Parkinson Update

Document Sample
Parkinson Update Powered By Docstoc
					Parkinson Foundation
                              Parkinson Update                                    Serving Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma
                                                                                                            Autumn 2008
                          OF THE HEARTLAND


                                                     Brain Fitness
W        elcome to the autumn issue
of the Parkinson Update. Grab a
                                            you are doing right now that calls
                                            for balance and coordination – like
                                                                                     believed that the brain was
                                                                                     unalterable, and that once it was
sandwich and settle in to read about        sitting.                                 “broken” it could not be fixed. But
brain fitness.                                                                       recent discoveries have convinced
                                            Without having to think about            most scientists to think differently.
How often have you heard the old            it, you are breathing, digesting         Evidence now shows that the brain
adage that we only use 10% of our           your sandwich and circulating            remains “plastic” throughout life:
brain? This is a myth – a falsehood         blood thanks to your brainstem.          it can rewire or change itself in
that is widely believed. The 10%            Your metabolism and hormonal             response to new learning . Under
                           a long time
myth has been aroundUSAGE WITHOUT TAGLINE
              PRIMARY LOGO
                                            functions like the ones that control     certain circumstances, the brain
and has been strengthened over the          the water and sugar levels in your       can even create new cells through a
past decade by misinterpretations           body are currently being controlled      process called neurogenesis.
of neuroscience discoveries and             by your pituitary gland. And if
unsubstantiated quotes by both              you are sitting outside on a cold        To show brain cell regeneration, in
scientists and laypeople alike. The         heartland day, your hypothalamus         1998 scientists placed a substance
truth is that we use virtually all of       is responsible for the fact that you     that identifies dividing cells in a
our brain every day.                        are shivering.                           group of terminal cancer patients.
                                                                                     Postmortem examinations found
How much of your brain are you              You’ll remember what you’re              that the substance was attached
using right now? As you are                 reading due to your hippocampus,         to new cells in the hippocampus.
reading, the frontal lobes in your          whose job it is to transfer short-       This discovery not only refutes the
cerebral cortex are engaged in              term to long-term memory. It also        “we are born with a finite number
thinking and reasoning. You are             enables you to remember that the         of brain cells” myth, but it also
enjoying your sandwich thanks               point of this elaborate example is       raises hopes for victims with brain
to your parietal lobes, which are           that you use much more than 10%          injury caused from either disease or
responsible for the taste, texture          of your brain!                           trauma.
and smell of food. The occipital
lobes help to process how you see           Another common myth is that              In this issue of the Update, we’ll
the words on this page, and the             brain damage is always permanent.        explore some facts about cognitive
temporal lobes help you process             In fact, the brain can repair or         function, sleep deprivation, new
what you hear, like the crunch of           compensate for certain losses, and       computer programs and games
your sandwich and the rustle of the         even generate new cells. It used         to keep your brain active, and as
page.                                       to be believed that each person          always, new research on therapies,
                                            was born with a finite number of         medications and the search for the
Meanwhile, you just blinked                 brain cells, so if you damaged any       cure for Parkinson’s disease.
because of your motor area, and it          of them you operated on a deficit
is because of your cerebellum that          for the rest of your life. Les than
are able to hold the sandwich in            20 years ago, even major players
your hand, as well as anything else         in the neuroscience community

                                                                                                                      XX
From the President
                        As we approach the holiday season, it is always a good time to reflect on the
                        year’s past successes and look forward to the future. This past year was one of
                        our most successful ever. The Foundation Board of Directors made a concensus
                        decision to support the University of Kansas Medical Center’s Parkinson’s
                        research and treatment endeavors. Our goals were not only met, but exceeded.
                        This was no accident. If I were to single out any individual Board members,
                        advocates and volunteers who made this challenge their own, I invariably would
                        forget to identify all those associated. I can tell you that the successes we have
                        seen this year are due in no small part to the very talented, very energetic, very
                        dedicated members of the Board, each one of them bringing their unique talents
                        and perspectives to the Foundation, those individual talents and spirit melding
          Mike Dreiling seamlessly into a very cohesive governing organization.
             President
                        The Board of Directors, like coaches on the sidelines, call the plays. But the
                        players on the field, the Foundation staff, Meg Duggan, Jennifer King, Katie
                        Fuchs and Sheila Delich, run the plays and make them work, as a result making
                        the Board look like Vince Lombardi.

                          Whatever successes we as a Foundation achieve are a direct result of the hard
                          work of Board members, the staff, and you, our members and volunteers.

                          In addition to our successes in funding research to fight Parkinson’s, we are now
                          enjoying our new headquarters and wellness center. As I write this quarter’s
                          newsletter from our wellness center, many of our members are outside the office
                          door engaging in a physical therapy and exercise class. If one needs search for
                          the results of our efforts, one need only come to the wellness center during one
                          of our group sessions. The excitement and joy one sees in the countenances
                          of our members at the wellness center puts everything into perspective. This
                          month, we have been focusing on brain teasers, such as cross word puzzles,
                          jumbles and cryptoquips in an effort to not only exercise and stretch those
                          muscles, but to exercise and stimulate the brain as well.

                          I would like to take a moment to thank Jennifer King, our Program Director, for
                          her unwaivering dedication to our Foundation. Jennifer is moving on to pursue
                          other endeavors. We wish her well, thank her for her service and hope she will
                          continue to be a face in the crowd at various events.

                          I hope everyone has a very safe and healthy Thanksgiving and Christmas,
                          surrounded by friends and family. Make sure to keep near your hearts thoughts
                          and prayers for those men and women in uniform spending the holidays at home
                          and abroad protecting us from harm.

