Docstoc

Motivation conceptos básicos

Document Sample
Motivation conceptos básicos Powered By Docstoc
					    Motivation:
  basic concepts.

José Onofre Montesa Andrés
 Universidad Politécnica de
          Valencia
    Escuela Superior de
   Informática Aplicada
        2003-2004
        Subjects to study
• What is motivation?
• Theories of motivation
• Why people meats objectives.




                      GPI-       1
      What is motivation?
– It’s not a personal trait, that is, some have
  it and others don’t.
– “The willingness to exert high levels of
  effort toward organizational goals,
  conditioned by the effort’s ability to
  satisfy some individual need.




                         GPI-                     2
  The motivation Process
                         Search
         Drives
                         behavior


    Tension                       Satisfied
                                    need

Unsatisfied
  Need                            Reduction
                                  of Tension


                  GPI-                         3
 Early Theories of Motivation
• Maslow, hierarchy of needs theory,
• Theories X and Y
• Motivation-Hygiene

• They represent a foundation from which
  contemporary theories have grow
• Manager regularly use this theories

                       GPI-                4
  Hierarchy of needs theory
• Maslow hypothesized this hierarchy

           Self actualization
                Esteem
                 Social
                Safety
             Physiological


                      GPI-             5
   Theory X (McGregor)
• Assumption:
    • Employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike
      responsibility, and must be coerced to
      perform.
• Manager must do:
    •   Supervision and control.
    •   Find easy tasks to people.
    •   Document de work process.
    •   Paid well and be equilibrated..
• Expected results:
    • Standard production.
                            GPI-                  6
    Theory Y (McGregor)
– Assumption:
  • Employees like work, are creative, seek
    responsibility, and can exercise self direction.
– Manager must do:
  • Inform employees.
  • Listen plans, objections and suggestions.
  • Allow self direction.
– Expected results:
  • Better moral.
  • No change resistance.

                          GPI-                         7
Motivation-Hygiene theory (HERZBERG)
         dissatisfaction      Satisfaction
                                                    Achievement
                                                    Recognition
                                                    Work itself
                                                    Responsibility
                                                    Advancement
                                                    Grow
                                                    Company policy and admin.
                                                    Supervision
                                                    Relationship with supervisor
                                                    Work Conditions
                                                    Salary
                                                    Relationship with peers
                                                    Personal life
                                                    Relationship with subordinates
                                                    Status
                                                    Security
  -40   -30   -20   -10   0   10   20   30     40

                                        GPI-                                8
       Contemporary theories
•   ERG theory
•   McCleland Theory of needs
•   Cognitive evaluation
•   Reinforcement theory
•   Equity theory
•   Expectancy theory



                        GPI-    9
                     ERG
• More than one need
  may be operative at
  the same time.
• If the gratification          Grow
  of a higher level
  need is stifled, the     Relatedness
  desire to satisfy a
  lower level need          Existence
  increases.


                         GPI-            10
   McCleland Theory of needs
• Achievement need
  – The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of
    standards, to strive to succeed.
• Power need
  – The need to make others behave in a way that they
    would not have behaved otherwise.
• Affiliation need
  – The desire for friendly and close interpersonal
    relationships.


                               GPI-                      11
       Cognitive evaluation
• Allocating extrinsic rewards for
  behavior that had been previously
  intrinsically reward tends to decrease
  the overall level of motivation.




                       GPI-                12
         Goal setting theory
• ----”Just do your best”----
• The theory that specific and difficult goals
  least to higher performance.
• Tell employee what needs to be done and how
  much effort will need to be expended.
• Feedback and self generate feedback.
• Participative ser goals elicited superior
  performance.


                          GPI-                   13
      Reinforcement theory
• Concept:
  – Behavior is a function of its consequences
               Response   Reinforcement   Repeated
   Situation




                Action                    Recurred
                          GPI-                   14
                  Equity theory

E     =                E 
S own                  S others

E: experience,
  Knowledge, effort..

S: payment, advance,
  recognition..

                          GPI-        15
 The four referent comparison
   that an employee can use:

               Self: employee Others

Inside:          experience   coworkers
current          in other
organization     position
Outside        Other jobs he …
current        has done in
organization   other places

                       GPI-               16
             Equity theory
• Choices if inequity
  – Change their inputs
  – Change their outcomes (more Quantity les
    Quality)
  – Distort perception of self (I work a lot..)
  – Distort perception of others (he isn’t as
    good…)
  – Choice a different referent
  – Leave the field.

                           GPI-                   17
        Expectancy theory
• The strength of a tendency to act in a
  certain way depends on the strength or
  an expectation that the act will be
  followed by a given outcome and on the
  attractiveness of that outcome to he
  individual.




                       GPI-                18
        Expectancy theory
• We focus on three relationships:
  – Effort-performance relationship. The
    probability perceived by the individual that
    effort lead to the performance.
  – Performance-reward relationship. Degree to
    attainment of a desired outcome.
  – Rewards-Personal goal relationship. …
    satisfy individual goal?


                          GPI-                 19
 Ability and opportunity

              Ability



             Performance
Motivation                     Opportunity




                        GPI-                 20

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:11/25/2011
language:Spanish
pages:21