouds. His coordinates indicated they
were only three miles (five kilometers) from the Pole. Henson lay sleeping while Peary
set off to cover the distance, but without longitudinal coordinates, he could not know
which direction to travel.

Henson later wrote, "From the time we knew we were at the Pole, Commander Peary
scarcely spoke to me … It nearly broke my heart … that he would rise in the morning
and slip away on the homeward trail without rapping on the ice for me, as was the
established custom."

In 1988, Matthew Henson and his wife were reinterred at the Arlington National
Cemetery alongside Peary. In 1996 an oceanographic survey ship, called the U.S.N.S
Henson was commissioned in Henson's honor.

For use with Module 4, Lesson #1

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                           Page 11
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1

Name: _____________________________________                      Date: ______________________

Journey to the North Pole
Matthew Henson faced many obstacles that he had to overcome in order to complete his journey to ―the top
of the world.‖ Complete the chart below as you read the article.

Physical Features/Obstacles                             Solutions

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                             Page 12
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1
For use with Module 4, lesson #2             http://www.census.gov/geo/www/us_regdiv.pdf

Pittsburgh Public Schools          Page 13
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1

For use with Module 5, Lesson #1                            http://www.spdconline.org/history/Facts/Facts.html

Pittsburgh – Human/Environment Interaction

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                         Page 14
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1

For use with Module 5, Lesson #1

NAME: ______________________________                                     DATE: _______________

Photograph Analysis Worksheet
Study the photograph for two minutes. Form an overall impression of the photograph and then examine
individual items. Next, divide the photo into quadrants and study each section to see what new details
become visible.

1. Use the chart below to list people, objects, and activities in the artwork.

Photography Analysis

People                           Objects                            Activities

2. Based on what you have observed above, list three things you might infer from this photograph.

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3. What questions does this photograph raise in your mind?

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Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                                     Page 15
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1
4. What evidence in the photograph suggests that people have changed the environment?

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5. What evidence in the photograph suggests that people have been changed by the environment?

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6. In what ways, as evidenced in the photograph, do people depend upon the environment?

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7. In ten words or less, write a caption or a title for this photograph.

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Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                           Page 16
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1
For use with Module 5, Lesson #2

NAME: ______________________________                                     DATE: _______________

Examine the photos at the website http://digital.library.pitt.edu/pittsburgh/
With a partner, choose a photo of Pittsburgh that you find interesting and complete the Analysis Worksheet
below.

Photograph Analysis Worksheet
Study the photograph for two minutes. Form an overall impression of the photograph and then examine
individual items. Next, divide the photo into quadrants and study each section to see what new details
become visible.

1. Use the chart below to list people, objects, and activities in the artwork.

Photography Analysis

People                           Objects                          Activities

2. Based on what you have observed above, list three things you might infer from this photograph.

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3. What questions does this photograph raise in your mind?

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Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                                   Page 17
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1

4. What evidence in the photograph suggests that people have changed the environment?

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5. What evidence in the photograph suggests that people have been changed by the environment?

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6. In what ways, as evidenced in the photograph, do people depend upon the environment?

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7. In ten words or less, write a caption or a title for this photograph.

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Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                           Page 18
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1

Unit 1, Culminating Performance Assessment

The Five Themes of Geography
Informational Essay

Geographers use the Five Themes of Geography to help them organize information about
the world. You are a geographer. Write an informational essay to describe your ―special‖
city in terms of the Five Themes of Geography.

Remember to include:
 A topic statement in which you identify the city that you chose and the reason(s) that
you would like to visit there.

 Details from your research about your city in terms of each of the Five Themes of
Geography.

 A conclusion in which you summarize the main point of your essay, restating the
main idea.

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                  Page 19
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1

Name:__________________________________                                 Date:______________

Five Themes of Geography - Informational Essay Rubric

4                      3                     2                      1
Advanced              Proficient               Basic              Below Basic
Elaborately            Identifies and         Partially identifies   Unable to identify
Topic Statement         identifies and         explains the main      and explains the       and explain the
explains the main      idea, problem, or      main idea,             main idea,
idea, problem, or      theme.                 problem, or theme.     problem, or theme.
theme.
Supports the main      Supports the main      Essay uses little      Essay uses no
Supporting           idea with numerous     idea with sufficient   evidence from          supporting
Evidence            and well-chosen        evidence from          resources.             evidence from
evidence from          resources.                                    resources.
research.
Supporting             Supporting             Supporting             Essay has little or
Five Themes of         evidence represents    evidence represents    evidence               no evidence of the
Geography            all five themes of     most of the five       represents some of     five themes of
geography.             themes of              the five themes of     geography.
geography.             geography.
Summarizes the         Limited summary        Some attempt to        Essay ends
Conclusion           main point of the      or limited referral    summarize the          abruptly.
essay, restating the   to the main idea.      main idea.
main idea.

Total Score______________

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Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                                     Page 20
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 1

Name: _______________________________                    Date: _______________________

Unit 1 – The Five Themes of Geography
Final Reflection

In Unit 1 you have learned about the work of geographers. Your class created a chart listing
some of the many jobs that geographers do. You learned about the Five Themes of
Geography. You learned about how geographers use the Five Themes of Geography to
help them organize information about the world.

How has your work throughout this unit demonstrated your skills as a geographer? Write
about the work that you did during this unit. Give specific examples that show how your
work is the work of a geographer.

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                        Page 21
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2

World Cultures

Unit 2
Student Handouts

Pittsburgh Public Schools                  Page 22
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2

Pittsburgh Public Schools         Page 23
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2
For use with Module 1, lesson #2

Name ___________________________ Date___________________

Regional Overview
Outline Map 11: The United States: Political

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                  Page 24
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2

For use with Module 1, lesson #2             http://popvssoda.com:2998/

Pittsburgh Public Schools          Page 25
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2
For use with Module 1, Lesson #2

Name ___________________________           Date___________________

Cultures of the United States and Canada

Outline Map 12: Canada: Political

Pittsburgh Public Schools                             Page 26
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2
For use with Module 1, Lesson #3

Name ___________________________                           Date___________________

Regional Overview

Discovery Activities About the United States and Canada
Directions: Use this sheet and the text and maps on pages 2–7 of your textbook to answer the following
questions.
1. Locate the United States and Canada

Use the maps on pages 2 and 3 to locate and compare the United States and Canada.
a. Does Canada or the United States extend farther north?

b. Is Canada or the United States closer to Russia?

c. Does Canada or the United States have more land touching the Arctic Ocean?

d. Based on their relative location do you think Canada or the United States has colder climate?