                          Mike Dreiling



2
Sleep and Memory

Experts agree that most people                                           declarative memory, our ability
need seven or eight hours of sleep       Tips to a                       to recall the kind of fact-based
to feel fully rested. Unfortunately,                                     information we might be tested on
the ability to fall and stay asleep is
                                         Good Night’s Sleep              in school. Meanwhile, REM sleep
often a casualty of aging. Reports       1. Fitness seems to help        has been associated with procedural
of sleeplessness begin to increase in       regulate sleep, so stay      memory for how to do things like
the 30s; by age 60 more than 30% of         committed to your            riding a bicycle or learning a new
adults say they have trouble sleeping       exercise program.            dance step.
and account for a disproportional                                            Studies suggest that depriving
                                         2. Do not drink alcohol,
share of prescriptions doctors                                           people of an adequate amount of
write for sleep aids. The fact that         coffee, cola or tea after    sleep hampers their ability to learn
aging is associated with changes            7 or 8 in the evening.       new information. For example,
in both memory and sleep has not         3. Drink a glass of warm        researchers at Harvard Medical
gone unnoticed. Researchers are             milk at bedtime.             School found that a night one night
investigating whether age-related                                        of sleep deprivation reduced activity
declines and slowing in memory           4. Go to bed only when          in the hippocampus, which results
performance are associated with             you are tired.               in poorer memory retention.
increased rates of insomnia and          5. Make sure your                   Sleeping after something has
changes in sleep patterns among             bedroom is quiet             been learned appears to help the
older age groups. There is some             and dark.                    brain consolidate the information
preliminary evidence that the two                                        in long-term memory. In one of the
are related.                             6. Learn some deep              sleep studies, Kenichi Kuriyama
                                            relaxation techniques.       and his colleagues at Harvard
                                         7. Don’t try to force sleep.    Medical School had participants
Sleep Rhythms                                                            get a good night’s rest after doing
                                        8. Read or do a relaxing         a finger-tapping task on a computer
Experts distinguish between two             hobby for a while if you
broad categories of sleep based on                                       keyboard for 12 minutes. They found
                                            can’t sleep or wake          that the participants’ performance
brain wave patterns measurable by
                                            up during the night.         significantly improved following
using an electrocephalogram (EEG).
Delta waves, the slowest rhythm         9. Limit the number of           sleep.
of all brain waves, predominate             hours you spend in               The benefits of napping are
during the deepest part of non-rapid        bed, even if you’ve          also being investigated. In another
eye movement (non-REM) sleep.               slept badly.                 study, the Harvard Medical School
REM sleep, the kind of sleep most                                        researchers found that people
                                        10. If you had a sleepless       who napped for 60 to 90 minutes
often associated with dreaming, is
                                            night, try taking a short    after learning the finger tapping
characterized by bursts of rapid eye
                                            nap of no more than          task improved, while those who
movement. Over the course of a
good night’s sleep, non-REM and             45 minutes.                  stayed awake did not. However,
REM sleep alternate cyclically.                                          the napping advantage disappeared
    While non-REM and REM                                                overnight, once those who’d stayed
sleep are both critical for cognitive consolidation of different kinds   awake were given a chance to
functioning, they may also be of memories.              Non-REM sleep    sleep.
important in the encoding and may be particularly significant for

                                                                                                           3
New in Parkinson’s Research
Biking May Help Treat                   Embryo-Free Stem Cell Method cells and there were safety concerns.
Parkinson’s Disease                     Means Treatments are Safer   Now a team led by Professor Konrad
July, 2008 - Michael J. Fox             September 2008 – Science                    Hochedlinger at Massachusetts
Foundation’s “In the News”                                                          General Hospital Cancer Center
                                        A safer way to turn one kind of cell and Harvard Stem Cell Institute
A researcher at the Cleveland Clinic    into another has been developed that has developed a safer approach.
has discovered what appears to be       could make it much easier to develop His team’s work, published in
strong evidence that tandem bike        revolutionary new treatments based Science, deals with one of the major
riding with a Parkinson’s
                                                                                            drawbacks of the technique
patient can reduce the
                                                                                            developed by Japanese
patient’s tremors. Dr.
                                                                                            researcher Professor Shinya
Jay Alberts first got the
                                                                                            Yamanaka to reprogram
idea when he shared a
                                                                                            cells. Professor Yamanaka
tandem bike on a ride
                                                                                            used a retrovirus – one
to raise awareness for
                                                                                            from the same family as the
the disease.
                                                                                            Human Immunodeficiency
     The patient noted
                                                                                            Virus – to introduce four
how much better she
                                                                                            genes into skin cells to
felt – so Dr. Alberts did
                                                                                            turn back the clock, so they
some research. He had
                                                                                            became more embryo like.
one group of patient’s
                                                                                            However, there are safety
pedal on their own at
                                                                                            worries because a virus
60 – 80% of their target
                                                                                            usually parachutes the new
heart rate zone, which
                                              Tandem bike riding with a Parkinson’s patient genes into the genetic code
the other pedaled on
                                                         can reduce the patient’s tremors. and this can cause damage
a tandem bike with a
                                                                                            or disruption, potentially
trainer who was responsible for         on stem cells. Stem cell technology triggering cancer.
keeping the bike between 80 – 90        may make blood donations a thing                “There is already evidence that
RPMs.                                   of the past. Treatment could mean one in five mice generated with
     The forced exercise on the         diabetics produce their own insulin. such induced pluripotent stem cells
tandem bikes was faster than what       Scientists use “biological alchemy” (iPS cels) develops cancer,” says
the patients would do on their own      to covert one cell type into another. Professor Hochedlinger.              Now
– and Dr. Alberts found that tremors    A recently developed embryo-free however, Professor Hochedlinger
and other symptoms improved by          method overcomes key practical and and his team say that they have
about 35% after eight weeks of          ethical issues in obtaining embryo- developed a method for generating
pedaling for an hour a day, three       like cells – the most potent kind these cells using a common cold
days a week. The study also noted       of stem cells – that are potentially virus, called an adenovirus, what
that the improvement slowly went        capable of generating all cell types does not knit the new genes into the
away if the patient didn’t continue     for treating a wide range of diseases, genetic code, or genome.
this activity.                          from degenerative brain disease to              This new finding represents a
     Dr. Alberts is hoping to conduct   heart disease.                              major step forward in the future
clinical trials to see if this is a         But that method, pioneered in use of the cells, although it is less
viable treatment. He will also use      Japan, required a virus to genetically efficient. Professor Hochedlinger,
a motorized bike to see if this works   alter adult cells, such as skin cells,
as well as the tandem biking.           to convert them into embryo-like continued on p.5, see “New Research”

