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					              SOUTH CAROLINA SUPPORT SYSTEM INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING GUIDE
Content Area:           Grade 8 Science
Recommended Days of Instruction: 3                                             (one day equals 55 minutes)
Standard(s) addressed:
The student will demonstrate an understanding of technological design and scientific inquiry, including process
skills, mathematical thinking, controlled investigative design and analysis, and problem solving.

                                                          Scientific Inquiry
                                                                 Suggested Instructional
    Indicator              Recommended Resources                                                Assessment Guidelines
                                                                       Strategies

8-1.1 Design a          SC Science Standards Support           See Science Module 8-1.1    From the SC Science Support
controlled scientific   Document Resource List                 and 8-1.4                   Document:
investigation           https://www.ed.sc.gov/apps/cso/s                                   8-1.1: The objective of this
                        tandards/supdocs_k8.cfm                                            indicator is to design a controlled
                                                                                           scientific investigation; therefore,
8-1.4: Generate         SC ETV Streamline                                                  the primary focus of assessment
questions for           http://etv.streamlinesc.org                                        should be to devise a plan for
further study on                                                                           conducting a science investigation
the basis of prior      A Brief Introduction to the                                        that tests only one variable at a
investigations.         Scientific Method (The Five                                        time. However, appropriate
                        Steps of the Scientific Method)                                    assessments should also require
                        http://player.discoveryeducation.c                                 students to recognize steps
                        om/index.cfm?guidAssetId=8DCF1                                     appropriate for conducting a
                        1FB-5E95-4E6E-A63D-                                                controlled investigation; detect
                        BDE47C16ADF3&blnFromSearch=1                                       inappropriate steps in a given
                        &productcode=US                                                    investigation; organize the results
                        The scientific method is a                                         of the investigation in tables or
                        procedure that scientists use in the                               charts; classify by sequencing the
                        process of making discoveries and                                  steps of a controlled scientific
                        scientific breakthroughs.                                          investigation; or summarize the
                                                                                           steps in a controlled scientific
                                                                                           investigation.


       June 2011     Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4      1
              The Five Steps of the Scientific
              Method                                             8-1.4:
              http://player.discoveryeducation.c                 The objective of this indicator is to
              om/index.cfm?guidAssetId=BA86B                     generate questions for further study
              411-FCD7-4C84-B40E-                                on the basis of prior investigations;
              DE99F2A21270&blnFromSearch=1                       therefore, the primary focus of
              &productcode=US                                    assessment should be to construct
              There are five steps to the                        questions that can be tested with
              scientific method: questioning,                    an investigation related to a prior
              hypothesizing, experimenting,                      investigation. However,
              analyzing, and concluding. These                   appropriate assessments should
              five steps are discussed                           also require students to exemplify
              individually as parts of the                       questions that can be tested
              investigative process.                             through scientific investigations;
                                                                 critique a conclusion; identify the
              Scientific Method: The Wright                      experimental variables in the
              Brothers and the Challenge of                      investigation to determine a new
              Flight                                             investigation design; compare the
              http://player.discoveryeducation.c                 results of one investigation with a
              om/index.cfm?guidAssetId=81855                     question for further study; explain
              3BE-0FEE-4A40-AA95-                                the relationship between the
              BD793A7495B9&blnFromSearch=1                       independent and dependent
              &productcode=US                                    variable to determine questions for
              The first step in the design process               further investigation; or identify
              is identifying a need. The Wright                  questions that are appropriate for
              Brothers decided to take on the                    previously generated conclusions.
              challenge of motorized flight.

              Scientific Method: researching
              the Problem of Flight
              http://player.discoveryeducation.c
              om/index.cfm?guidAssetId=9C9C9
              9B2-71EC-4988-A53A-
              94BA487428FE&blnFromSearch=1
              &productcode=US



June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4   2
              The Wright brothers realized after
              doing lots of reading and research
              on flight, that the problem was not
              getting an aircraft into the air, but
              rather being able to control the
              airplane.