2. Estimate the Length of the United States and Canada

Use a ruler and the maps on pages 2 and 3 to answer the following questions.
a. What is the length of the United States from its southernmost border to its border with Canada?

b. What is the length of Alaska? Add this measurement to the measurement you calculated in
question a.

c. What is the total length of the United States?

d. What is the length of Canada from its northernmost point to its southernmost point?

e. Is Canada or the United States longer north to south?

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                               Page 27
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2
Name ___________________________                           Date___________________

Discovery Activities About the United States and Canada (continued)

3. Find States, Provinces, and Territories

Use the political map on page 3 to answer the following questions.
a. Which two of the 50 United States do not share a border with any other state?

b. Which Canadian province reaches the farthest north?

c. Which states border Canada?

d. Identify the Canadian provinces that border the United States.

e. What is the capital city of Canada?

f. What is the capital city of the United States?

g. What other country is in North America besides Canada and the United States?

4. Find Important Bodies of Water

Use the physical map on page 4 to locate the bodies of water that border the United States and Canada.
a. What three oceans surround Canada and the United States?

b. What bodies of water lie on the border between the United States and Canada?

c. What is the name of the largest bay in the world, located in Canada?

d. Would you enter that bay from the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean?

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                               Page 28
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2
Name ___________________________                            Date___________________

Discovery Activities About the United States and Canada (continued)

5. Explore Influences on Climate

Use the maps on pages 4 and 5 to answer the following questions.
a. How might landforms affect weather and rainfall?

b. Why do you think there is such a great shift in climate from southern Florida to northern Nunavut?

Practice Your Geography Skills
1. On your hike in the western mountains you camped at the foot of Mount Rainier. Then you crossed
an international border. What country are you in now?

2. You just flew over the mouth of the Mackenzie River and are headed for Victoria Island in Canada.
Are you north or south of the Arctic Circle? You are traveling through the Gulf of St. Lawrence
toward the Great Lakes. What river will you take?

Bonus Question
Write clues similar to the ones above in the Practice Your Geography Skills section for three other locations
in the United States or Canada. Use the lines below. Trade them with a partner and try to figure out each
other’s location.

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Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                                Page 29
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2
For use with Module 2, Lesson #1

Name ___________________________       Date __________________________

Outline Map 9: The United States and Canada: Physical Geography

For use with Module 2, Lesson #1
Pittsburgh Public Schools                                           Page 30
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2

Name ___________________________                           Date ______________________

___________________________________________________________
(Title)

Landform or              State or Province   Help or Hindrance to Human Activity?
Body of Water                                                Why?

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                   Page 31
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2
For use with Module 2, Lesson #2

Name: ___________________________                  Date: ____________________

Climate

Factors that Influence               Ways in Which Climate is Affected
Climate
Ocean Effects

Mountain Effects

Latitude

Vegetation

Vegetation Zones                  Description                Where it is found
Northern
Tundra

Grasslands

Desert Scrub

Forests

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                         Page 32
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2

For use with Module 2, Lesson #2

Name: ___________________________________             Date: ______________________

City                  Political      Region       Climate Region      Vegetation
Division                        (p. 5)         Region (p. 22)

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                     Page 33
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2
Culminating Project/Performance Assessment

Canada – U.S. Expedition
An Inter-Regional Excursion

The Amazing Adventure Travel Agency has hired your team of geographers to plan an
exciting and educational tour of six regions of the United States and Canada. You will be
asked to give an informative presentation to share the details of your planned excursion.

Remember to:
 Reveal the names of the six cities that you will visit and identify the countries,
regions, and political divisions in which they are located.

 For each city:

        Identify the climate regions in which they are located and describe the weather
that tourists can look forward to at various times of the year.

        Identify the vegetation regions in which the cities are located and describe
what tourists can expect to see.

        Describe the ethnic makeup of each city and identify cultural activities in
which tourists might choose to participate.

 Decide on a logical order in which to travel from city to city and calculate the
mileage for each portion of the trip. Identify the forms of transportation that will be
used to travel from place to place.

 Plan an interesting and informative presentation to share with prospective travelers.

Check out http://www.fodors.com/ for additional ideas!

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                         Page 34
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2

Name:__________________________________                                 Date:______________

Canada – U.S. Expedition
A Group Presentation
4                      3                     2                     1
Advanced              Proficient               Basic             Below Basic
Accurately             Accurately             Identifies some of    Identifies few of
Regions           identifies the         identifies most of     the geographic,       the geographic,
Identified         geographic,            the geographic,        climate, and          climate, and
climate, and           climate, and           vegetation regions    vegetation regions
vegetation regions     vegetation regions     of all six cities.    of all six cities.
of all six cities.     of all six cities.
Accurately             Accurately             Describes expected    Describes expected
describes expected     describes expected     weather in some       weather in few
Weather            weather in all         weather in some        seasons in all some   seasons in few
seasons in all six     seasons in all six     cities.               cities.
cities.                cities.
Accurately             Accurately             Identifies and        Identifies and
identifies and         identifies and         describes some        describes few
Vegetation          describes              describes some         plants found in       plants found in few
numerous plants        plants found in all    some six cities.      cities.
found in all six       six cities.
cities.
Accurately             Accurately             Identifies some       Identifies few
identifies the         identifies most        ethnic groups of      ethnic groups of
Ethnic Makeup          ethnic groups of all   ethnic groups of all   some cities.          few cities.
six cities and         six cities and
explains their         explains their
impact on culture.     impact on culture.
Mileage             Accurately             Accurately             Calculates mileage    Calculates mileage
Calculation          calculates mileage     calculates mileage     between cities for    between cities for
between all cities     between all cities     most of the trip.     little of the trip.
for the entire trip.   for the most of the
trip.
Presentation         All group members      All group members      Most group            Few group
participate; visual    participate; some      members               members
aids are used          visual aids are        participate; some     participate; few
effectively.           used.                  visual aids are       visual aids are
used.                 used.
Total Score______________

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Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                                    Page 35
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 2

Name: _______________________________                    Date: _______________________

Unit 2 – The United States and Canada
Final Reflection

In Unit 2 you have learned about the geography of the United States and Canada. You have
labeled maps of the two countries and have discovered the physical features and natural
resources that they share. You have learned about the people and cultures of both countries.
 What have you learned about the ways in which population and physical geography
are related?
 How would you describe the populations of the United States and Canada?
 In Unit 1 you learned how to think like a geographer. How has your work
throughout Unit 2 demonstrated your skills as a geographer?