 4
New Research, continued from p.4
Dr. Mattias Stadtfeld and colleagues      to Alzheimer’s to anxiety and               tendency to go into foot-tapping
grew their stem cells, which show         depression,    Now, advances in             mode.      In Parkinson’s patients
potential for growing into a variety      neuroscience and brain imaging are          with bradykinesia, or difficulty
of other specialized cells including      revealing what’s actually happening         initiating movement, it’s thought
lung, brain, and heart cells, and they    in the brain as patients listen to          that the music triggers networks of
say that they have not observed any       music or play instruments and why           neurons to translate the cadence into
unwanted side effects yet.                the therapy works.                          organized movement. Slow rhythms
    In the past, similar reprogrammed         “Its been substantiated only            can ease the muscle bursts and jerky
cells have been shown to alleviate the    in the last year or two that music          motions of Parkinson’s patients with
symptoms of Parkinson’s                                                                         involuntary tremors.
disease and sickle cell                                                                               Actually       playing
anemia in mice, so this                                                                         music, which requires
new discovery could lead                                                                        coordinating         muscle
to advances in cell therapy                                                                     movements and developing
and treatments of human                                                                         an ear for timing, can
disease as well. However,                                                                       also     bring      dramatic
the researchers say that                                                                        results. Research on the
it will be important to                                                                         effects of music therapy
determine if human cells                                                                        in Parkinson’s patients
generated in the future                                                                         has found motor control
using this kind of virus                                                                        to be better in those who
are as potent as human                                                                          participated in group music
embryonic stem cells                                                                            sessions – improvisation
for     potential     clinical                                                                  with     pianos,      drums,
applications. “It remains                                                                       cymbals and xylophones
                                         Music therapy can help restore the loss of expressive
unclear how long it will                                                                        – than in people who
                                                           language in patients with aphasia.
take until “safer” iPS cells                                                                    underwent         traditional
can be used to treat patients. Our        therapy can help restore the loss physical therapy. But gains were no
work provided a conceptual advance        of expressive language in patients longer evident two months after the
showing that iPS cells in general         with aphasia” following brain injury sessions ended, so the best results
can be produced without permanent         from stroke, says Oliver Sacks, the require continued therapy.
genetic alterations of the genome,        noted neurologist and professor at
a pre-requisite for any therapeutic       Columbia University, who explored Surgical Technique
application of the technology,” said      the link between music and the brain Halts Cell Loss
Professor Hochedlinger.                   in his recent book “Musicophilia.” September, 2008 –
                                          Beyond improving movement and Medicine and Health
Hearing the Music,                        speech, he says, music can trigger Deep brain stimulation, a surgical
Healing the Brain                         the release of mood-altering brain technique often viewed as a last resort
September, 2008 –                         chemicals and once-lost memories for people with Parkinson’s disease,
U.S. News and World Report                and emotions.                               halts the progression of dopamine-
Music therapy is helping patients             Parkinson’s and stroke patients cell loss in animal models, according
regain abilities lost to Parkinson’s,     benefit, neurologists believe, because to preliminary research by scientists
Alzheimer’s and strokes. Music            the human brain is innately attuned to at the Neuroscience Institute at the
therapy has been practiced for            highly rhythmic music; in fact, says University of Cincinnati (UC) and
decades as a way to treat neurological    Sacks, our nervous system is unique University Hospital.
conditions      from       Parkinson’s    among mammals in its automatic
                                                                                      continued on p.6, see “New Research”

                                                                                                                          5
New Research, continued from p.5
     The scientists also discovered dopamine neuron loss. When the from herbs and megavitamins to
clues to why the technique works. rats had experienced a 50% loss of yoga and acupuncture. But while
The act of stimulating neurons with dopamine, the researchers initiated sweeping claims are made for these
electrodes boosted the amount of brain stimulation in half of the treatments, the scientific evidence
an important protein in the animals’ group. Measurements of surviving, for them often lags far behind:
brains. The protein, a trophic factor functioning dopamine neurons studies and clinical trials, when they
knows as BDNF (brain-derived in rats implanted with active exist at all, can be shoddy in design
neurotrophic factor), is a nurturing, stimulators were then compared and too small to yield reliable
growth-promoting chemical.              to a control group implanted with insights.
     “Demonstrating that deep brain inactive stimulators. While the                     Now the federal government is
stimulation halts the progression of control group’s loss of dopamine working hard to raise the standards
dopamine-cell loss was basically neurons increased to 75% after two of evidence, seeking to distinguish
a confirmation and extension                                                              between what is effective,
of previous findings,” says                                                               useless and harmful, or even
Caryl Sortwell, PhD, associate                                                            dangerous. “The research has
professor of neurology at UC                                                              been making steady progress,”
and the study’s lead investigator.                                                        said Dr. Josephine P. Briggs,
“But finding the mechanism is                                                             director of the National
a novel discovery that is even                                                            Center for Complementary
more critical. We now know                                                                and Alternative Medicine,
not only that is works, we also                                                           a division of the National
are beginning to understand                                                               Institutes of Health.      “It’s
how it is working.”                                                                       reasonably new that rigorous
     The      research      holds                                                         methods are being used to
important implications for                                                                study these health practices.”
                                            More than 80 million adults in the U.S. are          The need for rigor can
patients with Parkinson’s estimated to use some form of alternative medicine.
disease and could alter the                                                               be striking. For instance, a
current recommended timetable for       weeks, the rats implanted with active 2004 Harvard study identified 181
surgical intervention. In a typical stimulators experienced no further research papers on yoga therapy
treatment scenario, a patient has lost loss of cells during that time.             reporting that it could be used to
about 50% of his or her dopamine-           Subsequent tissue analysis treat an impressive array of ailments
producing neurons when symptoms revealed that in rats implanted with – including asthma, heart disease,
first appear and a diagnosis is made. active stimulators the trophic factor hypertension, depression, back
The typical patient then waits an BDNF had tripled in the striatum, pain, bronchitis, diabetes, cancer,
average of 14 additional years before a part of the brain that houses arthritis, insomnia, lung disease and
undergoing deep brain stimulation dopamine terminals and “receives” high blood pressure.
surgery. During that 14 year span, the dopamine neurotransmitters that                  It turned out that only 40% of the
medications can offer symptomatic       are produced in the substantia nigra. studies used randomized controlled
relief, but cell loss continues                                                    trials – the usual way of establishing
unabated.                               Applying Science to                        reliable knowledge about whether a
     During     the     DBS      study, Alternative Medicine                       drug, diet or other intervention is
researchers       implanted       high- September, 2008 –                          really safe and effective.
                                        The New York Times                              The National Institutes of
frequency stimulating electrodes
in the subthalamic nucleus, an More than 80 million adults in the Health are currently conducting
area of the brain associated with United States are estimated to use large, extended trials. For instance,
movement, in rats and then induced some form of alternative medicine, they are currently conducting a
                                                                                    continued on p.7, see “New Research”

