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					PEOPLE          Abbot Suger Rebuilds St Denis Abd al-Rahman Emir of Umayyads Adelheid Otto’s wife Aethelbert King of Kent. Converted to Christian and had a Christian wife Aetius General who defeated the Huns at Battle of
Chalons in 451 Alaric Visigoth leader who sacked Rome in 410 Alcuin of York Famous scholar in tradition of Bede. Charlemagne’s advisor Alfred the Great Wessex king spend most of life fighting Vikings Arcadius Ruled in East after
Theodosius Arius Egyptian priest who argued heretical doctrine that God was superior, Jesus inferior Arnulf the Bad On death in 937 named his son successor, Otto furious Athelstan Son of Edward the Elder, king of Wessex Attila Leader
of the Huns Augustus Caesar 23 BC - 14 AD Created RE Julius Caesar’s nephew Bede 673 - 735 Historian told of Anglo-Saxon conversion to Christianity Belisarius Led attack vs Vandal Africa under Justinian – Vandals defeated
Boethius Roman senator, scholar, advisor, histographer under Theodoric’s court. Executed Bruno Otto III cousin, became Pope Gregory V Cassiodorus Advisor and scholar to Theodoric Charlemagne Throne 768 till 814. Father of Europe.
Fought Avars, Lombards, Allemani, Bavarians, Frisians, Saxons. Taught by Alcuin. Crowned in 800 by Pope Leo III Charles Martel The Hammer. Military leader of Merov. After Battle of Poitiers in 732 became a saviour Charles the Bald
Received far western Frankish lands from Louis the Pious. Crowned emp in 875 Childeric Father of Clovis Chlothar ** Clovis 481 - 511 Leader of the Franks. First of Frankish ―kings‖ Unified Franks under his rule. Baptized in 496 by St
Remigius Concillarius Writer for king, eventually gained more power, ultimately highest admin office outside of royal family Conrad II * Conrad of Franconia The first true German king Count Odo * Crassus marched into N Iraq and
destroyed by Parthians Dagobert of the Franks Last of great Merov kings Diocletian 284 - 305 RE prolonged empire. Divided empire: 2 emperors and 2 caesars. Empire became manageable Donatus African who opposed Romanization of
Church Eberhard * Edward the Elder Alfred’s son fought to expand Wessex to include Anglo-Saxon and Danes. Son is Athelstan Egbert King converted by Paulinas Einhard Wrote bio of Charlemagne Frederick Barbarossa Byz
Emp Gallienus 253 - 268. RE Faultline of empire started. Drew legislature saying that senators could not have military command Gelasius * Hengist and Horsa Twin brothers which Celts brought into defeat Scots and Picts Henry IV
Clash with Pope Gregory VII Honorius Ruled in West after Theodosius Hugh Capet * John I Tzimisces 969 - 76 Byz Emp Jordanes History of Goths in mid 6th century Justinian 526 - 565 Re-conquered N Africa and Italy. Brought
empire back to life. Large Byz empire since Constantine. Hagia Sophia his capital. Re-codification of Roman law. Liutprand * Lothar 840 - 855 Received central empire of France from Louis the Pious Louis the German Received lands of
E France from Louis the Pious Louis the Pious Ruled after Charlemangne. 814 - 840 Divided empire among sons with Treaty of Verdun: Louis the German, Lothar, Charles the Bald Merovingians 5th to 9th century. First dynasty of the
Franks. Descendants of Clovis Mieszko I King of Poland Nestorius Argued that Jesus was man not spirit (vs Arianism) Nicephorus I Byz Emp Odo I * Odoacer 433 - 493 Ruler of Huns Oleg 882 descendant of Rurik. Occupied Kiev
Otto I German king 936 Emperor in 962. Elected in Aachen, crowned in Burgundy Otto III Emperor in 996 -- ruled for 10 years Paulinas Found king Egbert in Northumbria and converted him in great hall Pepin invaded and conquered
Lombards for Pope. Died 768 Pippin III * Pope Gregory the Great 590 - 604 Decided to send mission to England to convert Saxons. Wrote of Benedict Pope Leo III Blind pople who crowned Charlemagne RE Pope Sylvester II
(Gerbert of Aurillac / Auvergne) 754 crowned Pepin king of Franks. Implicitly brought end to Merov line Robert of Neustria * Rollo Viking king 911 set up Normandy Rurik Varangia chieftain tried to capture Byz frontiers in 860. Had
son Oleg ax Grammaticus Wrote chronological history of Scandinavia St Ambrose 397 Bishop of Milan St Augustine Bishop of Hippo De Civitate Dei Parallel of city of man with city of God. Urged believers to abandon things of this
world. Closed the argument on heresy. St Benedict of Nursia Forefather of monastic life. Doctrine of absolute poverty, chaste and obedient. Life written by Pope Greg the Great St Boniface * St Colambanus * St Martin of Tours * St
Maurice Egyptian, proscribed emperor worship, martyred during reign of Diocletian St Olaf Taken into battle by brother St Remigius Baptized Clovis in 496 Stilicho Vandal who was ―master‖ of Honorius Sylvester I Bishop of Rome.
Disputed that church was under Constantinople Theodoric the Great 474 - 526 Ostrogoth leader. First barbarian emperor of Italy. Upon death empire fell apart Theodosius Last true emperor. Divided empire among two sons: Honorius and
Arcadius Widukind of Corvey wrote about Heinrich Wipo Wrote bio of Emp Conrad II Gregory of Tours Wrote history of Franks, concerned to call back people from evil way – history to advance Chr Paul the Deacon A Lombard, wrote
of people’s exploits. Monk at Monte Cassino

