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					EDIT 6170 Instructional Design
     Refrigerator Slides
Slides so important they’re worth sticking to your refrigerator!
                   Last updated November 12, 2009
                      Forming a team
• Facts:
   – At least 2 members, no more than 4
   – At the lesson level, each team must develop and evaluate as many
     lessons as there are team members
   – Otherwise, project is the same in scope for each team
• Concepts
   – Teamwork; cooperation; collaboration; efficiency; productivity; quality;
     intra- and interpersonal
• Principles
   – Relationships between the concepts
• Problem-Solving
   – Completing the project on-time according to the specifications
• Attitudes
   – Choosing to learn instructional design; choosing to have a satisfying,
     enjoyable experience
   – Will expect problems, but will choose to work to resolve problems with a
     professional, positive attitude
The ADDIE Model of Instructional Design
• Analysis
   – Is there a need for instruction?
   – What is the context?
   – Who are the learners?
• Design
   – “Blueprints” for courses, units, and lessons
• Development
   – Building something real from the blueprints
• Implementation
   – Trying out your materials
• Evaluation
   – Evaluating your design and making revisions
First Law of Instructional Design


Instructional solutions can
  only solve instructional
         problems!
  Instructional Congruency


              Instructional
               Objectives




Instruction                   Evaluation
                Review of the ISD process…
Process               Input                          Output
Needs Assessment      Investigation based on         Instructional Goals
                      assessment data
Course Design         Instructional Goals            Course ICM showing course
                                                     terminal objective and
                                                     enabling objectives (units)

Unit Design           Enabling objective from        Unit ICM showing unit
                      Course ICM                     terminal objective and
                                                     enabling objectives (lessons),
                                                     including supporting
                                                     objectives from other
                                                     domains (VI, Att.)
Lesson Design         Enabling objective from Unit   Lesson plan consisting of
                      ICM                            media analysis and
                                                     instructional strategies for
                                                     each of the events of
                                                     instruction.
Learning Outcomes: Gagne‟s Domains of
              Learning

• Verbal Information         • Affective
   – Verbatim learning
   – Non-verbatim learning   • Psychomotor
   – Substance learning
• Intellectual Skills
   –   Problem-solving
   –   Rule-using
   –   Defined concepts          Learning Hierarchy
   –   Concrete concepts
   –   Discriminations
• Cognitive strategies
Clearly identifying learning outcomes

•   Problem-solving       Generate
•   Rule-using            Demonstrate
•   Concepts              Classify, identify
•   Verbal information    State, list, recite,
                            summarize
• Affective               Choose
• Psychomotor             Execute



We will cover how to write objectives later, but a good
way to start is with: “The student will be able to (SWBAT)
generate/demonstrate/classify/identify…
Characteristics of Good Assessment Instruments

    Validity
      – Does the instrument assess what it is supposed to assess
    Reliability
      – People who „know the material‟ do well, those who don‟t do
        poorly; consistency
    Practicality
      – The instrument can be implemented with relative ease
    Efficiency
      – The instrument takes as little time as necessary to get valid
        and reliable results
                    A Skills Matrix
                        Discrete                  Continous
                        No time constraints       Time constraints


                    •Ironing a shirt            •Cooking
                    •Basic Arithmetic           •Taking dictation
Closed
There is a “best
                    •Changing a flat tire       •Swimming
way” to learn it.   •Typing

                              1                            2
                    •Writing an essay           •Public speaking
                    •Painting                   •Live debate
Open
No best way to      •Parenting                  •Singing
learn it.           •Instructional design       •Business negotiation
                    •Project management
                              3                            4
                                     Teaching Difficulty             Tripp (1992)
        Some Good Design Rules

 Know your audience
   – What they know
   – What motivates them
 Identify your learning objective
  and use it constantly to steer
  your design.
 Be clear and honest (first to
  yourself and then your audience)
  as to the learning outcome of
  your learning objective?
                                        Retention
Previous                                Transfer
Lesson




                         Presentation                Next
           Orientation     Practice                 Lesson
Formative Evaluation Helps to Answer the
          Following Questions
• How effective is this instruction at this stage of
  development?
  – What has been learned?
  – How usable is the instruction?
  – How easy is it for students to use the media I‟ve
    developed?
  – How motivational is the instruction?
• In what ways can it be improved?
  – Improvement is the goal of formative evaluation.
    After all, your instruction is at a very “formative”
    stage, is it not?
                                Formative Evaluation:
                           Responsibility of Each Team

1. Identify lesson objective(s) for each of the lessons you will try
   out.
2. Prepare assessment instruments.
   – Consider both quantitative and qualitative methods/instruments
   – Check evaluation instruments for validity (i.e. are they congruent with
     objectives?) and reliability.
   – Consider both performance and motivation in your evaluation.
   – Be open to collect any other data that will serve to improve your
     instruction (including observation and learner introspection).
3. Prepare lesson using Instructional Strategy Planning Guide as
   a job aid.
4. Each lesson must be evaluated with at least 3 students in the
   target audience.
5. Interpret your formative evaluation based on all assessment
   instruments and observations.
6. Report the results in your final report.
Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation
                               Situation Driven of Different Perspectives

                                                             Level Four
                                                                             Results
 Purpose of Evaluation
  The purpose for evaluation is to                   Level Three
  determine the effectiveness of                                         Behavior
  a training program. According
  to this model, evaluation should             Level Two
  always begin with level one,                                          Learning
  and then, as time and budget
  allows, should move
                                       Level One
  sequentially through levels two,
  three, and four. Information
  from each prior level serves as                                     Reaction
  a base for the next level's
  evaluation                                                                           Kirkpatrick (1998)



                               Copyright Larry D Weas (permission pending)
Return on Investment (ROI): The 5th Level
              of Evaluation
                                        Program Benefits = $225,000
                                        Program Costs = $150,000

          Program Benefits                       $225,000
BCR =                                   BCR =                = 1.5
           Program Costs                         $150,000

         Net Program Benefits                    $75,000
 ROI =                          X 100    ROI =              X 100 = 50%
           Program Costs                         $150,000



BCR = Benefits/Cost Ratio
Net Program Benefits = Program Benefits – Program Costs
Important Assumptions and Procedures
     Required for Computing ROI
• Need to develop evaluation plan and
  baseline data.
• Need to collect data during and after
  solution implementation.
• Need to be able to isolate the effects of
  the solution.
• Need to be able to convert data to
  monetary value.

				
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Description: The objective is to introduce the topic of refrigeration. In order to understand how refrigeration systems work, it is helpful to know how a refrigeration system operates, the different applications that exist, the components that make up a system, and how to calculate system parameters. These are fundamental underlying principles of refrigeration systems.