              Designing a Solution for the
              Problem of Flight
              http://player.discoveryeducation.c
              om/index.cfm?guidAssetId=93C0E
              381-C73A-453D-BD91-
              AA207491E5B5&blnFromSearch=1
              &productcode=US
              While helping a customer at the
              bike shop, Wilbur Wright has a
              flash of inspiration: wing warping.
              He builds a kite that uses this idea
              and determines that wing warping
              gives him the control needed for
              flight.

              The Wright Brothers' Prototype
              for Flying
              http://player.discoveryeducation.c
              om/index.cfm?guidAssetId=3FFFE
              8F4-DC3A-4143-B569-
              5E65855D09D8&blnFromSearch=1
              &productcode=US
              Step four of the design process is
              building a prototype. In early
              1900, the Wright Brothers built a
              full scale glider, documenting all of
              their work with photographs. That
              fall, they took the glider to North



June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4   3
              Carolina and tested it. Wilbur was
              able to control the glider, but there
              was not enough lift. They
              concluded that a successful
              airplane would have to carry a
              motor, so they went back to the
              drawing board.

              The Wright Brothers Design
              and Redesign Their Aircraft
              http://player.discoveryeducation.c
              om/index.cfm?guidAssetId=78890
              9E7-D1E4-44F9-B9B8-
              B137CD856A5D&blnFromSearch=1
              &productcode=US
              This segment describes how the
              Wright Brothers had to design,
              test, redesign, and retest their
              airplanes.

              The Wright Brothers
              Communicate Their Results
              http://player.discoveryeducation.c
              om/index.cfm?guidAssetId=21076
              02F-4E15-4B0D-BF4C-
              70C8B8CFED18&blnFromSearch=1
              &productcode=US
              The sixth step in the design
              process is communicating the
              solution. The day after their flight,
              the Wright Brothers telegraphed
              the good news to their family
              along with the line "inform press."
              In 1909, the Wright Brothers
              auditioned for the U. S.



June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4   4
              government. They kept their plane
              in the air for 73 minutes.




June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4   5
                            Eighth Grade

       Science Module
            8-1.1
            8-1.4
           Inquiry
                             Lesson A
      Standard 8-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of
      technological design and scientific inquiry, including process
      skills, mathematical thinking, controlled investigative design and
      analysis, and problem solving.

      Indicators:
      8-1.1 Design a controlled scientific investigation

      8-1.4: Generate questions for further study on the basis of prior
      investigations.

      Other indicators addressed:
      8-1.3: Construct explanations and conclusions from interpretations of
      data obtained during a controlled scientific investigation.

      8-5.4 Predict how varying the amount of force or mass will affect the
      motion of an object.




June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4     6
From the South Carolina Science Support Documents:

Indicator: 8-1.1 Design a controlled scientific investigation.

Taxonomy level: Create Procedural Knowledge (6.2-C)

Previous/Future knowledge: In 4th grade (4-1.3), students summarized the
characteristics of a simple scientific investigation that represent a fair test
(including a question that identifies the problem, a prediction that indicates a
possible outcome, a process that tests one manipulated variable at a time, and
results that are communicated and explained). In 5th grade (5-1.3), students
planned and conducted controlled scientific investigations, manipulating one
variable at a time. In 7th grade, students explained the reasons for testing one
independent variable at a time in a controlled scientific investigation (7-1.3) and
explained the importance that repeated trials and a well-chosen sample size have
with regard to the validity of a controlled scientific investigation (7-1.4).

It is essential for students to know that a controlled scientific investigation
determines the effect of an independent variable in an experiment, when all other
variables are controlled. Every controlled scientific investigation provides
information. This information is called data. Data includes both scientific
observations and inferences.
 A scientific observation is gained by carefully identifying and describing
    properties using the five senses or scientific tools and can be classified as
    quantitative or qualitative.
    o Quantitative observations are observations that use numbers (amounts) or
        measurements (including the unit label) or observations that make relative
        comparisons, such as more than, all, less than, few, or none.
    o Qualitative observations are observations that are made using only the
        senses and refer to specific properties.
 An inference is an explanation or interpretation of an observation based on prior
    experiences or supported by observations made in the investigation. They are
    not final explanations of the observation. There may be several logical
    inferences for a given observation. There is no way to be sure which inference
    best explains the observation without further investigation.