 6
New Research, continued from p.6
large study to see if extracts from      develop Parkinson’s, and vice            non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s
the ginkgo biloba tree can slow          versa.                                   disease, researchers in Bari, Italy
the progression of Alzheimer’s.              The new and unique molecular         said. In a multi-center case-control
The clinical trials involve centers      structures they discovered can           study, volunteers with Parkinson’s
in California, Maryland, North           now be used to model and develop         experienced pain more often than
Carolina, and Pennsylvania and           new drugs for these devastating          did age-matched controls, mainly
recruited more than 3,000 patients.      diseases.                                because of the frequency of pain
That study is to end next year.              The team, led by Eliezer Maslaih,    associated with dystonia, according
    These studies also seek to ensure    M.D., professor of neurosciences         to Giovanni Defazio, M.D., Ph.D.,
product uniformity, especially on        and pathology in the UC San Diego        of the University of Bari, and
herbal treatments. “We feel we           School of Medicine, found that “fatal”   colleagues.
have really influenced the standard,”    or abnormal interactions among the           But although the frequency
Dr. Briggs said. Over the years,         a-synuclein protein (a-syn, involved     of non-dystonic pain was similar
laboratories have found that up          in Parkinson’s disease) and Abeta        between the cohorts, it was
to 75% of the samples of ginkgo          amyloid (Aβ, which leads to the          significantly associated in the
biloba failed to show the claimed        plaques associated with Alzheimer’s      Parkinson’s cases with the clinical
levels of the active ingredient.         disease) interact and form unique        onset of disease, they said in the
Scientists doing a clinical trial have   “hybrid” complexes. The hybrid           September issue of Archives of
a large incentive to fix that kind of    abnormal protein interactions result     Neurology.
inconsistency.                           in combined neurodegenerative                The findings “support the
    Dr. Briggs said such investments     diseases.                                hypothesis that pain begins at
would be likely to pay off in the            “Clinically, we knew that            clinical onset of Parkinson’s
future by documenting real benefits      having one neurological disease,         disease or thereafter as a non-motor
from at least some of the unorthodox     such as Alzheimer’s, put patients        feature of Parkinson’s disease,”
treatments. “I believe that as the       at risk for another neurological         the researchers said. The study
sensitivities of our measure improve,    disease in combination with it, for      may also have implications for
we’ll do a better job at detecting       example, Parkinson’s disease or          understanding “pain mechanisms in
these modest but important effects”      frontotemporal dementia. But as          Parkinson’s disease and identifying
for disease prevention and healing,      doctors and scientists, we didn’t        specific treatment stragetigies,” the
she said.                                understand why this occurred until       researchers said.
                                         now,” Masliah said.           Through        They looked at pain in 402
Fatal Protein Interactions May           computer modeling, they discovered       volunteers      with      Parkinson’s
Explain Neurological Diseases            that when the Aβ and a-syn interacted    disease selected from consecutive
September, 2008 – ScienceDaily           they formed a new hybrid protien         outpatients at participating centers
                                         with a small hole called a nanopore      from November 1, 2006 through
In a collaborative study at the          that alters neuronal activity. Masliah   March 31, 2007, and compared
University of California, San Diego,     described the model of the hybrid        such variables as frequency, type,
investigators from neurosciences,        complex as being “like looking at        and location with 317 healthy
chemistry and medicine, as well          a boat with holes in it. Because we      controls. The cohorts were similar
as the San Diego Supercomputer           can now see the holes, we can learn      with respect to age, sex, and years
Center (SDSC) have investigated          how to stop the leak.”                   of schooling, but significantly more
how      proteins    involved     in                                              Parkinson’s patients had depression
neurodegenerative diseases such          Pain Is Symptom of                       and medical conditions associated
as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s           Parkinson’s Disease                      with painful symptoms.
disease interact to form unique          September, 2008 – MedPage Today              When the researchers considered
complexes. Their findings explain                                                 those without pain as a reference
why Alzheimer’s patients might           Pain should be considered as a            continued on p.8, see “New Research”

                                                                                                                    7
New Research, continued from p.7
group and asked if the pain appeared       Germany, is the study’s lead author.     They also come as pharmaceutical
before or after a reference age, they      Skutella says the extraction and         companies increasingly look to
found a significant association            manipulation of stem cells from          fill their drained pipelines amid
between Parkinson’s and non-               germ cells which produce sperm,          increasing generic competition.
dystonic pain arising after the            had previously been achieved in               Neurogen initially said it would
reference age.                             mice, prompting investigators to try     test Aplindore for its effectiveness
                                           the same experiments in humans.          and safety in treating Parkinson’s,
New Research Uses                          “We were looking for pluripotent         but ultimately studied it also as a
Male Testicle Cells to                     cells of different origin than human     treatment for restless legs syndrome.
                                           embryonic stem cells. And there          Neurogen noted that other drugs on
Create Stem Cells
September, 2008 – Nature                   were hints that those cells might be     the market, or in late-stage testing,
                                           found in the germ cells which make       to treat restless legs syndrome have
Scientists have created stem cells         sperm. And it has been shown that        side effects that include daytime
from human male testicle cells.            those cells might be pluripotent, so     drowsiness, dizziness and nausea,
Experts way the development may            that was a starting point,” Skutella     and require a slow escalation of
provide one more alternative to            explained.                               doses. Meanwhile, other available
the controversial use of human                 Unfortunately, experts say           treatments for Parkinson’s have
embryonic stem cells to grow               women would not benefit from the         side effects that include nausea,
replacement tissue. Stem cells             latest stem cell development. But        drowsiness, hallucinations, and
are known as “pluripotent cells,”          Skutella says a similar technique        involuntary movements, and also
meaning they can be manipulated            may be used to grow stem cells for       require a slow escalation of doses.
to grow into any cell in the body,         women from egg cells.
potentially offering replacement                                                    A Legal Mood Lifter
tissue for a range of illnesses,           Aplindore                                September, 2008 -
including Parkinson’s disease,             October, 2008 - Dow Jones Newswire       Society for Neuroscience
diabetes an spinal cord injury.
                                           Neurogen Corp. (NRGN) said it            Researchers are investigating a new
    Human embryos are a rich source
                                           produced positive results from           antidepressant and pain reliever that
of stem cells, but the use of growing
                                           phase 2 trials testing it’s Aplindore    works like cannabis (marijuana),
embryos is prohibited in the US and
                                           drug for the treatment of restless       without the illegal side effects.
other countries, including Germany,
                                           legs syndrome and Parkinson’s                A decade ago, when Daniele
because extracting the master cells
                                           disease, and believes the drug may       Piomelli     went      to    scientific
destroys them.       So, researchers
                                           be “better tolerated” than existing      conferences, he was often the only
have been searching for alternative
                                           treatments for the diseases. The         researcher studying the cannabinoids,
sources to embryonic stem cells that
                                           drug development company said            the class of chemicals that give
are just as versatile but without the
                                           in each study, Aplindore showed          marijuana users a high. His work
controversy.
                                           “highly significant efficacy” while      often drew snickers and jokes, but
    In a paper published this week
                                           having fewer side effects and greater    no more. At the annual Society for
in the journal Nature, German
                                           dosing flexibility than existing drugs   Neuroscience conference recently,
researchers report on the latest effort.
                                           to treat restless legs syndrome and      scientists here delivered almost 200
By reprogramming the testicle cells
                                           Parkinson’s.                             papers on the subject.
of 22 males between the ages of 17
                                               The results come nearly two              Many        scientists     believe
and 81, researchers are coaxing them
                                           years after Neurogen acquired            cannabis-like drugs might be able
to being the process of becoming
                                           development rights for Aplindore         to treat a wide range of diseases,
muscle, bone and nerve cells.
                                           from Wyeth, which had originally         far beyond the nausea and chronic
    Thomas Skutella, a professor
                                           tried to develop the dopamine as a       pain typically treated with medical
at the Center for Regenerative
Biology and Medicine in Tuebingen,         possible treatment for schizophrenia.
                                                                                     continued on p.9, see “New Research”

