José Onofre Montesa Andrés
Universidad Politécnica de
Escuela Superior de
Subjects to study
• What is motivation?
• Theories of motivation
• Why people meats objectives.
What is motivation?
– It’s not a personal trait, that is, some have
it and others don’t.
– “The willingness to exert high levels of
effort toward organizational goals,
conditioned by the effort’s ability to
satisfy some individual need.
The motivation Process
Early Theories of Motivation
• Maslow, hierarchy of needs theory,
• Theories X and Y
• They represent a foundation from which
contemporary theories have grow
• Manager regularly use this theories
Hierarchy of needs theory
• Maslow hypothesized this hierarchy
Theory X (McGregor)
• Employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike
responsibility, and must be coerced to
• Manager must do:
• Supervision and control.
• Find easy tasks to people.
• Document de work process.
• Paid well and be equilibrated..
• Expected results:
• Standard production.
Theory Y (McGregor)
• Employees like work, are creative, seek
responsibility, and can exercise self direction.
– Manager must do:
• Inform employees.
• Listen plans, objections and suggestions.
• Allow self direction.
– Expected results:
• Better moral.
• No change resistance.
Motivation-Hygiene theory (HERZBERG)
Company policy and admin.
Relationship with supervisor
Relationship with peers
Relationship with subordinates
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
• ERG theory
• McCleland Theory of needs
• Cognitive evaluation
• Reinforcement theory
• Equity theory
• Expectancy theory
• More than one need
may be operative at
the same time.
• If the gratification Grow
of a higher level
need is stifled, the Relatedness
desire to satisfy a
lower level need Existence
McCleland Theory of needs
• Achievement need
– The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of
standards, to strive to succeed.
• Power need
– The need to make others behave in a way that they
would not have behaved otherwise.
• Affiliation need
– The desire for friendly and close interpersonal
• Allocating extrinsic rewards for
behavior that had been previously
intrinsically reward tends to decrease
the overall level of motivation.
Goal setting theory
• ----”Just do your best”----
• The theory that specific and difficult goals
least to higher performance.
• Tell employee what needs to be done and how
much effort will need to be expended.
• Feedback and self generate feedback.
• Participative ser goals elicited superior
– Behavior is a function of its consequences
Response Reinforcement Repeated
E = E
S own S others
S: payment, advance,
The four referent comparison
that an employee can use:
Self: employee Others
Inside: experience coworkers
current in other
Outside Other jobs he …
current has done in
organization other places
• Choices if inequity
– Change their inputs
– Change their outcomes (more Quantity les
– Distort perception of self (I work a lot..)
– Distort perception of others (he isn’t as
– Choice a different referent
– Leave the field.
• The strength of a tendency to act in a
certain way depends on the strength or
an expectation that the act will be
followed by a given outcome and on the
attractiveness of that outcome to he
• We focus on three relationships:
– Effort-performance relationship. The
probability perceived by the individual that
effort lead to the performance.
– Performance-reward relationship. Degree to
attainment of a desired outcome.
– Rewards-Personal goal relationship. …
satisfy individual goal?
Ability and opportunity