New Zealand by 011z8k8

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									New Zealand
                  Where is it?
• New Zealand is a country in the south-western
  Pacific Ocean.
• It is located about 2000 km from Australia, in
  between Australia and South America.
• It is made up of two main islands, the North
  Island and the South Island, and many smaller
  islands nearby.
• In total size it is a little bigger than 陕西 (shan3xi1)
  province, although it has only one tenth of the
  population. (Shanxi = about 40 million, New
  Zealand = about 4 million).
           What’s it like there?
• The South Island is larger than the North
  Island, but has less people living on it, because
  it is very wild, and has many mountains.
• Most of the population live on the North
  Island, where the land is a bit flatter, although
  the North Island is also famous for it’s
  volcanoes.
• The capital city of New Zealand is called
  Wellington, and it is located at the bottom of
  the North Island
• text(1) pg4
Milford Sound
           Who Lives There?
• New Zealand is mostly made up of white
  people of European origin, about 80%, but
  also has the descendants of the native island
  people, the Maoris, who make up about 15%
  of the population.
• New Zealand also has a large Asian population,
  and many island people from the surrounding
  Pacific ocean islands live there.
• People from New Zealand are called Kiwis.
• People from New Zealand are called Kiwis
  because of a strange bird that is only found
  there, called the Kiwi.
• It is small and cannot fly, because it has no
  wings. text(2)pg4
                    History
• The first people to live in New Zealand were
  island people from Polynesia.
• The Polynesians originally came from the
  mainland of Asia, and spread out through the
  islands of the Pacific Ocean around 2000 years
  ago.
• Polynesian people descended from them
  today live in a large area in the Pacific Ocean,
  and they have similar culture and language.
                Polynesians
• The Polynesians were very skilled at navigating
  (finding their way) at sea.
• These skills allowed them to travel long
  distances over the ocean, and to spread out to
  very isolated places, such as Hawaii and Easter
  Island, and also to New Zealand.
• There is some evidence to suggest that they
  even travelled as far as South America.
• The vegetable sweet potato (gan1shu3) first
  came from South America, but has been
  grown in the polynesian islands for over a
  thousand years.
• This suggests that someone brought sweet
  potatoes from South America to Polynesia.
• This would have been a very difficult voyage
  to make in a canoe, many thousands of
  kilometres, demonstrating the sailing skills of
  the polynesians.
• Some people have suggested that it was the
  South Americans who took the sweet potato
  to Polynesia, and that they also had a strong
  effect on polynesian culture.
• Although most scientists think this is wrong,
  one famous man from Norway called Thor
  Heyerdahl tried to prove it.
• He made a raft using ancient South American
  methods, and with some of his friends sailed it
  from Peru to the Tuamotu Islands in Polynesia.
• The journey took about three months, and
  they travelled about 8000 kilometres.
• The raft eventually crashed on a reef near the
  islands, but all of the men got to shore safely.
• Thor Heyerdahl wrote a book about the
  expedition called Kon-tiki: Across the Pacific in
  a Raft.
• text(3) pg10
               Captain Cook
• Even though he was not the first explorer from
  Europe to discover these places, Captain Cook
  is important to the history of countries like
  New Zealand and Australia because he
  claimed them for the British.
• This meant that they became British colonies,
  and adopted many of the customs and social
  habits of the British.
• Cook made 3 voyages, and explored Australia,
  New Zealand, parts of North America, and
  Polynesia.
• Captain Cook died on his third voyage, when
  he was killed by the native people of Hawaii.
• Once New Zealand had been mapped by
  Captain Cook, it was visited often by European
  and North American whaling, sealing and
  trading ships.
• Whaling ships travelled all over the world
  hunting whales, because the oil from there
  bodies was valuable, and was used as a fuel
  for lamps and candles.
• Sealers hunted seals for their skins, as the fur
  was used to make clothing.
• Christian missionaries also settled in New
  Zealand, converting most of the maoris to
  Christianity.
• Missionaries are important to the history of
  many countries, because they try to change
  the religion and culture of the society they are
  visiting.
• In the Bible, Jesus tells his disciples to go out
  and convert people to Christianity, so many
  Christians believe that it is their job to
  convince as many people as possible to
  convert to Christianty.
• This also means the missionaries tried to
  change the customs of people if they thought
  that they were doing things which the Bible
  was against. eg. not wearing any clothes.
           Treaty of Waitangi
• In the early 19 century, the British started to
              th