 8
New Research, continued from p.8
cannabis.          Researchers here to determine their real purpose.                      Previous studies have shown
presented tantalizing evidence Researchers have learned that that the part of the brain affected
that cannabinoid drugs can help endogenous cannabinoids, internal most by Parkinson’s, the substantia
treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain chemicals that activate the nigra, has high levels of the vitamin
known as ALS, Parkinson’s disease, system, play a role in tissue protection, D receptor, which suggests vitamin
and obesity. Other researchers are immunity and inflammation, among D may be important for normal
studying whether the compounds can other functions. The cannabinoid functions of these cells.
help victims of stroke and multiple system also appears to exert wide                     Vitamin D is found in the diet,
sclerosis.                              influence, modulating the release but is primarily formed in the skin
     Although the chemicals work on of dopamine, serotonin and other by exposure to sunlight. However,
the same area of the nervous system, neurotransmitters. Some researchers the body’s ability to produce
the new drugs are much more refined believe cannabinoids can treat the vitamin decreases with age,
and targeted than cannabis, with few degenerative disorders such as making older people more prone
of its side effects. Cannabinoids have Parkinson’s disease and ALS. At to deficiency. One theory is that
a lot of pharmaceutical potential,”     the conference, Andrea Giuffrida, people with Parkinson’s may be
said Piomelli, a neuroscientist at                                                       particularly vulnerable because
the University of California at                                                          their condition limits the amount
Irvine.                                                                                  of time they spend out of doors.
     Although         the   federal                                                      However, scientists say it may
government opposes the use of                                                            also be possible that low vitamin
medical marijuana, it generally                                                          D levels are in some way related
doesn’t restrict cannabinoid                                                             to the genesis and origin of the
research, most of which doesn’t                                                          disease.
involve the cannabis plant itself.                                                            The researchers examined
Scientists who use Marinol, a legal                                                      vitamin D levels in 100 people
but tightly regulated marijuana-                                                         with Parkinson’s, 100 with
like drug, do need government              Researchers are investigating a new anti- Alzheimer’s disease and 100
                                         depressant and pain reliever that works like who were healthy. The groups
permission.
                                     cannabis (marijuana) without illegal side effects. were matched for age and
     Because the cannabinoid
system wasn’t discovered until a neuroscientist at the University economic circumstance. Among the
the late 1980’s, decades after of Texas Health Sciences Center Parkinson’s group, 23% of patients
serotonin, dopamine and other in San Antonio, announced that had vitamin D levels so low that they
neurotransmitters, researchers still a cannabinoid drug wards of could be described as deficient. In
know relatively little about how it Parkinson’s-like effects in mice.                 the Alzheimer’s group the figure was
works. Like all neurotransmitter                                                      16%, and in the healthy group 10%.
networks, the cannabinoid system Parkinson’s linked to Vitamin D                      The researchers said the findings
consists of a series of chemical
                                        October, 2008 – BBC News                      were striking because the study
pathways through the brain and A US team found 55% of Parkinson’s group came from the South West of
nervous system.                         patients had insufficient levels of the US, where sunny weather is the
     Cannabis produces its effects vitamin D, compared to 36% of norm.
by activating this pathway, elderly people. However, the Emory                            Researcher Dr. Marian Evatt
primarily through the effects of University researchers do not yet said: “We found that vitamin D
tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, the know if vitamin deficiency is a cause insufficiency may have a unique
drug’s main active ingredient. Over or the result of having Parkinson’s. association with Parkinson’s, which
the past decade, researchers have The study appears in the journal is intriguing and warrants further
been following these abundant trails Archives of Neurology.                           investigation.”

                                                                                                                       9
13 Easy Ways to Improve Your Cognitive Function
Go on a guided tour of a                  Sit in a place outside your                 Eat dark chocolate!
museum or another site that               house, such as on a park                    When you eat chocolate you activate
interests you. Pay careful                bench or in a café. Stare                   the systems in your brain that pump
attention to what the guide               straight ahead and don’t                    dopamine. These systems enable
says. When you get home,                  move your eyes. Concentrate                 learning and memory, and help keep
try to reconstruct the tour               on everything you can see                   your brain fit.
by writing an outline that                without moving
includes everything you                   your eyes, including
remember.                                 in your peripheral
Research into brain plasticity (the       vision. When you
ability of the brain to change at         have finished, write a
any age) indicates that memory            list of everything you
activities that engage all levels         saw. Then try again
of brain operation – receiving,           and see if you can
remembering and thinking – help           add to your list.
to improve function and hinder the Scientists have shown
rate of decline of the brain.         that the neurotransmitter
                                      acetylcholine,        which
                                      is crucial to focus
Choose a song with lyrics             and memory, falls off
                                                                                        Working a jigsaw puzzle is a great
                                                                                              way to stimulate your brain.
you enjoy but don’t have              with memory loss and
memorized. Listen to the song is almost absent in Alzheimer’s Do a jigsaw puzzle that will be
as many times as necessary            patients. This activity should help challenging for you – try to do
to write down all the lyrics.         you reinvigorate the controlled 500 pieces or more.
Then learn to sing along. Once release of acetylcholine in your brain Mundane as they may seem, jigsaw
you’ve mastered one song,             through a useful visual memory puzzles can provide real help for
move on to another.                   task.                                           your brain. Completing one
Developing better habits                                                              requires fine visual judgments
of careful listening                                                                  about where pieces belong. It
will help you in your                                                                 entails mentally “rotating” the
understanding, thinking                                                               pieces, manipulating them in
and        remembering.                                                               your hands, and shifting your
Reconstructing         the                                                            attention from the small piece
song requires close                                                                   to the “big picture.”
attentional focus and an
active memory. When
you focus, you release                                                                Learn to play an
the      neurotransmitter                                                             instrument
acetylcholine, a brain                                                                or take up an old one.
chemical that enables                                                                 Playing an instrument helps
plasticity and vivifies                                                               you exercise many interrelated
memory.                         Dark chocolate is not only good to eat, it’s good for
                                                                                      dimensions of brain function,
                               you! Eating dark chocolate helps activate the systems in
                                your brain that pump dopamine, which helps keep your        including listening, control of
                                                                               brain fit.     continued on p.8, see “13 Ways”