Write about the work that you did during this unit. Give specific examples that show how
your work is the work of a geographer.

Pittsburgh Public Schools                                                        Page 36
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

World Cultures

Unit 3
Student Handouts

Pittsburgh Public Schools                  Page 37
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
For use with Module 1, Lesson 1

Name___________________________           Date___________________

Regional Overview
Outline Map 5: Latin America: Political

Pittsburgh Public Schools                            Page 38
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
For use with Module 1, Lesson 2

Name___________________________          Date___________________

Regional Overview
Outline Map 4: Latin America: Physical

Pittsburgh Public Schools                           Page 39
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
Name___________________________                                              Date___________________

Regional Overview
Discovery Activities About Latin America

Directions: Use this sheet and the text and maps on pages 2–7 of your textbook to answer the following
questions.
1. Explore Latin America’s Location

Think about the season your birthday falls in. Use the words same or opposite to answer the
question.

a. In what season would it fall if you lived in Santiago? ____________________

b. In what season would it fall if you lived in Brasília? _____________________

c. In what season would it fall if you lived in Mexico City? _________________

2. Compare the Size of Latin America and the United States

Use a piece of string to measure the west coast of the United States.
a. Tape the string that represents the total length of the west coast of the United States here:

b. How many times longer is Latin America’s Pacific coast than the coast of the United States?

3. Investigate the Languages of Latin America

a. Look at the Country Databank to find a country in Latin America where indigenous and
European languages are spoken.

b. Why might several different languages, from different parts of the world, be spoken in a
country? Regional

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
Name___________________________ Date___________________ Class ____________

Regional Overview
Discovery Activities About Latin America (continued)

4. Examine the Physical Features of Latin America

Use the map and the map key on page 4 to answer the following questions.
a. What landform is located in the part of Latin America with the highest elevation?

b. How many feet above sea level is the Amazon Basin?

5. Investigate Latin America’s Use of Hydroelectricity

Study the circle graph and map in your textbook, then answer the following questions.
a. How much of its power does Latin America get from hydroelectricity?

b. From what energy source does Latin America get most of its power?

Practice Your Geography Skills

Directions: Use the maps on pages 4 and 5 of your textbook to answer the following questions.

1   You are taking a trip through Latin America. You board your ship in Puerto Rico. You want to
reach the Pacific Ocean by the most direct route. Which way must you sail to reach the Panama
Canal?

2   You are traveling through the Andes in Peru looking for a large lake. What is it called?

3   You have traveled north again. You are looking for a hydroelectric plant in the far north of Brazil,
near the coast. What is the plant called?

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
Name___________________________                                   Date___________________

Regional Overview
Discovery Activities About Latin America (continued)
Bonus Questions
Directions: Read pages 6 and 7 of the Regional Overview, then answer the following bonus questions.
1. List the bodies of water that surround the countries of Latin America.

2. You are traveling from the southernmost tip of the longest and narrowest country of South
America to the northern Atlantic coast of the longest country in South America.

a. What country is your starting point?

b. What country is your end point?

c. What countries will you travel through?

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

For use with Module 1, Lesson 2

Name: ____________________                               Date: __________________

Exploration Activity
The Yucatan Peninsula

1. Locate the Yucatan Peninsula on the Physical Map of Latin America on p. 4 of your
textbook. Look at the Political Map on p. 97. Which three countries have land that
is part of the Yucatan Peninsula?

2. What does the map found on p.16 tell you about the climate of the Yucatan
Peninsula?

3. What does the map found on p. 20 tell you about the kinds of vegetation found on
the Yucatan Peninsula?

4. What does the map on p. 25 tell you about the natural resources found on the
Yucatan Peninsula?

5. Do you think that the Yucatan Peninsula would be a desirable place to live? Why or
why not?

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

For use with Unit 3, Module 1

Module 1 Assessment

How are maps used to answer geographic questions about Latin America?

Use your skills as a geographer to write a description of your journey from the northern
border of the northernmost country of Latin America (Mexico) to the southernmost tip of
Latin America (Tierra del Fuego). Use information from a variety of sources, including
the maps of Latin America and its regions found throughout your textbook and elsewhere.

The description of your journey should include, but should not be limited to, answers to the
following questions:

 How will you prepare for your trip? What kinds of clothing and other gear will you
need to pack? Why?
 What forms of transportation will you use for each portion of your trip? How many
miles will you travel?
 What will you see?
 Through which climate and vegetation regions will you pass on your journey?
 What obstacles, physical or otherwise, will you face as you travel?

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

For use with Module 2, Lesson #1

Archeological Notebook
Team members:

Artifact # ____

Physical description: Describe the material from which the artifact is made. Can you tell how it was made?

Drawing:

What does it tell us about the culture? What was the purpose of the object? Who may have used it?

______________________________________________________________________

Artifact # ____

Physical description: Describe the material from which the artifact is made. Can you tell how it was made?

Drawing:

What does it tell us about the culture? What was the purpose of the object? Who may have used it?

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

Artifact # ____

Physical description: Describe the material from which the artifact is made. Can you tell how it was made?

Drawing:

What does it tell us about the culture? What was the purpose of the object? Who may have used it?

______________________________________________________________________

Artifact # ____

Physical description: Describe the material from which the artifact is made. Can you tell how it was made?

Drawing:

What does it tell us about the culture? What was the purpose of the object? Who may have used it?

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
For use with Module 2, Lesson #1

Name: __________________________________           Date: _____________________

Archeological Bag Activity - Summary

As a team of archeologists, what conclusions can we draw about the culture
from which these artifacts came?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

What do the objects tell us about the lives of the people and the time in which
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
For use with Module 2, Lesson #1 Extension

Archeological Notebook
Team members:

Artifact # ____                                           Grid Location: __________

Physical description: Describe the material from which the artifact is made. Can you tell how it was made?

Drawing:

What does it tell us about the culture? What was the purpose of the object? Who may have used it?

______________________________________________________________________

Artifact # ____                                           Grid location: ___________

Physical description: Describe the material from which the artifact is made. Can you tell how it was made?