In order to design a controlled scientific investigation some or all of the following
steps should be included:
 Identify a testable question (tests one variable) that can be investigated
 Research information about the topic
 State the hypothesis as a predicted answer to the question, what may be the
   possible outcome of the investigation
 Design an experiment to test the hypothesis, controlling all variables except the
   independent variable
   o Plan for independent and dependent variables with repeated trials
   o Plan for factors that should be held constant (controlled variables) and/or
       plan for a control set-up
   o List the materials needed to conduct the experiment



June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4        7
    o List the procedures to be followed
    o Plan for recording, organizing and analyzing data
   Conduct the experiment and record data (observations) in tables, graphs, or
    charts
   Analyze the data in the tables, graphs, or charts to figure out what the data
    means (describe the relationship between the variables)
   Compare the results to the hypothesis and write a conclusion that will support or
    not support the hypothesis based on the recorded data
   Communicate the results to others
    o Share conclusions and make recommendations for further study
NOTE TO TEACHER: The use of the terms manipulated variable and responding variable
are no longer essential. Teachers may continue to reference these terms, but students
will not be held accountable in testing. However, it is essential for students to use the
terms independent variable and dependent variable.
It is also essential for students to know that science is the process of learning
about the natural world by asking questions and trying to find the answers to those
questions. Technology applies scientific knowledge in order to develop a solution to a
problem or create a product to help meet human needs. Technology is usually
developed because there is a need or a problem that needs to be solved. Steps in
the technological design process includes:
 Identifying a problem or need
    o Research and gather information on what is already known about the
       problem or need
 Designing a solution or a product
    o Generate ideas on possible solutions or products
    o Evaluate the factors that will limit or restrict the solution or product design
    o Determine the trade-offs of the solutions or products (what must be given up
       in order to create the solution or product)
 Implementing the design
    o Build and test the solution or product
    o Identify any problems with the solution or product
    o If necessary, redesign the solution or product to eliminate any problems in
       the design
 Evaluating the solution or the product
    o Determine if the solution or product solved the problem
    o Identify the pros and cons of the solution or product
The steps of the design can be communicated using descriptions, models, and
drawings.
 A scientific model is an idea that allows us to create explanations of how the
   something may work. Models can be physical or mental.


It is not essential for students to develop a problem statement instead of a
question for an investigation, evaluate an investigation as to how it was planned and
conducted, or understand a null hypothesis. Students do not need to compare the
processes of a controlled scientific investigation and the technological design process



June 2011    Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4       8
or evaluate a technological design or product on the basis of designated criteria
(including cost, time, and materials).


Assessment Guidelines:
The objective of this indicator is to design a controlled scientific investigation;
therefore, the primary focus of assessment should be to devise a plan for conducting a
science investigation that tests only one variable at a time. However, appropriate
assessments should also require students to recognize steps appropriate for
conducting a controlled investigation; detect inappropriate steps in a given
investigation; organize the results of the investigation in tables or charts; classify by
sequencing the steps of a controlled scientific investigation; or summarize the steps in
a controlled scientific investigation.




June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4        9
From the South Carolina Science Support Documents:

Indicator: 8-1.4 Generate questions for further study on the basis of prior
investigations.

Taxonomy Level: Create Conceptual Knowledge (6.1-B)

Previous/Future knowledge: In 3rd grade (3-1.3), students generated questions
such as “what if?” or “how?” about objects, organisms, and events in the
environment and use those questions to conduct a simple scientific investigation. In
5th grade (5-1.1), students identified questions suitable for generating a hypothesis.
In 7th grade, students generated questions that can be answered through scientific
investigation (7-1.2) and critiqued a conclusion drawn from a scientific investigation
(7-1.6).