 10
13 Ways, continued from p.8
refined movements, and translation at a game or exercise that you                      Get on your bicycle, to the
of written notes (sight) to music ( can perform without paying close                   swimming pool or wherever
movement and sound)                 attention. It is important to always
                                    strive to take it up a notch to a higher
                                                                                       else you like to exercise your
                                    and more demanding level, where                    body.
                                                                                       New research indicates that
Set your television volume you re-engage the brain’s learning                          exercise has positive benefits for
down a little from where you machinery.                                                the hippocampus, a brain structure
normally have it set. See if by                                                        that is important for learning and
concentrating you can follow               Practice throwing and
                                                                                       memory. It can even help your brain
just as successfully as when               catching a ball up in the air.              create new cells.
the volume was higher. As          People who master these kinds of
soon as that setting gets easy,    sensory-guided movement activities
                                   can hone their brains visual,
turn it down another notch.
                                   tactile and hand-eye coordination
Many people raise the volume
                                   responses, with widespread positive
because their listening has become
                                   impacts for the brain.
a little fuzzy. Matching TV volume
to a conversational level can help
you catch every word when talking If you’re right-handed, use
with others.                       your left hand for daily
                                           activities (or vice-versa). Start
                                                     with brushing your
                                                     teeth and practice
                                                     until you have
                                                     perfected it. Then
                                                     try to build your way
                                                     up to more complex
                                                     tasks, such as eating.               Studies show that people who don’t
                                                         This is an exercise in                 get enough sleep have trouble
                                                         which you know what                         learning new information.
                                                         you’re supposed to            Get a good night’s sleep. If
                                                         achieve, but must do it       you have trouble falling sleep,
                                                         in a new and demanding        make sure your bedroom is
      If you like to work crossword puzzles, take it up learning context. Doing        quiet and dark, learn some
  to the next level. Concentrate harder to re-engage such an activity can              deep relaxation techniques,
                         the brains learning machinery. drive your brain to make
                                                                                       and avoid alcohol and caffeine
                                                         positive changes. Think
Find an activity you like to                  of millions of neurons learning new
                                                                                       after seven in the evening.
                                                                                       Scientists believe that our brains
do by yourself – such as                      tricks as you finally establish better
                                                                                       consolidate learning and memories
completing a crossword                        control of that other hand!
                                                                                       during sleep. Studies have shown
puzzle or knitting – and take                                                          that people who don’t sleep enough
it to the next level. See if                                                           have more trouble learning new
by concentrating and giving                Add fish – especially fatty fish            information, while sleeping well
more effort to the activity you            like salmon – to your diet.                 after learning something new
can succeed better or more                 Studies show that a diet rich in fish       helps the brain effectively put
quickly.                                   can improve cognitive function.             that information into long-term
There is limited value in working                                                      memory.

                                                                                                                         11
Heartland Support Group Meetings and Exercise Classes
Listed by state.

Kansas Support Groups                               Johnson County (Leawood)                            Sedgwick County (Wichita)
                                                    First Monday, 12:00 pm / Sack lunch                 Fourth Tuesday, 12:00 pm
Brown County (Hiawatha)                             Families/Caregivers of People with                  Wesley Rehabilitation
Second Thursday, 3-4:00 pm                          Late Stage PD                                       8338 W 13th Street
Light House Hospice                                 8900 State Line Road Ste 320                        Deb Wetta (RSVP) ...........316.729.1140
Hiawatha Community Hospital                         PFH .................................913.341.8828   Dorothy Roush ................316.304.9280
(conference center)                                 Johnson County (Leawood)                            Shawnee County (Topeka)
300 Utah                                            2nd Thursday, 10:30 am                              First Thursday, 5:30 pm
Leigh Ann Schultejans ....785.486.3881              Wellness Caregiver Group                            Midland Hospice Church
                                                    8900 State Line Road Ste 320                        200 Frazier Circle
Clay County (Clay Center)                           PFH .................................913.341.8828   Rob Peppers ...................785.273.9861
Third Tuesday, 2:00 pm                                                                                  (work)...............................785.272.6397
First Baptist Church                                Johnson County (South)
5th & Dexter                                        Second Wednesday, 10-11:30 am                       Wyandotte County
Jewell Robinson ..............785.632.3957          (Starting in November)                              Second Monday, 12:30 pm
                                                    Sunrise Senior Living                               Trinity Methodist Church
Dickenson County (Abilene)                          12500 West 135th Street                             5010 Parallel Parkway
Third Tuesday, 2:00 pm                              Nancy Lucas ...................913.685.3340         Charlene Porter ...............913.724.1799
Sterling House Abilene
1102 North Vine Street                              Leavenworth County (Leavenworth)                    Riley, Geary, Clay, Pottawatomie
Connie Sweet ................ 785.263.7800          Last Tuesday, 1:30 pm                               Counties
                                                    Leavenworth Homestead                               First Thursday, 2-3
Douglas County (Lawrence)                           5150 Hughes Road                                    Meadowlark Hills (Community Room)
Third Tuesday, 2:00 pm                              Vicky Walker ....................913.727.9600       2121 Meadowlark Hill
First Presbyterian Church                                                                               Susan Davis ........785.537.4610 x 2282
                                                    Lyon County (Emporia)
2415 Clinton Parkway                                Third Wednesday, 1:30 pm
Mary Jane Clement ........785.865.2450              Presbyterian Manor                                   Kansas Exercise Groups
                                                    2300 Industrial Road
Ford County (Dodge City)                            Shirlee Ebberts................620.794.5339
Second Tuesday, 6:30 pm                                                                                 Olathe, KS
Fort Dodge, Eisenhower Hall                         Marshall County (Marysville)                        Mondays, 10:00 - 11:00 am
Cheryl Alexander.............620.225.8230           Second Monday, 1:30 pm                              First Baptist Church
                                                    Helvering Center                                    151st and Mur-Len Road
Johnson County (Prairie Village)                    111 South 8th                                       Monica Moll.....................913.856.8130
Third Monday, 1- 2:30 pm                            Marci Duensing ...............785.562.3224
Brighton Gardens                                                                                        Kansas City, KS
7105 Mission Road                                   McPherson County (McPherson)                        Mondays, 11:00 am - 12:00 pm
Heidi Bremson ......913.262.1611 x 223              Second Tuesday, 10 - 11:30am                        Trinity Methodist Church
                                                    Prairie View                                        5010 Parallel Parkway
Johnson County (Overland Park)                      1102 Hospital Drive                                 Charlene Porter ...............913.724.1799
Third Thursday, 2:30 pm                             Janell Clary......................620.245.5000
Freedom Point                                                                                           Valley Center, Kansas
                                                    Montgomery County (Coffeyville)                     Tuesdays & Thursdays, 1:00-2:00 pm
9201 Foster                                         Third Tuesday, 4:30-? (sometimes
Eddie Johnson ................913.385.2052                                                              117 South Park
                                                    7pm), EVEN months                                   Cinda Garcia ...................316.755.1115
                                                    Windsor Place
Johnson County (Overland Park)                      2921 West 1st
Second Tuesday, 7:00 pm                                                                                 Leawood, KS
                                                    Jaque Rooks ............. 620.251.5190x56           Tuesday and Thursday, 10:30 – 1pm
The Forum
3501 West 95th Street                               Saline County (Salina)                              (lunch included)
PFH .................................913.341.8828   First Thursday, 1:30-3:00 pm                        Parkinson Foundation of the Heartland
                                                    First Presbyterian Church                           8900 State Line Road Ste 320
                                                    308 South 8th Street                                PFH .................................913.341.8828
                                                    Becky Ewing ...................785.825.8461                  continued on p.13, see “listings”

