Motivation to Read: What Matters Most? by 8Qr9fN

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 30

									Motivation to Read: What Matters Most?




Barbara A. Marinak (bam234@psu.edu)
Penn State Harrisburg

Linda B. Gambrell (LGAMB@clemson.edu)
Clemson University
   Insert Movie
Motivation: What Matters Most?
 Why does motivation matter?

“Motivation makes the difference between
  learning that is superficial and shallow and
  learning that is deep and internalized.”

               Gambrell, 1996 (p.15)
Insights from research on
motivation to read…
   1. While motivation to read holds steady for pre-
    school through 1st grade, by 2nd grade both self-
    concept and value of reading begin to decline
    (Marinak & Gambrell, 2009; Mazzoni, Gambrell,
    Korkeamaki, 2000; McKenna, Kear, & Ellsworth,
    1995).
Insights from research on
motivation to read…
   1. While motivation to read holds steady for pre-
    school through 1st grade, by 2nd grade both self-
    concept and value of reading begin to decline
    (Marinak & Gambrell, 2009; Mazzoni, Gambrell,
    Korkeamaki, 2000; McKenna, Kear, & Ellsworth,
    1995).
   2. Appreciation of the value of reading declines
    rapidly beginning in 2nd grade, while self-concept
    holds stable (Marinak & Gambrell, 2009).
Insights from research on
motivation to read…
   1. While motivation to read holds steady for pre-
    school through 1st grade, by 2nd grade both self-
    concept and value of reading begin to decline
    (Marinak & Gambrell, 2009; Mazzoni, Gambrell,
    Korkeamaki, 2000; McKenna, Kear, & Ellsworth,
    1995).
   2. Appreciation of the value of reading declines
    rapidly beginning in 2nd grade, while self-concept
    holds stable (Marinak & Gambrell, 2009).
   3. Boys and girls do not differ with respect to self-
    concept, however boys value reading significantly
    less than girls (Marinak & Gambrell, 2009; 2010).
Value of Reading: Salient MRP
Items


 2. Reading a books is something I like
    to do.
10. I think libraries are ______________.
14. I think reading is _______________.
20. When someone gives me a book for
    a present I feel________________.
Key Informant Responses
  MRP Conversational
         Interview
     Grades 3 and 5
Do you like to read things other than
books?


 Grade 3 - 16 yes
 Grade 5 - 16 yes


Mentioned: Magazines, Newspapers
Not Mentioned: Computer, Gaming,
 Texting, nothing electronic
     Do you like for your teacher to
    read out loud? Why or why not?
                 Grade 3
 6/8 boys-no
 4/8 girls-no


NO -      want to read alone
          want to follow along
          doesn’t read with I like
          never asks us what we want
                to hear

YES -     reads cool stuff
          like the books he/she reads
 Do you like for your teacher to
read out loud? Why or why not?
                Grade 5
 8/8 boys - no
 8/8 girls - yes
NO -       want to read alone
           want to follow along
           doesn’t read what I like (girls)
           does not ask us what we might
                 want to hear

YES -     reads cool stuff
          like the books he/she reads
    Do you talk to your friends
          about books?
              Grade 3
 8/8 boys -no,
 8/8 girls – yes
NO - we talk about other stuff
        we talk about sports

YES - all the time
      we read the same books and talk
            at recess
      my friends like to know what I am
           reading
          Do you talk to your friends
                about books?
                      Grade 5
   4/8 boys = no
   8/8 girls = yes

NO - no, just don’t

YES - I like to talk with my friends about
           books
 we read the same books and talk
      sometimes we talk about
      newspapers or magazines (boys)
    Do you like to spend time reading?
                      Grade 3


   4/8 boys - no
   8/8 girls - yes

NO - no
YES - helps me get better (boys)
      it’s fun
      I get lost in the books
      it’s a time to be quiet
Do you like to spend time reading?
                      Grade 5

   6/8 boys - no
   8/8 girls - yes

NO -    no

YES - helps me get better (boy)
        I like real books (boy)
        I get good at it
        it’s fun
         I like stories
What do you think you have to learn
      to be a better reader?
            Grades 3 and 5


 Keep reading
 Spend more time reading
 Read more than I do now
 Read, read, read
 Read all kinds of stuff


Not mentioned: instruction/school tasks
   These studies provides further evidence
    that a major factor in gender differences
    in motivation to read is “value” rather than
    “self-concept”.