Drawing:

What does it tell us about the culture? What was the purpose of the object? Who may have used it?

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

Artifact # ____                                                    Grid Location: ______________

Physical description: Describe the material from which the artifact is made. Can you tell how it was made?

Drawing:

What does it tell us about the culture? What was the purpose of the object? Who may have used it?

______________________________________________________________________

Artifact # ____                                                    Grid Location: _____________

Physical description: Describe the material from which the artifact is made. Can you tell how it was made?

Drawing:

What does it tell us about the culture? What was the purpose of the object? Who may have used it?

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
For use with Module 2, Lesson #1 Extension

Name: ____________________________________          Date:______________________

Archeological Dig Activity - Summary

As a team of archeologists, what conclusions can we draw about the culture
from which these artifacts came?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

What do the objects tell us about the lives of the people and the time in which
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

For use with Module 2, Lesson #2
TIME FOR THE MAYA

Developed by the Education Department
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University

You are an archaeologist rushing to catch your plane. For work you dig among the ruins of Colonial
America. For vacation you’re going someplace entirely new to you – Central America. You meant to
read up on the area but never got a chance to. You don’t know much about the people except that they are
called the Maya and that they have a long history.

As you run up to the airport terminal you spot its name carved in big bold letters over the doorway –

UPLIFT AIRPORT
OPENED DECEMBER
MDCCCCLXVII

On the wall by the ticket counter is a small plaque –

Uplift Airport
Opened December 1967
―Funny,‖ you think. ―The messages look different, but they both mean the same thing.‖

What is different about the letters? Why do you know that they mean the same thing?

What is different about the numbers? Are they written in the same number system? Although the
numbers are the same, are they assembled in the same way?

For some reason you can’t shake those two inscriptions from your mind. It occurs to you that if you were
an archaeologist from the future stumbling upon English writing for the first time, you might not realize
that ―MDCCCCLXVII‖ was a number at all. The symbols look like letters. Of course the parallel
structure ―1967‖ message might give it away. Still musing over the nature of numbers, you realize that
the plane has landed at your destination.

Time for some fun! After getting off the plane and settling in, you spent yesterday discovering the
wonders of the contemporary Maya market in town. Today you go out into the jungle exploring the
nearby ruins of an ancient Maya city. These people have been here for more than a thousand years.
Clambering over the tumbled stone slabs, you notice that they are carved. Certain shapes appear again
and again. They are distinct round dots. Often, but not always, the dots are accompanied by a bar under
them. The bars occasionally appear alone, too. Sometimes the bars and dots appear in clusters. Other,
more complicated designs appear around them, but there is no clear pattern of repetition in those designs.
―What’s going on the bars and dots?‖ you wonder.

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

Name: ___________________________                    Date: ________________

Can you figure out what purpose these symbols serve? See if you can crack the code.

Here are some patterns you find. Write the number of dots which appear below.

●
●                ●●●                   ●             ●●●●
__               __                    __             __

●●               ●                     ●                   ●
●                                         ●
●                                         ●
●
__               __                    __                  __
What is the highest number of dots you find?

Does it matter if they are horizontal or vertical?

Do you have any theories as to what the dots might represent?

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

For use with Module 2, Lesson #2                                    http://www.michielb.nl/maya/math.html

Maya Mathematics
Instead of ten digits like we have today, the Maya used a base number of 20. (Base 20 is vigesimal.) They
also used a system of bar and dot as "shorthand" for counting. A dot stood for one and a bar stood for five.

In the following table, you can see how this works.

0       1          2         3    4

5       6          7         8    9

10     11         12         13   14

15     16         17         18   19

Because the base of the number system was 20, larger numbers were written down in powers of 20. We do
that in our decimal system too: for example 32 is 3*10+2. In the Maya system, this would be 1*20+12,
because they used 20 as base.

Numbers were written from bottom to top. Below you can see how the number 32 was written:

20's
(1)

1's
(12)

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

It was very easy to add and subtract using this number system, but they did not use fractions. Here's an
example of a simple addition:

8000's

400's

20's                 +              =

1's

9449        +      10425   =     19874

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
For use with Module 2, Lesson 3

Name: __________________________________      Date: _______________________

Compare/Contrast
Maya Writing                                          English Writing

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
For use with Module 2, Lesson 3

Name: ______________________________________           Date: ____________________________

GREGORIAN CALENDAR   MAYAN CALENDAR

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

For use with Module 2, Lesson 4

Name: _________________________________               Date: ___________________________

Stelae

The ancient Maya carved glyphs into huge stone pillars to depict the important events
in the lives of important people. These were called stelae. The stelae were created to mark
the important accomplishments from the points of view of the kings who created them, not
from the perspectives of the people that they ruled.

Describe the person you see on this stela.

________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

How can you tell that this is an important person?

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

What do you think was the purpose of this stela?
_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

For use with Module 2, Lesson 4

Who do you think found this stela?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What do the bars and dots on this stela mean? How do we know?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

Describe what you see on in this part of a stela found in Copan. Who do you think the
people are?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What is going on? Tell the story in your own words.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

For use with Module 2, Lesson #4

The ancient Maya recorded the important events in the lives of important
people. They carved glyphs into tall stone pillars to represent the events and the
dates on which these events occurred. These carved stone monuments are called
stelae. (Stelae is the plural form of stela.)

To create your stela:

1. Cover a box (an empty shoebox or cereal box will work) with plain paper.

2. Stand the box on end so that it is taller than it is wide.

3. On each side of the box, draw one or two pictures to represent an
important event in your life. Include the date that each event occurred.
DO NOT USE ANY WORDS!

4. Bring your stela to school for display in the class Stelae Museum.

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

For use with Module 2, Lesson #5

Archeological Notebook
Stelae Museum Notes
Team members:

Stela # ____

Physical description:

What does it tell us about the person?

______________________________________________________________________

Stela # ____

Physical description:

What does it tell us about the person?

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3

For use with Module 3, Lesson #1

Hundreds of years ago
in what is now modern
Honduras, Copán was
a thriving civilization,
a center of the cultural
life of the Maya. Tens of thousands of people made their home
in the Copán Valley. Yet despite its importance, Copán went
into decline. Across the vast territory of the ancient Maya,
other important sites were sharing a similar fate. Classic Maya
civilization was collapsing.