It is essential for students to know that only questions which test one
independent variable at a time can be answered through scientific investigation and
data collection. The question should include the relationship between the
independent and dependent variable.
Once the question is tested and data is collected and analyzed, then explanations
and conclusions are made and communicated. When the conclusion is
communicated it allows others to evaluate and understand the investigation.
Sharing ideas may give new ideas or questions for further study. When new
questions are generated, recommendations can be made on changes to the design
of the investigation and may produce more reliable results.

Questions that can help decide what further investigations may be:
 Can the procedure or product be improved?
 What would happen if another independent variable were tested?
 What are you wondering now?

It is not essential for students to conduct investigations to validate further
questions.

Assessment Guidelines:
The objective of this indicator is to generate questions for further study on the basis
of prior investigations; therefore, the primary focus of assessment should be to
construct questions that can be tested with an investigation related to a prior
investigation. However, appropriate assessments should also require students to
exemplify questions that can be tested through scientific investigations; critique a
conclusion; identify the experimental variables in the investigation to determine a
new investigation design; compare the results of one investigation with a question
for further study; explain the relationship between the independent and dependent
variable to determine questions for further investigation; or identify questions that
are appropriate for previously generated conclusions.




June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4         10
Teaching Indicators 8-1.1 and 8-1.4: Lesson A – “Scientific Inquiry”

Instructional Considerations:
Preparation for the lesson:
Prepare the FOCUS questions before you teach the lesson. They can be displayed
through a projector (LCD, SMART or Promethean Board), written on the board
during the engage, activity or copied onto a transparency and used on an overhead.

For Part A: Prepare materials to be used for the investigation. You will need a roll of
Bounty (or other name brand) paper towels and a generic brand. You will also need
a weight, such as marbles. Be sure that each group of students (you can have
students in groups of 2 or 3) is given a number of marbles. It is best to do the
investigation yourself so that you have an idea of what to expect when students
conduct the experiment and also so you can determine the correct number of
marbles (or other weight) to have on hand. The important thing is to be sure each
group has objects that are equal in weight. You may decide to have students wet
the paper towel before adding the weight; if so, be sure to have a water source
available.

Misconceptions: Upper elementary and middle-school students may not
understand experimentation as a method of testing ideas, but rather as a method
of trying things out or producing a desired outcome. [1] With adequate instruction, it
is possible to have middle school students understand that experimentation is
guided by particular ideas and questions and that experiments are tests of ideas. [2]

When engaged in experimentation, students have difficulty interpreting covariation
and noncovariation evidence. [4] For example, students tend to make a causal
inference based on a single concurrence of antecedent and outcome or have
difficulty understanding the distinction between a variable having no effect and a
variable having an opposite effect. [5]

Upper elementary school students can reject a proposed experimental test where a
factor whose effect is intuitively obvious is uncontrolled, at the level of "that's not
fair". [6] "Fairness" develops as an intuitive principle as early as 7 to 8 years of age
and provides a sound basis for understanding experimental design. This intuition
does not, however, develop spontaneously into a clear, generally applicable
procedure for planning experiments. [7] Although young children have a sense of
what it means to run a fair test, they frequently cannot identify all of the important
variables, and they are more likely to control those variables that they believe will
affect the result. Accordingly, student familiarity with the topic of the given
experiment influences the likelihood that they will control variables. [8] After
specially designed instruction, students in 8th grade are able to call attention to
inadequate data resulting from lack of controls. [9]




June 2011    Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4         11
Part A (1 day)

Safety Notes:
Students should observe all lab safety procedures as well as school and district
policies. There are no chemical or physical hazards present if proper laboratory
behavior is observed.

Lesson Time:
3 days (1 day equals 55 minutes)

Materials Needed:
Bounty paper towels
generic brand of paper towels
marbles (or other weight)
Water (optional)

Focus Question: How do scientists conduct experiments?