   These studies also lend support to the
    notion held by a number of researchers
    that elementary reading motivation may
    be situational and influenced by grade
    level expectations and teacher actions
    (Guthrie et al., 2007).
Implications for the classroom


 Authentic literacy tasks
 Collaboration
 Choice
 Challenge
What are authentic and collaborative
 literacy experiences?

Authentic reading, writing and
discussion experiences are like
those that are encountered in
the day-to-day lives of people, as
opposed to school-like activities
such as completing worksheets
or answering teacher-posed
questions.
“Getting to Know You”: The written conversation begins with
students and their pen pals exchanging friendly letters.




                                                              21
Literacy Motivation Survey
(LMS)
            (22 items)
Pre-Intervention      Post-Intervention
 Mean/SD              Mean/SD
51.1 (29.8)           57.0 (23.5)*

P = .01

Gambrell et al., under review
Student comments about Adult Pen Pals:

“Well, I get most excited when our new
books come, and when our new pen pal
letters come, because I really love to hear
what my pen pal has to say…and I really
love to read the books and see if I have
the same thoughts as my pen pal.”
2008-2009 Teacher:
“This is real-life literacy the way my
 students will use it in their daily lives.
 The purpose is authentic, not contrived
 for classroom instruction. My students
 are writing for real people they care
 about and who personally respond to
 them. Therefore, they have a reason to
 read more carefully, think more deeply,
 and write more thoughtfully.”
                2008-2009 teacher
    What literacy experiences offer
       choice and challenge?
 Balanced Collections
 Classroom and School Library
 Book Clubs
 Teacher Read Alouds
 Texts for Self-Selected Reading
 Texts for Instruction
 Experts Teaching
Good Books, Good Times

Good books.
Good times.
Good stories.
Good rhymes.

Good beginnings.
Good ends.
Good people.
Good friends.
Good fiction
Good facts.
Good adventures.
Good acts.

Good stories.
Good rhymes.
Good books.
Good times.

        Lee Bennett Hopkins
   References

Gambrell, L. (1996). Creating classrooms cultures that foster
  reading motivation. The Reading Teacher, 50, 4-25.
Gambrell, L., Palmer, B., Codling, R., & Mazzoni. S. (1996).
  Assessing motivation to read. The Reading Teacher, 49(7), 518-
  533.
Gambrell, L., Hughes, E., Calvert, W., Malloy, J., & Igo, B. (under
  review). The role of
  authentic tasks in elementary students’ literacy motivation and
  critical thinking.
Guthrie, J., Hoa, A., Wigfield, A., Tonks, S., Humenich, N., & Littles,
  E. (2006). Reading motivation and reading comprehension
  growth in the later elementary years. Contemporary Educational
  Psychology, 32, 282-313.
Mazzoni, S., Gambrell, L.B., & Korkeamaki, R.L. (2000). A cross-
  cultural perspective on early literacy motivation. Reading
  Psychology, 20, 237-253.
Marinak, B. & Gambrell, L. (2009). Developmental differences in
  elementary reading motivation. Paper presented at the annual
  meeting of the Association of LiteracyEducators and
  Researchers, Charlotte, North Carolina, November 6, 2009.
Marinak, B. & Gambrell, L. (2010). Reading motivation: Exploring
  the elementary gender gap. Literacy Research and Instruction.
McKenna, M., Kear, D., & Ellsworth, R. (1995). Children’s attitudes
  toward reading: A national survey. Reading Research Quarterly,
  30(4), 934-956.
Malloy, J., Marinak, B. & Gambrell, L. (2010). Essential readings on
  motivation. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

								
To top