  get worried by the fact that the European
  settlements in New Zealand were becoming
  dangerous, and the French were becoming
  interested in New Zealand.
• The French had many settlements in
  Polynesia, often made up of missionaries
  trying to convert the polynesians to
  christianity.
• Today these places form French Polynesia, a
  number of islands such as Tahiti which are still
  French territory.
• The Treaty of Waitangi was an agreement
  between the British Government and the
  Maori natives of New Zealand.
• It gave the Maori people rights as british
  subjects, and the ownership of land, but
  meant that the British were in charge of the
  country.
• It was signed by many Maori chiefs in 1840,
  but the meaning of the treaty was not clear in
  some parts, and so even today there is
  disagreement about what it means, and its
  importance to the government of New
  Zealand.
• Before the treaty of Waitangi was signed,
  there were many wars between different
  Maori tribes, which were made worse by the
  guns that the maoris bought from European
  and American traders.
• After the treaty was signed, even more maoris
  died from diseases such as smallpox and
  measles, which the native people caught off
  the settlers.
• By 1900, the population of maoris in New
  Zealand was only a third of what it had been
  60 years earlier.
                 Land Wars
• The Treaty of Waitangi was supposed to make
  sure that the land owned by the maoris was
  not lost to foreign settlers, but the
  government did not enforce the rules very
  strictly.
• Many maoris got angry, and there were
  several wars between maoris and British
  soldiers and settlers.
• The British had good soldiers, but the maoris
  were also trained as warriors, and so the wars
  were very fierce.
• Eventually, the British won, mainly because
  their army was made up of professional
  soldiers.
• The Maori warriors could not look after their
  families and farms while they were fighting,
  and so eventually they had to quit.
• As a result of the wars, in 1863 the British
  government confiscated large amounts of
  maori land, severely affecting the maori tribes
  who lived there.
               Government
• By this time the Government of New Zealand
  had been officially formed, giving New
  Zealanders the right to vote.
• In 1863, the capital was moved from
  Auckland, the largest city, to Wellington.
• In 1893 New Zealand became the first country
  in the world to give women the right to vote,
  and in 1947 it was officially made an
  independent member of the British
  Commonwealth.
             Political System
• text(4)pg17
• text(5)pg18
• Like other countries we looked at such as
  Britain and Australia, the political system in
  New Zealand has two main parties.
• The National Party in New Zealand is similar to
  the Conservative Party in Britain, and the
  Liberal Party in Australia.
• It is more interested in economic issues and
  business success.
• The other main party is the Labour Party,
  which Australia and Britain also have.
• It is more interested in the rights of workers
  and everyday people.
• The Green Party is also an important part of
  New Zealand’s politics, even though it is small
  compared to the two main parties.
• It is mainly concerned with environmental
  issues, which are very important to the New
  Zealand people.
    Foreign Relations and Trade
• New Zealand supports environmental
  protection, free trade and human rights, and
  these things affect its foreign relations.
• International trade is very important to the
  economy of New Zealand, because of it’s small
  population.
• text(6)pg25
• New Zealand’s commitment to the
  environment has affected its relations with
  some countries, especially the US and France.
• New Zealand was part of the ANZUS treaty
  with Australia and the United States, which
  was concerned with military issues.
• This meant that after the Second World War,
  and during the Vietnam War, New Zealand
  and the US had very strong military
  connections.
• However, as the people of New Zealand
  became more concerned with environmental
  issues, this relationship became troubled.
• The main problem was with Nuclear power
  and weapons.
• The French government had been testing
  nuclear weapons on some islands in the
  Pacific Ocean for many years, and the New
  Zealanders did not like that because they were
  against nuclear weapons, and they were
  worried that the ocean near their home would
  become polluted by radioactive materials.
• The environmental group Greenpeace had
  been protesting against the French nuclear
  testing in the Pacific, and in 1985, the French
  government decided to bomb a Greenpeace
  ship which was in New Zealand.
• French secret agents blew up the ship, and
  one man died, and the two french agents
  were caught and put into prison.
• New Zealanders were very angry with France
  about the bombing, and also with other
  countries like the US who did not support
  them.
• In 1987, New Zealand became a nuclear free
  zone.
• This means that no nuclear weapons or
  nuclear materials are allowed on New
  Zealand territory.
• Because the US military uses nuclear powered
  submarines and ships, they could not enter
  New Zealand waters, and so the ANZUS treaty
  was suspended by the Americans.
                 Economy
• New Zealand has a successful economy, which
  supports a good standard of living for people
  living there.
• Farming produces a lot of New Zealand’s
  exports.
• text(7)pg24
• text(8)pg22
• New Zealand’s natural energy resources help
  to make the economy successful.
• text(9)pg24
                    Culture
• Most New Zealand culture is derived from the
  British, and their colonisation, so the society is
  like Australia in many ways.
• However, the British ways have been
  influenced by the strong maori culture, even
  though they are only a minority of the
  population, and the cultures of other people
  who have moved to New Zealand.
• So the language that most people in New
  Zealand speak is English, but more and more
  people, especially maoris, want to learn the
  native maori language.
• These days, there are maori schools where
  children can learn the maori language by using
  it every day, and maori language television
  stations.
• Traditional maori culture can also be seen in
  the close relationships between extended
  family, as in other native people who come
  from tribal backgrounds.
• Tribal maori tattoos, such as as those on the
  face, can also be seen today.
                    Sport
• Like Australia, sports popular in New Zealand
  came from the UK, especially rugby union and
  cricket, the two most popular sports in New
  Zealand.
• Traditional maori culture can be seen at the
  start of rugby union games against other
  countries, when the New Zealand players
  perform the haka, a maori dance.

								
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