Engage:
1. Ask students    for an example of an experiment. Students should be able to come
up with at least   one idea.
2. Ask students    which paper towel they think is stronger, a generic brand or
Bounty.
3. Ask students    why they chose their answer.

Explore:
1. Explain to students that they are going to design an investigation to answer this
question. First, it must be controlled.
2. Ask what would happen if we tested the strength of the generic paper towel
when wet and the Bounty when dry. Would this be a fair test? Why or why not?
3. What if we tested how long the Bounty could hold a baseball and how long the
generic brand could hold a ping pong ball. Would that be a fair test? Why or why
not?
4. Explain to students that experiments must be controlled. They can only test
one variable at a time. Relate the word variable to vary - you can only vary one
thing at a time in an experiment.
5. Next ask how will you know which paper towel is stronger; in other words, what
kind of data will you collect? (Students should state that they will see which paper
towel will hold the greatest weight.)
6. When you measure, or use numbers make relative comparisons (such as "more
than") it is called quantitative data. Provide students with several examples, and
ask them to name some as well.
7. Explain that qualitative data is data collected using your senses (process skills-
observations) and generally describes the properties of substances or objects. Ask
students to provide some examples of qualitative data.
8. Ask students to write a question for the experiment about the paper towels in
their journals. For example: "Which paper towels are stronger?"
9. Ask students to make a prediction and write it in their science journals.



June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4        12
10. Now it is time to set up the experiment. Ask students what the independent
variable is - the thing you are learning about (the type of paper towel). What are
the dependent variables - factors that will be the same for both types of paper
towels? (Wet or dry paper towels and the same object or weight.)
11. Instruct students to write out the materials needed for experiment and the
procedures they will follow. This information can be generated in small groups.
12. Ask students what type of data they will be collecting. Remind students to
record all of their quantitative data - their observations.
13. Allow students to conduct their experiments. Students should determine how
many weighted objects each paper towel will hold. Walk around the room while
students are conducting their investigations. If students are having trouble, ask
leading questions to point them in the correct direction.
14. After students have finished investigating, ask students to clean up.

Explain:
1. Ask each group to report out about what happened in their experiments. Were
their predictions correct? (Remind students to listen to their classmates in case
someone had different results than they did.)
2. Ask students to make an inference based on their investigations; why do they
think one was stronger than the other? Accept all possible answers.
3. Ask students if they know that their explanation is true for fact or is that what
they believe based on the results of their experiment. Students should see that
they can tell based on their experiment. That is why this is an inference. You have
inferred this because of what you observed in your experiment.
4. Ask students how they can test their inferences.
5. Instruct students to write a conclusion that supports or does not support their
hypothesis based on the recorded data.
6. Ask students to construct a new, testable question based on what they learned
from the first experiment.

Extend:
View the following videos at SC ETV Streamline (See Resources)

A Brief Introduction to the Scientific Method [0:47]
The scientific method is a procedure that scientists use in the process of making
discoveries and scientific breakthroughs.

The Five Steps of the Scientific Method [4.42]
There are five steps to the scientific method: questioning, hypothesizing,
experimenting, analyzing, and concluding. These five steps are discussed
individually as parts of the investigative process.

An additional extension is for students to follow up with a test of their inferences
recorded in the activity above. They should design and conduct the experiment
working in small groups.




June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4         13
PART B (1 day)

Materials Needed:
Student Worksheet (attached)
meter sticks
ramps
toy cars
stop watches
pennies
books for raising the ramps
tape

Focus Question: How can we affect the motion of an object?

Engage:
1. Ask students what they know about motion. Accept all answers to determine
student background knowledge.
2. Explain to students that today they are going to have to think like scientists.
They are going to try to discover what can make a car go faster or further; in
effect, how they can improve the motion of the car.
3. Explain to students that they need to create a question that they can test
regarding the car's motion. Then they are going to design an experiment that will
attempt to answer their question.
4. Remind student of the steps of a controlled scientific investigation:
 Identify a testable question that tests only one variable.
 State the hypothesis, what they predict the outcome of the experiment will be.
 Design an experiment to test the hypothesis, controlling all variables except the
    independent variable.
 List the materials needed and procedures to follow.
 Conduct the experiment and record data in a table.
 Repeat the experiment several times.