Why did this great civilization fall? The history of humankind
has been marked by patterns of growth and decline. Some
declines have been gradual, occurring over centuries. Others
have been rapid, occurring over the course of a few years. War,
drought, natural disaster, disease, overpopulation, economic
disruption: any of these or a combination of these events can
bring about the collapse of a civilization. Internal causes (such
as political struggles or overfarming) can combine with
external causes (such as war or natural disaster) to bring about
a collapse. What does this mean for modern civilizations? What
can we learn from the past?

Join us as we explore the collapse of four ancient civilizations.
You'll learn what happens when a society collapses and how
archaeologists find and interpret evidence. You can visit the
Maya city of Copán and search for clues to its collapse. You
can also try your hand at "garbage-ology" and study what trash
can tell us about a society.

http://www.learner.org/interactives/collapse/index.html

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
For use with Module 3

Name: ______________________________ Date: __________________________

What Happened to the Ancient Maya?

Who?                           Theory             Evidence to Support this Theory

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
Persuasive / Descriptive / Informative

Situation / Stance:
Thesis

List Statement:

(Key Points)

___________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________

___________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________

___________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
Conclusion

Start by restating the thesis using synonyms, alternative sentence structure and a signal word.
(Prove, Explain, Support, Elaborate, Give Examples)
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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
The Ancient Maya Civilization

Culminating Project/Performance Assessment

The Lost Kingdoms of the Maya

Directions:
Write an essay to explain why the ancient Maya people abandoned their cities on the
Yucatan Peninsula.

 Paragraph One should include general information about the ancient Maya
civilization. Use information from your notes on the video Lost Kingdoms of the
Maya and from the websites that you have visited to help you with the details.

 Paragraph Two should describe the theories that archeologists have about what may
have happened to cause the Maya to abandon their cities. Use information from your
notes to help you with the details.

 Paragraph Three should be an explanation of what you think happened that caused
the Maya to leave their ancient cities. Evaluate the archaeologists’ theories and,
together with the information that you have collected, describe your hypothesis as to
what actually happened.

Each paragraph must include:
 A topic statement.
 Details to support the topic statement.
 A conclusion to summarize the information.

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
Name:_________________________________________

Lost Kingdoms of the Maya – Essay Assessment Criteria

Meets the Standard                                    Does Not Meet the Standard
4                                      3                                2                                    1
Advanced                                                                   Basic                              Below Basic
   All information is accurate                                                Some errors are made.             Many errors are made.
and complete.                          Proficient                          Some work is incomplete.          Work is incomplete.
   All directions are followed.                                               Some directions are               Directions are not followed.
 Few errors are made.
   Work is presented neatly.                                                   followed.                         Work is not neatly done.
 Most work is complete.
    Some work is neatly done.
 Most directions are followed.
 Work is presented neatly.

Essay Sections
Paragraph One              Paragraph Two          Paragraph Three       Each paragraph   Each               Each                Grammar,
includes                   describes the          explains the          has a topic      paragraph has      paragraph has       spelling, usage,
information about          theories that          writer’s hypothesis   statement.       details to         a conclusion to     and sentence
the ancient Maya           archeologists          about what                             support the        summarize the       formation are
civilization.              have about what        actually happened                      topic              information.        correct.
happened to the        to the Mayan                           statement.
ancient Mayan          cities.
cities.
4                            4                   4                   4                4                  4                     4
3                            3                   3                   3                3                  3                     3
2                            2                   2                   2                2                  2                     2
1                            1                   1                   1                1                  1                     1
No Evidence                  No Evidence         No Evidence         No Evidence      No Evidence        No Evidence           No Evidence

Overall Assessment for this Essay: ___________

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 3
Name: _______________________________                      Date: _______________________

Unit 3 – The Lost Kingdoms of the Maya
Final Reflection

In Unit 3 you have learned about the geography of Latin America. You have labeled a political map of the
region and examined its physical features.
 How did you use maps to answer geographic questions about Latin America?

You learned how to ―think like an archeologist‖ as you discovered characteristics of the ancient Maya
civilization. You have worked as an archeologist during the Archeological Bag activity and in the Stelae
Museum. You have seen archeologists at work in the video Lost Kingdoms of the Maya. You have heard
and read about archeologists’ theories as to what happened to the ancient Maya cities. You wrote an essay
in which you suggested your own theory.
 Write about the work that you did during this unit. Give specific examples that show how your
work is the work of an archeologist.
 How does your work as a geographer help you in your work as an archeologist?

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 4

World Cultures

Unit 4
Student Handouts

Pittsburgh Public Schools                 Page 69
World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 4

For use with Module 1, Lesson #1

Name: ___________________________                 Date: ____________________

Major Resources of Latin America

Middle America
    Mineral Resources

    Agricultural Products

Caribbean
    Mineral Resources

    Agricultural Products

South America
    Mineral Resources

    Agricultural Products

In what ways has geography influenced the ways in which people make a living in Latin America?

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 4

For use with Module 1, Lesson #3

Revolution in Tierra Rica

This play is about the imaginary nation of Tierra Rica located somewhere in Latin America. Tierra Rica
has a one-resource economy that depends upon the sale of sugar. Read the play and find out why Tierra
Rica has a big problem.

Cast

Narrator:                Reads anything in the play not assigned to another cast member. (To maximize
class participation, there can be a different narrator assigned for each scene.)

Tom Fixall:              A reporter who always asks what is on his mind

President Chi Chi:       A fairly simple man; would rather cover his eyes than see a problem

Elvira:                  Diet-conscious wife of President Chi Chi

Worker #1:               Government workers in the capital city who think Tierra Rica has bigger
Worker #2                problems than bugs

Tio Pablo:               Bankrupt owner of a sugar cane plantation

Maria Fresca:            Angry shop owner

Tom’s Boss:              A man who believes in Tom even if he doesn’t understand the news events Tom
describes

News Flash Reader: Reads the News Flash to begin the play

NEWS FLASH!

Nutra Bug Strikes Terror in Tierra Rica

Tierra Rica, April 2008

Evidence was uncovered today that the feared Nutra Bug has been destroying sugar
cane crops in certain areas. The unstoppable bug eats the roots of the sugar cane
and multiplies by the second. There is no insecticide strong enough to kill the
Nutra Bug. The government has announced that scientists will be working around
the clock to invent a substance to destroy this deadly insect.