 12
Listings, continued from p.12



 Missouri Support Groups                        Jackson County (Lee’s Summit)                     Missouri Exercise Groups
                                                Fourth Wednesday, 10:00 am
Boone County (Columbia)                         John Knox Places Restaurant                      Kansas City, Missouri
First Thursday, 4:00 pm                         1001 Chipman Road                                Mondays, 9:30-10:30 am
Lenoir Community Center –                       Dr. Kelly Lyons.................913.588.7159     North Cross United Methodist Church
Conference Rooms A & B                                                                           1321 Northeast Vivion Road
1 Hourigan Drive                                Jasper County (Joplin)                           Lyle Evans .......................816.452.4485
Gerry Neely .....................573.815.3554   Quarterly (April - October)
                                                Contact for times                                Garden Village, Fourth Floor
Camden County (Lake Ozark)                      Caregiver and Parkinsons                         Tuesdays, Thursdays & Saturdays,
Third Thursday, 5:30- 7:00 pm                   2727 McClelland Drive                            9:30-10:30 am
Lake Ozark Christian Church                     Vicki Lasure .....................417.659.6544   8550 Granby
Bagnell Boulevard, on the strip                                                                  Mary Jane Branch ...........816.436.5555
David/Patsy Dalton .........573.964.6534        Jasper County (Joplin)
                                                Third Thursday, 10:00 am                         Gardens at Barry Road
Green County (Springfield)                      Spring River Christian Village                   Mondays & Wednesdays, 10:30-11:30
Last Wednesday of the month, 3:30 pm            201 Northpark Lane                               8300 Northwest Barry Road
Cox Walnut Lawn (Senior group)                  Chantel Hamilton, RN .....417.623.4313           Karen Carmack ...............816.584.3200
1000 East Walnut Lawn, Ozark room
Judee Steward ................417.269.3616      Kansas City (North)                              Kingswood Senior Living
                                                Fourth Tuesday, 1:30-3:00 pm                     Balance and Coordination
                                                St. LukeÆs Presbyterian Church                   Tuesdays & Thursdays, 1:30 – 2:30
Green County (Springfield)                      4301 Northeast Vivion Road                       10000 Wornall Road
Fourth Thursday, 7:00 pm                        Berta Decena ..................817.681.5010      Ray Gilliland ....................816.942.0994
Cox Walnut Lawn (Young Onset)                                                                    (contact for information on other
1000 East Walnut Lawn                           Nodaway County (Marysville)                      exercise classes - such as water
Janice McCauley ............417.269.3616        Third Thursday, 6:30 pm                          aerobics)
                                                (Jan., March, May, July, Sept & Oct.,
Grundy County (Trenton)                         6:00 pm at A&G restaurant)
First Thursday, 10:30am                         First Christian Church
Royal Inn Pizza                                 201 West 3rd Street
1410 E 9th Street                               Jennie Lamb....................660.582.4468       Speech Class
Gloria Koon .....................660.485.6558
                                                Pettis County (Sedalia)                          Meadowlark Hills
Henry County (Clinton)                          Third Monday, 4:00 pm                            2121 Meadowlark Hill
Second Tuesday, 1:30 pm                         First Christian Church                           Beginning October 2 – November 20th
Clinton Community Center                        200 South Limit (Highway 65)                     (every Thursday)
1004 East Sedalia Center                        Barbara Schulz................660.826.6039       1-2 pm in Community Room
Jeanette Fuhr ..................660.885.4099                                                     Contact Michelle Haub with
                                                Raymore/Cass County                              questions.........................316.323.3874
Jackson County (Independence)                   Fourth Monday, 10:00 am
Third Tuesday, 3-4:00 pm                        Foxwood Springs/Bromwell Lounge
Fountains at Greenbriar                         1500 West Foxwood Drive
2100 Swope Drive                                Jane Dodson ...................816.322.0413
Desiree Rogers.......816.257.5100 x103
                                                Taney County (Branson)
Jackson County (Kansas City)                    Second Thursday, 2:00 pm
Fourth Monday, 3:00 pm                          Skaggs Community Health Center
Villa Ventura                                   251 Skaggs Road
12100 Wornall Road                              Charlene Stade ...............417.883.0637
Linda Smith .....................816.941.0525

                                                                                                         continued on p.14, see “listings”

