The objective is to introduce the topic of refrigeration. In order to understand how refrigeration systems work, it is helpful to know how a refrigeration system operates, the different applications that exist, the components that make up a system, and how to calculate system parameters. These are fundamental underlying principles of refrigeration systems.
EDIT 6170 Instructional Design Refrigerator Slides Slides so important they’re worth sticking to your refrigerator! Last updated November 12, 2009 Forming a team • Facts: – At least 2 members, no more than 4 – At the lesson level, each team must develop and evaluate as many lessons as there are team members – Otherwise, project is the same in scope for each team • Concepts – Teamwork; cooperation; collaboration; efficiency; productivity; quality; intra- and interpersonal • Principles – Relationships between the concepts • Problem-Solving – Completing the project on-time according to the specifications • Attitudes – Choosing to learn instructional design; choosing to have a satisfying, enjoyable experience – Will expect problems, but will choose to work to resolve problems with a professional, positive attitude The ADDIE Model of Instructional Design • Analysis – Is there a need for instruction? – What is the context? – Who are the learners? • Design – “Blueprints” for courses, units, and lessons • Development – Building something real from the blueprints • Implementation – Trying out your materials • Evaluation – Evaluating your design and making revisions First Law of Instructional Design Instructional solutions can only solve instructional problems! Instructional Congruency Instructional Objectives Instruction Evaluation Review of the ISD process… Process Input Output Needs Assessment Investigation based on Instructional Goals assessment data Course Design Instructional Goals Course ICM showing course terminal objective and enabling objectives (units) Unit Design Enabling objective from Unit ICM showing unit Course ICM terminal objective and enabling objectives (lessons), including supporting objectives from other domains (VI, Att.) Lesson Design Enabling objective from Unit Lesson plan consisting of ICM media analysis and instructional strategies for each of the events of instruction. Learning Outcomes: Gagne‟s Domains of Learning • Verbal Information • Affective – Verbatim learning – Non-verbatim learning • Psychomotor – Substance learning • Intellectual Skills – Problem-solving – Rule-using – Defined concepts Learning Hierarchy – Concrete concepts – Discriminations • Cognitive strategies Clearly identifying learning outcomes • Problem-solving Generate • Rule-using Demonstrate • Concepts Classify, identify • Verbal information State, list, recite, summarize • Affective Choose • Psychomotor Execute We will cover how to write objectives later, but a good way to start is with: “The student will be able to (SWBAT) generate/demonstrate/classify/identify… Characteristics of Good Assessment Instruments Validity – Does the instrument assess what it is supposed to assess Reliability – People who „know the material‟ do well, those who don‟t do poorly; consistency Practicality – The instrument can be implemented with relative ease Efficiency – The instrument takes as little time as necessary to get valid and reliable results A Skills Matrix Discrete Continous No time constraints Time constraints •Ironing a shirt •Cooking •Basic Arithmetic •Taking dictation Closed There is a “best •Changing a flat tire •Swimming way” to learn it. •Typing 1 2 •Writing an essay •Public speaking •Painting •Live debate Open No best way to •Parenting •Singing learn it. •Instructional design •Business negotiation •Project management 3 4 Teaching Difficulty Tripp (1992) Some Good Design Rules Know your audience – What they know – What motivates them Identify your learning objective and use it constantly to steer your design. Be clear and honest (first to yourself and then your audience) as to the learning outcome of your learning objective? Retention Previous Transfer Lesson Presentation Next Orientation Practice Lesson Formative Evaluation Helps to Answer the Following Questions • How effective is this instruction at this stage of development? – What has been learned? – How usable is the instruction? – How easy is it for students to use the media I‟ve developed? – How motivational is the instruction? • In what ways can it be improved? – Improvement is the goal of formative evaluation. After all, your instruction is at a very “formative” stage, is it not? Formative Evaluation: Responsibility of Each Team 1. Identify lesson objective(s) for each of the lessons you will try out. 2. Prepare assessment instruments. – Consider both quantitative and qualitative methods/instruments – Check evaluation instruments for validity (i.e. are they congruent with objectives?) and reliability. – Consider both performance and motivation in your evaluation. – Be open to collect any other data that will serve to improve your instruction (including observation and learner introspection). 3. Prepare lesson using Instructional Strategy Planning Guide as a job aid. 4. Each lesson must be evaluated with at least 3 students in the target audience. 5. Interpret your formative evaluation based on all assessment instruments and observations. 6. Report the results in your final report. Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation Situation Driven of Different Perspectives Level Four Results Purpose of Evaluation The purpose for evaluation is to Level Three determine the effectiveness of Behavior a training program. According to this model, evaluation should Level Two always begin with level one, Learning and then, as time and budget allows, should move Level One sequentially through levels two, three, and four. Information from each prior level serves as Reaction a base for the next level's evaluation Kirkpatrick (1998) Copyright Larry D Weas (permission pending) Return on Investment (ROI): The 5th Level of Evaluation Program Benefits = $225,000 Program Costs = $150,000 Program Benefits $225,000 BCR = BCR = = 1.5 Program Costs $150,000 Net Program Benefits $75,000 ROI = X 100 ROI = X 100 = 50% Program Costs $150,000 BCR = Benefits/Cost Ratio Net Program Benefits = Program Benefits – Program Costs Important Assumptions and Procedures Required for Computing ROI • Need to develop evaluation plan and baseline data. • Need to collect data during and after solution implementation. • Need to be able to isolate the effects of the solution. • Need to be able to convert data to monetary value.
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