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 4
Narrator:                Scene 1, the Presidential Palace

Tom Fixall:              I’m Tom Fixall at the presidential palace in Tierra Rica where the president is under
heavy guard. There is round-the-clock pressure to stop the Nutra Bug.

President Chi Chi, explain to our viewers what all this turmoil is about. Just what is
going on?

President Chi Chi:       Don’t worry. Our country has been through this before. We will survive.

Narrator:                Elvira, the President’s wife, offers coffee to Tom Fixall. Tom notices that Elvira
sweetens her coffee with Nutrasweet instead of sugar.

Tom Fixall:              But how can you say, ―Don’t worry‖? Isn’t it true, President Chi Chi, that the
previous president of Tierra Rica was assassinated following a hurricane that
destroyed the sugar crop a few years ago? Isn’t this almost the same thing?

President Chi Chi:       Oh, you’re taking this too seriously. Have some more refreshments. Elvira, give
Mr. Fixall a fresh drink.

Tom Fixall:              Strong black coffee, please. And that’s another thing, President Chi Chi, that I
don’t understand. Seῆora Elvira, you’re using Nutrasweet and serving diet
beverages. What gives?

Elvira:                  My waistline, Mr. Fixall.

Narrator:                Scene 2, a government office in the capital city

Tom Fixall:              Why is this office so empty? This can’t possibly have something to do with the
Nutra Bug, could it?

Worker #1:               Yes, it could. Workers have been receiving notices that the government can’t pay
their salaries. The biggest source of government revenue is the tax it puts on the
sale of sugar to cane other countries.

Worker #2:               It’s our biggest export crop.

Worker #1:               Actually, it’s almost our only export crop.

Tom Fixall:              It seems like your country isn’t really independent, but rather dependent upon one
crop – sugar.

Worker #1:               You are right. There are other Latin American countries that are one-resource
countries: El Salvador depends upon the sale of coffee; Guatemala, bananas; Cuba,
sugar.

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 4
Worker #2:               When a nation like Tierra Rica can’t sell its crop at a good price, then the people
and the government of that country have nothing.

Narrator:                The two workers look over their shoulders quickly. Seeing no one nearby, they
motion Tom Fixall to move closer to them. Then Worker #2 begins whispering to
Tom.

Worker #2:               Mr. Fixall, don’t quote us, please. If you do, we will deny it.

Tom Fixall:              What’s the big secret?

Worker #1:               President Chi Chi won’t be in power much longer. There is much dissatisfaction
with him. A revolt is planned. I will say no more.

Narrator:                Scene 3, a sugar cane plantation

Tom Fixall:              I am here with the owner of this plantation, Tio Pablo. This place is very beautiful,
but awfully quiet.

Tio Pablo:               It’s too quiet for me! I used to have thousands of workers. Now I am here all alone
– no money, no crop, nothing since the Nutra Bug struck. This is my last day here.
Tomorrow the bank takes over.

Tom Fixall:              Didn’t you see this coming? Couldn’t you have grown other crops?

Tio Pablo:               This is all I have ever known. My father and his father before him grew sugar cane.
It’s just the way things are. When times were good, it was because the demand for
sugar was high. We were always able to grow much sugar in Tierra Rica. Now,
artificial sweeteners have decreased the world’s demand for sugar. To make
matters worse, that ugly, disgusting insect has destroyed our crops.

Tom Fixall:              Has anything else ever caused hard times like these?

Tio Pablo:               Sure! Drought, floods, competition – you name it! When a country depends on one
crop and something happens to hurt that crop, then the country and its people are in
real trouble.

Narrator:                Scene 4, a small shop on the main street in the capital city
The shelves are almost bare. There are no customers. Tom Fixall is attracted by a
sign that reads ―Souvenirs – Nutra Bugs, Petrified and Tin-Plated.‖

Tom Fixall:              Maria Fresca, I’d like to buy a souvenir bug.

Maria Fresca:            Okay. Ten cents American or 50 pesos, please.

Tom Fixall:              I notice you have sale on T.V. sets, but you only have one T.V. set in stock.

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 4

Maria Fresca:            It’s the government’s fault. We have had many dictators like Chi Chi, and they are
all the same. They make me sick.

Tom Fixall:              I don’t understand.

Maria Fresca:            Everything is fine as long as we are growing a lot of sugar and other countries are
buying it. But sometimes we have an earthquake, or a flood, or a bug problem, and
the sugar crop is destroyed. When that happens, our biggest source of income is
destroyed, too. We can’t buy the products from other countries that we need
because we don’t have the money that we should have earned from the sugar crop.
Not only do we not have any sugar, but we don’t have anything else either.

Tom Fixall:              How could you change that situation?

Maria Fresca:            We shouldn’t be so dependent on one crop! We should make our own T.V.’s. We
should have factories as well as farms. It’s the government’s fault that we don’t.
I’m sorry, Mr. Fixall, if I sound like a complainer, but I am angry. There is much
suffering here in Tierra Rica today and I blame the government for it.

Narrator:                Scene 5, A Party held by Tom Fixall’s boss
Six months have passed since Tom Fixall’s visit to Tierra Rica. His boss has
invited several people to a party. Tom has come to believe that his petrified, tin-
plated Nutra Bug has brought him luck. He wears it on a chain around his neck.
Since he has started to wear it, he has had an increase in salary. He has also started
to date the wealthy Elvira Chi Chi, a widow for the past five months. A large
crowd has gathered around Tom to hear what he has to say about the recent
revolution in Tierra Rica.

Tom Fixall:              …And so there I was, in a country about to be torn apart by violence.

Tom’s Boss:              Tom wrote some interesting stories about the crisis in Tierra Rica. So many people
in Tierra Rica blamed their problems on that funny-looking bug, but Tom was able
to give a more complete description of what went wrong there.

Tom Fixall:              I won’t bore you by explaining everything to you at a party, but anyone who wants
to understand the problems of the poor nations in Latin America and elsewhere
should read more about them. Countries that depend upon only one resource will
have many problems.

Narrator:                Elvira Chi Chi walks up to the group of people surrounding Tom Fixall. She then
goes to Tom’s side and slips her hand into his. Tom and Elvira smile at each other
and blush.

Tom Fixall:              Seῆora Elvira, some our friends here probably want to know how you managed to
avoid what happened to your late husband. Why don’t you tell them?