Explore:
1. Working in groups, students must agree on a question and then write their
question in their science journals. The question must test something about the car's
motion. Some students will need guidance with this to be sure that they are testing
only one variable; as you walk around the room while students are devising their
questions, ask leading questions to help them create a testable question. A good
leading question for groups having difficulty is: "what can you do to one car that
will make it go faster (or further)."
2. After students have written their question they are to raise their hand so that the
teacher can check that their question is testable and appropriate. While students
are waiting for the teacher, they should be writing their prediction in their science
journals.
3. Once the students have a testable question and hypothesis, they may proceed
with the design of their investigation. Students must request the materials that
they will need. Allow students to view the materials provided, but tell them that




June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4        14
they can request alternate materials if they are available. Remind students to be
sure to consider the following when designing their experiment:

         a. How will data be collected accurately and consistently?
         b. How can you be sure you follow a systematic process for safely and
            accurately conducting your investigation?
         c. How might you record your procedures so the replication by others
            could be exact?

Note to teacher: Possible experiments are the effect on speed or distance travelled
when increasing the mass of a car (taping pennies to a car increases its mass),
changing the force applied to a car, or using a ramp. If necessary, ask leading
questions so students know they will need to measure distance or the amount of
time it takes the car to travel a certain distance (to determine speed).

4. Instruct students to document the materials needed for their investigations as
well as the procedures they will follow and how they will collect data.
5. While walking around the room, ask student what kind of data they are collecting
(quantitative). Remind students to record quantitative data and also to repeat their
trial several times to ensure accuracy of results.
6. Allow students time to run their experiments and make appropriate recordings.
Walk around the room assisting as necessary to be sure students are getting
accurate data and indeed testing one variable.
7. After students have collected their data, they should analyze it to determine the
relationship between the variables.
8. Students should compare the results of their experiments to the hypothesis and
write a conclusion based on the data collected.

Explain
1. After the experiment ask each group to report out about their investigations.
Students should state conclusions. When appropriate ask the class if the group's
conclusions are valid based on the data collected.
2. After each group presents their findings, ask the class to give an inference based
on the observations of the reporting group.
3. Ask students to write a new question for an investigation based on the
conclusions from their own experiment.

Extend:
Students will trade science journals and try to follow their classmates' experiments
using the information written about the experiment they had designed. After
conducting the experiment, students should critique the write-up of the experiment
in terms of how easy it was to follow, and how well the conclusions align with the
data collected. This should be done without naming the person whose work they
followed.




June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4       15
PART C (1 day)

Materials Needed:
Worksheet: Candy Dispenser Design Brief (attached)
For each group:
    3 Straws
    1 Bowl
    1 CD
    Tape
    2 Paper Clips
    1 Cup
    2 Pipe cleaners
    2 Rubber Bands
    1 File Folder
    Pieces of candy to be dispensed (m&m's work well)

Focus Question: How do we solve the world's problems?

Engage:
1. Think back to the investigation about cars. If you were trying to make the fastest
car, what might you consider doing? Accept all reasonable answers.
2. Tell students that this is science, taking what you know about the real world
around you and asking questions. If you take that a step further and apply that
knowledge to develop a solution or solve a problem, then that is technology.
3. Ask students for a problem they would like to solve, or a need they would like to
fulfill. Accept all answers.
4. Steps of Technological Design: Ask students, in order to do this (solve a particular
problem), what must you first do? Research the problem.
5. Then what? Think of ideas to solve it.
6. Then what? Build and test it.
7. Then? Evaluate the results.

Explore:
1. Place students in groups of 3 or 4.
2. Hand out the worksheet: Candy Dispenser Design Brief.
3. Instruct students to complete the activity. Walk around the room assisting the
groups as necessary.