PLACES          Esztergom First Hungarian Archbishop here Aachen Charlemagne’s capital Aquitaine * Bordeaux Capital of Aquitaine Canossa * Citeaux Founded 1098 Clairvaux * Cluny Founded 910 Constantinople Capital
of Arcadius and Byz empire Cordoba city Abd al-Rahman claimed capital of Umayyads Corvey From where Frankish imigrated from Ephesus Councils here Fulda * Hagia Sophia Capital of Justianian Mainz * Monte Cassino 529
St Benedict founds model monastery here Myriocephalen * Nicea First great assembly here to dispute matters of faith
Nursia home of St Benedict Pavia Capital of Lombards Ravenna Capital of Honorius Toledo * Toulouse * Worms *

496 Clovis converts   529 Monte Cassino established   622 Mohammed’s flight    687 Battle of Tertry   732 Battle of Poitiers   754 Pepin appointed King of Franks by Stephen II   800 Charlemagne crowned   846 Arabs sack Rome

Battle of Tertry 687 Pepin routed the Neustria – marked end of old Merv line Battle of Adrianople *  Battle of Vouille King Alaric II slain Battle of Chalons 451 Attlia defeated by Aetius   Battle of Mantzikert 1071 – Emperor
Romanus IV Diogenes fell into hands of the Turk   Battle of Moira – fought Donnal mae Aedo Battle of Hattin * Battle of Poitiers (Tours)     Battle of Lechfeld 955 Otto defeats the Hungarians Battle of Tolbiac Franks defeated
Alemmani      Diet of Worms 1076 Treaty of Verdun 843 Partitioned Frankish provinces between Lotha and Louis the German Treaty of Meerse 870 Partitioned Lotharingia between Charles the Bald and Louis the German

TERMS          wergild – man price galanas – honor price rachin burgii – doomsmen gessa – taboos —wic – trading place magnus – elder ministeriales – unfree soldiers allod – owned lands Renovatio Imperii Roman – renewal of the RE
regala – imperial right iustitia – righteousness allemani – men from everywhere Romanitas – Volkerwanderung – pagani – country dwellers monophysitism – Jesus was not man but spirit Non Angli sed Angeli – Not Angles but Angels –
Pope Greg the Great dominus – lord primogenitor – eldest son gets largest estate knechts – fighting men of lord equitus – horseback fighters mamluks – slave-soliders princeps – leader Patricius Romanorum – Laymen who protect Rome
phyrgium – Pope’s white cap


The Cathedral Schools: Paris, Laon, Orleans, Chartres, Rheims and Sens