EDIT 6170 Instructional Design
Slides so important they’re worth sticking to your refrigerator!
Last updated November 12, 2009
Forming a team
– At least 2 members, no more than 4
– At the lesson level, each team must develop and evaluate as many
lessons as there are team members
– Otherwise, project is the same in scope for each team
– Teamwork; cooperation; collaboration; efficiency; productivity; quality;
intra- and interpersonal
– Relationships between the concepts
– Completing the project on-time according to the specifications
– Choosing to learn instructional design; choosing to have a satisfying,
– Will expect problems, but will choose to work to resolve problems with a
professional, positive attitude
The ADDIE Model of Instructional Design
– Is there a need for instruction?
– What is the context?
– Who are the learners?
– “Blueprints” for courses, units, and lessons
– Building something real from the blueprints
– Trying out your materials
– Evaluating your design and making revisions
First Law of Instructional Design
Instructional solutions can
only solve instructional
Review of the ISD process…
Process Input Output
Needs Assessment Investigation based on Instructional Goals
Course Design Instructional Goals Course ICM showing course
terminal objective and
enabling objectives (units)
Unit Design Enabling objective from Unit ICM showing unit
Course ICM terminal objective and
enabling objectives (lessons),
objectives from other
domains (VI, Att.)
Lesson Design Enabling objective from Unit Lesson plan consisting of
ICM media analysis and
instructional strategies for
each of the events of
Learning Outcomes: Gagne‟s Domains of
• Verbal Information • Affective
– Verbatim learning
– Non-verbatim learning • Psychomotor
– Substance learning
• Intellectual Skills
– Defined concepts Learning Hierarchy
– Concrete concepts
• Cognitive strategies
Clearly identifying learning outcomes
• Problem-solving Generate
• Rule-using Demonstrate
• Concepts Classify, identify
• Verbal information State, list, recite,
• Affective Choose
• Psychomotor Execute
We will cover how to write objectives later, but a good
way to start is with: “The student will be able to (SWBAT)
Characteristics of Good Assessment Instruments
– Does the instrument assess what it is supposed to assess
– People who „know the material‟ do well, those who don‟t do
– The instrument can be implemented with relative ease
– The instrument takes as little time as necessary to get valid
and reliable results
A Skills Matrix
No time constraints Time constraints
•Ironing a shirt •Cooking
•Basic Arithmetic •Taking dictation
There is a “best
•Changing a flat tire •Swimming
way” to learn it. •Typing
•Writing an essay •Public speaking
•Painting •Live debate
No best way to •Parenting •Singing
learn it. •Instructional design •Business negotiation
Teaching Difficulty Tripp (1992)
Some Good Design Rules
Know your audience
– What they know
– What motivates them
Identify your learning objective
and use it constantly to steer
Be clear and honest (first to
yourself and then your audience)
as to the learning outcome of
your learning objective?
Orientation Practice Lesson
Formative Evaluation Helps to Answer the
• How effective is this instruction at this stage of
– What has been learned?
– How usable is the instruction?
– How easy is it for students to use the media I‟ve
– How motivational is the instruction?
• In what ways can it be improved?
– Improvement is the goal of formative evaluation.
After all, your instruction is at a very “formative”
stage, is it not?
Responsibility of Each Team
1. Identify lesson objective(s) for each of the lessons you will try
2. Prepare assessment instruments.
– Consider both quantitative and qualitative methods/instruments
– Check evaluation instruments for validity (i.e. are they congruent with
objectives?) and reliability.
– Consider both performance and motivation in your evaluation.
– Be open to collect any other data that will serve to improve your
instruction (including observation and learner introspection).
3. Prepare lesson using Instructional Strategy Planning Guide as
a job aid.
4. Each lesson must be evaluated with at least 3 students in the
5. Interpret your formative evaluation based on all assessment
instruments and observations.
6. Report the results in your final report.
Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation
Situation Driven of Different Perspectives
Purpose of Evaluation
The purpose for evaluation is to Level Three
determine the effectiveness of Behavior
a training program. According
to this model, evaluation should Level Two
always begin with level one, Learning
and then, as time and budget
allows, should move
sequentially through levels two,
three, and four. Information
from each prior level serves as Reaction
a base for the next level's
evaluation Kirkpatrick (1998)
Copyright Larry D Weas (permission pending)
Return on Investment (ROI): The 5th Level
Program Benefits = $225,000
Program Costs = $150,000
Program Benefits $225,000
BCR = BCR = = 1.5
Program Costs $150,000
Net Program Benefits $75,000
ROI = X 100 ROI = X 100 = 50%
Program Costs $150,000
BCR = Benefits/Cost Ratio
Net Program Benefits = Program Benefits – Program Costs
Important Assumptions and Procedures
Required for Computing ROI
• Need to develop evaluation plan and
• Need to collect data during and after
• Need to be able to isolate the effects of
• Need to be able to convert data to