Explain:
1. Students present their Candy Dispensers.
2. Review the steps of Technological Design with students:
 Identify a problem or need
 Research the problem or need
 Design a solution or product
 Build and test the solution or product
 Evaluate the solution or the product




June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4        16
Extend:
View the following videos at SC ETV Streamline. (See Resources)

Scientific Method: The Wright Brothers and the Challenge of Flight [1:11]
The Wright brothers owned a bicycle shop in Ohio but were interested in trying to
create a machine that could fly.

Scientific Method: Researching the Problem of Flight [1:04]
Wilbur Wright researches flight, and he concludes that the pilot must control the
aircraft.

Scientific Method: Designing a Solution for the Problem of Flight [1:08]
Wilbur Wright found inspiration in a paper box and envisions airplane wings that
look like the box. Wilbur tests wing warping with a kite version of the wings and it
works.

Scientific Method: The Wright Brothers' Prototype for Flying [1:30]
The first glider is tested in North Carolina. Although it is successfully controlled by
the pilot, the aircraft does not have enough lift.

Scientific Method: The Wright Brothers Design and Redesign Their Aircraft [2:46]
The Wright brothers perfect a scientific method during the design and redesign of
aircrafts. In the process, they invent the rudder and aircraft propeller.

Scientific Method: The Wright Brothers Communicate Their Results [00:51]
The Wright brothers prove that they can stay in the air and in control of the aircraft
for over an hour




June 2011    Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4         17
PART B Worksheet for students

              Designing an experiment about the motion of cars

Things to consider when you design your own experiment:

Please record all work in your science journal.

1.      is your question?
     What
2.      is your hypothesis (prediction?)
     What
3.      materials will you use?
     What
4.      is your independent variable? What are your dependent variables?
     What
5.      kind of data will you collect? Include units.
     What
6.      procedure will you follow?
     What
          a. How will data be collected accurately and consistently?
          b. How can you be sure you follow a systematic process for safely and
             accurately conducting your investigation?
          c. How might you record your procedures so the replication by others
             could be exact?
7. Record your data in a labeled table.
8. What happened?
9. What is your conclusion?
10. What inferences can you draw from your observations?
11. What new questions do you have based on your experiment?




June 2011   Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4     18
Part C Worksheet for students


Candy Dispenser                       Names:
                                      __________________________________
Design Brief                          ___________________________________
                                      ___________________________________
Situation:
                                      Date:
Your big brother has invented a new type of candy that not only tastes great, but
prevents cavities as well. He would like to share this new candy with the public by
offering free samples. He hopes that by offering free samples, people will like them
so much that they will go out and buy them by the jars, making him rich! First,
however, he needs someone to “invent” a candy dispenser; he promises to share
10% of his profits with the group that creates the best workable dispenser.

Challenge:
In this activity, your team is to design and develop (invent) a prototype (working
model) of a small candy dispenser.

Criteria and Constraints:
    Your candy dispenser must be made with at least 7 different items.
    You must decide on a name for your candy dispenser.
    The candy dispenser must be able to hold at least 4 ounces of candy and be
     able to dispense a small “free sample” of approximately 4-8 pieces of candy.

Tools, Materials and Equipment Needed:
   3 Straws                                   2   Paper Clips
   1 Bowl                                     1   Cup
   1 CD                                       2   Pipe cleaners
   Tape                                       2   Rubber Bands
   Candy                                      1   File Folder

Procedure:
1. Working in your group, use the engineering design process to invent a new
   Candy Dispenser.
2. Student groups will:
    a) Discuss the problem.
    b) Discuss ideas for solving the problem (make sketches).
    c) Choose the “best idea” (make final sketch).
    d) Obtain materials and build a prototype (working model).
    e) Evaluate and test your prototype, refine as needed.
    f) After the prototype is finished, name it - be creative.
    g) Make an oral presentation to the class describing your Candy Dispenser.




June 2011    Science S³ Eighth Grade Module 8-1.1 and 8-1.4         19

				
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