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Elvira:                  All right. It is a very simple story. Five months ago I went on a shopping trip to
the United States. I had lost some weight, so I needed to buy some new clothes.
Since we didn’t have a clothing factory in Tierra Rica, I went shopping elsewhere.
Shortly after I left, the revolution began. The rest you know. They took my
husband prisoner and then they shot him. Tom called me because he wanted write a
story on my reaction to the revolution. We became friends.

Tom’s Boss:              Tom, you’re my best reporter, and I know you as well as I know my own son. I can
tell that something is being kept a secret. What is it?

Narrator:                Tom looks embarrassed. He does not answer his boss’ question. There is an
awkward pause. Then Elvira speaks.

Elvira:                  Actually, we have a happy announcement to make. As you know, I lost my
husband to a firing squad five months ago. The rebels in Tierra Rica blamed my
husband for the economic mess we were in at that time. I think that was unfair, but
enough about that. To make a long story short, Tom and I plan to be married.

Tom’s Boss:              Congratulations to Tom Fixall and the bride-to-be Seῆora Elvira Chi Chi.

Narrator:                Tom quickly slips an unusual ring on Elvira’s finger. It looks a lot like the tin-
plated Nutra Bug that hangs on a chain around his neck. There is an important
difference, however, between the souvenir Nutra Bug and the ring. The odd-shaped
ring is covered with diamonds instead of tin. While many people will think that the
Nutra Bug ring looks like an evil creature with sharp teeth, to Tom and Elvira, looks
aren’t everything.

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For use with Module 1, Lesson #3

Name: __________________________________        Date: _____________________________

A One-Resource Economy in Latin America
Problems                                   Solutions

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For use with Module 2, Lesson #1

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For use with Module 2, Lesson #1

Name: _______________________                         Date: _____________________

The Caribbean: Dynamic Lands and Cultures

As you view the video segment, take notes that will help you answer the following
questions for discussion:

1. How did the islands of the Caribbean form?

2. In what ways do you think the geography influences the ways in which people
earn a living in this region?

3. What factors influence the cultural diversity of these islands?

4. What role does the geographic theme of Movement play in the culture there?

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For use with Module 2, Lesson #1

Name: _______________________________                       Date: _________________________

Caribbean Country: _______________________________

CIA World Factbook                    Country’s Tourism Site
/the-world-factbook/
According to this
website, what
kind of economy
and resources
does this country
have to offer?

What are the
geographic
features of this
country?

What does this
country offer in
terms of cultural
diversity?

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For use with Unit 4, Module 3

Name: _____________________________        Date: _______________________

The Amazon Rainforest

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For use with Unit 4, Module 3

Name: ___________________________                 Date: __________________________

Rain Forest Challenges
Choose at least six of the following nine Rain Forest Challenges to research and report on. Use
a variety of print and electronic resources to help you with the information needed. The following
websites are excellent resources for much of the information needed to address these
challenges:
http://www.rain-tree.com/facts.htm
http://kids.mongabay.com/

Logging
Some rain forest loggers practice sustainable harvesting of trees in tropical rainforests. This logging
causes little damage to the soil because trees are cut carefully and the logs are removed with aerial
cables instead of heavy logging equipment. Only certain areas are allowed to be logged at any one time.
Some logging operations support research to learn more about how rainforests can regenerate, or grow
again after cutting, and they have replanted areas that have been cleared.

Read about AVIVE, a group of women in Brazil who are trying to perform sustainable harvesting of the
endangered rosewood tree.
http://www.herbalgram.org/wholefoodsmarket/Herbalgram/articleview.asp?a=3091

1. Describe the situation that led to the rosewood tree becoming endangered.

2. What are the women of AVIVE doing to help solve the problem? What are the befits to the
environment as well as to the members of the group?

3. Will conservation be successful if human needs are not met first? Why or why not?

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Development
As human populations grow, more people need more land for homes and highways. Dams are built to
provide transportation waterways and hydroelectric power. Development creates money-making jobs for
people to earn their livings.

1. Many people have moved to the rain forests from overcrowded cities and are trying to earn a
living and feed hungry families. How might they feel about cutting trees? Is it always bad or
wrong to cut down a tree?

2. How does population growth in tropical areas affect the rain forest? Is development that doesn’t
harm the environment possible? Why or why not?

Agriculture
The people who cut and burn the rain forest in the hope of productive farming find that the land they plant
will only yield a year or two of crops before the thin, poor soil is worn out. If they want to continue
farming, they are forced to move on and clear more forest, only to be disappointed again in a few years.

1. In what ways are “slash and burn” agriculture and overgrazing of cattle so destructive?

2. How does tropical deforestation affect even places far away?

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Nature Tours
By visiting parks and reserves in tropical rain forests, nature lovers from developed countries bring
needed money into developing countries. They spend money to stay in hotels, buy meals, local crafts
and souvenirs, etc. Such nature-tourism gives native people reasons to protect natural areas and set up
nature centers, trails and facilities that invite tourists to visit.

1. What are some unique tropical rain forest plants and animals? List at least eight and tell
something about each that makes it unique.

2. What would happen to endangered species if people didn’t try to help save them?

3. What other effects might growing numbers of tourist have on the environment?

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Rubber Tree Plantations
For years, people in Brazil’s rain forests have been tapping rubber trees for latex, collecting Brazil nuts,
and harvesting other natural products in ways that don’t destroy the forest. Many rubber tappers have
joined together and pressured the government into setting up special reserves that allow them to
continue this sustainable way of life. These extractive reserves provide an on-going source of income for
rain forest people.

1. Name eight rubber products.

2. If you could create something made of rubber, what would it be? Draw a picture of your product.

3. Why is it important that rubber tappers continue to live in the forest and use trees in ways that
don’t destroy them?

4. Who was Brazil’s Chico Mendez? What happened to him?
http://www.edf.org/article.cfm?ContentID=1596

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Fruit Harvests
Only living trees can produce fruits and nuts! A plot of trees can produce fruits, oils, rubber and cocoa
that are worth two times what what those trees sell for when cut into lumber.

1. What are some rainforest products that can be harvested without cutting down trees?

2. List as many items as you can for a checklist of rainforest products in homes and schools.

3. Which is more profitable in the long term: logging or selling renewable rain forest products (fruits,

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Mining
When the earth is mined for minerals and metals, it means clearing away trees and digging into the earth.
The forest and the top layers of soil are stripped off to get at the coal, copper, or bauxite below.

