BIOLOGY 2401 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY PART I LAB 1 by 18EV0q9

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									 BIOLOGY 2401
 ANATOMY AND
  PHYSIOLOGY
    PART I
     LAB 1
The Language of Anatomy
    THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY
• The Anatomical Position.
  – This is the standard body
    orientation used by human
    anatomists to describe the
    anatomy.

• Regional Terms
  • Axial portion of the body:
     - Head
     - Neck
     - Trunk
  • Appendicular portion of the body:
     - Limbs
THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY
      Directional Terms
• Directional Terms:
   – Superior/Cranial         – Proximal
       • Towards head or         • Closer to origin of
          upper end.               structure.
   – Inferior/Caudal
                              – Distal
       • Towards lower end.
                                 • Farther from the
   – Anterior/Ventral
                                   origin of structure.
       • Towards front.
                              – Superficial
   – Posterior/Dorsal
       • Towards back.           • Towards the surface.
   – Medial                   – Deep/Internal
       • Towards midline.        • Towards center/away
   – Lateral                       from surface.
       • Away from midline.
     THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY
        Body Planes & Sections
• Knowledge of these planes helps in viewing medical imaging
   – MRI, CT scans, PET scans
• Sagittal Planes - divide body into left & right parts.
   – Median (or midsagittal) plane divides body exactly in half
   – Parasagittal planes are parallel to the median plane but are
     more helpful for seeing structures that are not in the center
     of the body, such as eyes and kidneys
• Frontal Planes - divide body into front and back parts.
   – Coronal planes are the same as frontal planes but the name
     is usually reserved for the head and brain. (corona=crown)
• Transverse Planes - divide body into superior & inferior parts
   – They are also known as cross sections.
   – Abbreviated as x.sec.
Planes and Sections
 THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY
        Body Cavities
• Dorsal Body Cavities.
   – Cranial cavity
   – Vertebral or spinal cavity
• Ventral Body Cavities.
   – Thoracic cavity
      • Pericardial cavity - heart
      • Pleural cavity – lungs
   – Abdominopelvic cavity
      • Abdominal area – digestive & renal organs
      • Pelvic area – bladder, rectum, & reproductive organs.
Body Cavities
THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY
Abdominal Regions & Quadrants
 • Quadrants (4)
   – Upper right & left quadrants
   – Lower right & left quadrants
 • Regions (9)
   – Umbilical
   – Epigastric
   – Hypogastric
   – Iliac, left and right
   – Lumbar, left and right
   – Hypochondriac, left and right

								
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