1. Most of an aluminum soda pop can is made of bauxite, which comes from mines in rain forests.
How can recycling your aluminum cans help save the rain forest?

2. When mines are developed or factories built what happens to people who might be in the way?

Medicinal Plants
One-fourth of all pharmaceuticals come from tropical plants, and 70% of all plants with anti-cancer
properties are found only in rainforests. Only 1% of all tropical plants have been tested for medicinal
value. The potential for healthful products from the rain forest plants is almost limitless. As long as
rainforests survive, new life-saving discoveries will continue to be made.

1. What are some examples of medicines that are derived from rainforest plants?

2. What cures or products would you like to see discovered?

3. Much of what makes rain forests so valuable is not what we know about them, but what we don’t
know. Explain what this means.

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Indigenous People
Native, or indigenous people, have lived in the Amazon Rainforest for thousands of years. Read about
their way of life at http://www.adventure-life.com/articles/indigenous-people-76.php

1. Describe the way of life of people of the Amazon Rainforest.

2. Why are indigenous people in danger and what are are they doing to save their territory?

3. Why should people in other parts of the world care about what happens to them?

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For use with Unit 4, Module 3

AMAZON ETHNIC GROUP FACES EXTINCTION!

The discovery of gold and diamonds on lands occupied for centuries by the
Yanomamo Amerindians threaten their very existence. Unknown to the rest of the world
until anthropologists and missionaries visited the Amazon in the 1950’s, the Yanomamo
Amerindians, one of the world’s largest traditional groups, today face the loss of their land
and the destruction of their culture.

Living much the same way as they have for hundreds of years, the Yanomamo
inhabit small villages in the rainforest surrounding the Amazon River basin. Each village
of 35 to 250 people has its own leader.

The Yanomamo depend directly on the land to sustain their way of life. Villagers
live in one central area surrounded by gardens. The Yanomamo survive by hunting,
fishing, gardening, and gathering. Hunting and gardening are done by men while the
harvesting of crops and processing of food are performed by women. A man’s status in the
village is determined by his skill in hunting.

The Yanomamo have a simple relationship with the land. They garden until they
exhaust the soil, typically in three or four years, and hunt until they deplete the supply of
animals. Then they move on to another location.

Today the very existence of this group is threatened. The discovery of resources
such as gold and diamonds have attracted many outsiders and led to a sharp reduction in
the amount of land available for growing crops. Workers imported to build new roads
brought with them diseases to which the natives had no immunity. Thirteen villages were
virtually wiped out by flu and measles epidemics. In 1987, 45,000 gold miners invaded the
area. The population of the Yanomamo has dwindled from 9,000 to 7,500 since the
intrusion of the miners.

You can find out more about the Yanomamo at the website: http://www.crystalinks.com/yanomami.html

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For use with Unit 4, Module 3

Save the Amazon Rainforest!
Problem/Solution

Write a letter to President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, president of Brazil, to persuade him to
enact laws that will save the Amazon Rainforest from destruction. Your letter should include:

   An opening paragraph in which you engage your reader with the most compelling
arguments for saving the Amazon Rainforest.

   A second paragraph in which you give facts and details about the animals that inhabit
the Amazon Rainforest.

   A third paragraph in which you give facts and details about the importance of the
products from the Amazon Rainforest.

   A fourth paragraph in which you explain the problems of the indigenous people of the
Amazon Rainforest.

   A final paragraph in which you offer suggestions for ways in which the government of
Brazil should save the Amazon Rainforest from destruction. Be sure to end with a
concluding statement.

Use information that you have gathered from the Rainforest Challenges, written texts, and
classroom discussions.

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For use with Unit 4, Module 3

Description of the Region                              Animals

AMAZON: Land of the Flooded Forest

Plants                                      People

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Name:_________________________________________

Amazon Rainforest Problem/Solution Letter - Assessment Criteria

Meets the Standard                                               Does Not Meet the Standard
4                                        3                                         2                                     1
Advanced                                Proficient                                  Basic                              Below Basic
     All information is accurate and          Few errors are made.                     Some errors are made.                Many errors are made.
complete.                                Most work is complete.                   Some work is incomplete.             Work is incomplete.
     All directions are followed.             Most directions are followed.            Some directions are                  Directions are not followed.
     Work is presented neatly.                Work is presented neatly.                 followed.                            Work is not neatly done.
   Some work is neatly done.

Essay Sections
Paragraph One        Paragraph Two      Paragraph         Paragraph         Paragraph Five      Each            Each            Each               Grammar,
includes the         describes facts    Three             Four explains     offers              paragraph a     paragraph has   paragraph has      spelling,
most important       and details        describes facts   the problems of   suggestions for     topic           details to      a conclusion to    usage, and
reasons for          about the          and details       the indigenous    ways in which       statement.      support the     summarize the      sentence
saving the           animals of the     about the         people of the     the Amazon                          topic           information.       formation are
Amazon               Amazon             importance of     Amazon            Rainforest can                      statement.                         correct.
Rainforest.          Rainforest.        the products of   Rainforest.       be saved.
the Amazon
Rainforest.
4                 4                   4                4                    4                4               4               4                  4
3                 3                   3                3                    3                3               3               3                  3
2                 2                   2                2                    2                2               2               2                  2
1                 1                   1                1                    1                1               1               1                  1
No Evidence       No Evidence         No Evidence      No Evidence          No Evidence      No Evidence     No Evidence     No Evidence        No Evidence

Overall Assessment for this Essay: ___________

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World Cultures, Grade 6, Unit 4

Name: _______________________________                      Date: _______________________

Unit 4 – Latin America
Final Reflection

In Unit 4 you have learned about the influence of geography on the ways in which the people of Latin
America make a living. You have examined resource maps of the region and researched the challenges
faced by the people as they try to move from one-resource economies. You have learned about the role
that the geographic theme of movement plays in the diverse cultures of the Caribbean islands. You have
researched the Amazon Rainforest to find out about the animal, plant, and human life found there. You
have suggested ways in which the people of Brazil can use their rainforest resources without destroying
them.

   How did you use maps to answer geographic questions about Latin America?

   Write about the work that you did during this unit. Relate your work to the Five Themes of
Geography. Give specific examples that show how your work is the work of a geographer.

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