                                                                                            13
Listings, continued from p.13                    Norman, Oklahoma                                  Young/Newly Diagnosed Parkinson
                                                 First Thursday, 7:00 pm                           Group meets quarterly in Oklahoma
 Oklahoma Support Groups                         Norman Regional Hospital,                         City. For meeting times and location,
                                                 Education Wing                                    contact Jim Keating at 405-810-0695.
Clinton/Weatherford, Oklahoma                    901 North Porter
Second Thursday, 5:30 pm                         Dr. Francis Schmitz .........405.364.4493
United Methodist Retirement & Health             Jack Shadle ....................405.321.1274
Center, Solarium Room
2316 West Modelle Avenue                         Far North Oklahoma City                            Oklahoma Exercise Groups
Rhonda Gossen ..............580.772.1818         First Wednesday, 2:15 pm
                                                 Flora Deen Martin Center, Epworth Villa           Edmond, OK
Edmond, Oklahoma                                 14901 North Pennsylvania                          Tuesdays, 1:00 pm
Second Tuesday, 3:30 pm                          Enter from Northwest 150th Street                 Bradford Village
Bradford Village, community center               Bob Cunningham ................... 721.5345       300 Enz Drive, in the
300 Enz Drive                                                                                      community center.
Contact Juli Rogers ........405.348.6945         South Oklahoma City                               Laura Pollard ...................405.341.0810
                                                 Third Tuesday, 3:30 pm
Enid, Oklahoma                                   Jim Thorpe Rehab, Jones Education                 Norman, OK
First Wednesday, 2:00 pm                         Room                                              Tuesdays & Thursdays, 10:30 am
Integris Pavilion cafeteria                      4219 South Western                                First Baptist Church
401 South Third Street                           Lori Smith ........................405.644.5262   Family Life Center
Anita Andrew ...................580.548.1110                                                       300 West Comanche
                                                 Ponca City                                        Dr. Francis Schmitz .....405.364.4493 or
Grand Lake Area, Oklahoma                        Second Friday, 10:30 am                           Jack Shadle ....................405.321.1274
Fourth Tuesday, 6:30 pm                          Via Christi at Home
Grove Community Center                           1209 East Prospect                                Oklahoma City, OK
Highway 59 and Grand                             Dianna Gemmill ...............580.765.8155        Tuesdays & Thursdays, 12 noon
Rovia Collis .....................918.787.2835                                                     NeuroScience Institute at
                                                 Stillwater, Oklahoma                              Mercy Health Center
Hugo, Oklahoma                                   First Tuesday, 2:00 pm                            4120 West Memorial Road
Second Saturday, 2:00 pm                         First Nazarene Church                             in the atrium on the first floor
Lane Frost Rehab Center                          1023 East Will Rogers                             Ms. Kay Oglesby .............405.752.3968
2815 East Jackson                                Cathy Jordan...................405.742.5787
Linda Edge ......................580.326.0873                                                      Oklahoma City Water Exercises/Central
Martha Hinnergardt .........580.326.9195         Tulsa, Oklahoma South                             Wednesdays, 12 noon to 1:00 pm
                                                 Fourth Tuesday, 6:00 pm                           Valir Rehab
Kingfisher, Oklahoma                             University Village                                700 Northwest 7th Street
Third Thursday, 6:30 pm                          8555 South Lewis                                  $4/session or 10 sessions/$35
Country Wood Manor                               Sherri Brown ...................918.298.3652      Margaret Kierl ..................405.553.1050
1604 South 13th Street
Dolores Greving ..............405.263.4456       Tulsa, Oklahoma Southeast                         Oklahoma City Water Exercises/South
                                                 Third Thursday, 6:30 pm                           Mondays, Tuesdays & Thursdays,
Lawton, Oklahoma                                 St. Francis Hospital, Heart Center                various times
Second Wednesday, 3:00 pm                        6151 South Yale                                   Jim Thorpe Rehab indoor pool 4219
Ten Oaks Retirement Community                    Dave McCabe .................918.625.5255         South Western
3610 Southeast Huntington Circle                                                                   Andrew Heuser ...............405.644.5293
Rose Hailey .....................580.585.6640    Woodward, Oklahoma
                                                 Third Wednesday, 2:00 pm                          Tulsa, Oklahoma
McAlester, Oklahoma                              Grace Living Center                               Mondays, Wednesdays & Fridays
First Thursday, 6:00 pm                          429 East Downs                                    University Village
Wellness Center                                  Pam Kenneaster .............580.256.6448          8555 South Lewis
1400 East Van Buren                              Yukon, Oklahoma                                   $35 per month fee
Dana Hugle .....................918.421.8626     Second Friday, 1:00 pm                            Missie Moore...................918.299.2661
                                                 Spanish Cove
Midwest City, Oklahoma                           1401 South Cornwell                               Contact Jim Keating, Director, for more
Fourth Thursday, 2:00 pm                         Dr. Deketia Murphy .........405.354.2439          information at 405-810-0695 or e-mail
Senior Center                                                                                      jim@parkinsonheartland.org.
8251 East Reno
Rosemary Keating..........405.607.0940.

 14
Cool Brain Tricks
                                                                                 Why is the first passage so much
Missing Letters                           Scrambled Text                         easier to read? It seems that when
Count the “f’s” in this passage.          Try to read this passage.              we read, we extract information
                                                                                 from the context, so understanding
  FINISHED   FILES  ARE                     Aoccdrnig to a rseearch sduty at     several words in a sentence can help
  THE RESULT OF YEARS                       Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it seosn’t     guess another one. We also scan
  OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY                       mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers     words and pick out mrkers that make
  COMBINED WITH THE                         in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt    them easy to identify, such as certain
  EXPERIENCE OF YEARS.                      thing is taht the frist and lsat     letter combinations and sounds.
                                            ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The    These elements make it easier to
How many did you count?                     rset can be a toatl mses and you     infer the word even when the letters
    There are actually 6 “f’s”, but         can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm.   are not in perfect order. You might
most people only count 3. Why?              Tihs is bcausae the huamn mnid       note that in the first passage, many
It seems that the brain has trouble         deos not raed ervey lteter by        of these markers were maintained.
correctly processing the word “of.”         istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.     For example in “according” the
The letter “f” usually makes the /f/                                             double c was maintained. Splitting
sound, like fox. In the work “of’”        Many people are surprised they them up makes the word harder to
though, it makes the /v/ sound. As a      can read it without much problem, read. In Cambridge, the second half
result, the brain overlooks the word      even though the letters are not in the of the word was nearly maintained.
“of:” as it scans for the sound of /f/.   correct order.                         Changing the scramble to break
                                                                                 up “bridge” would make is much
                                          Here is a more difficult scramble:     harder to read.
                                           A dootcr has atimtded the             The answer        to    the   second
                                           magltheunsr of a tageene ceacnr       scramble?
                                           pintaet who deid aetfr a hatospil
                                           durg blendur.                           A doctor has admitted the
                                                                                   manslaughter of a teenage
                                                                                   cancer patient who died after a
                                                                                   hospital drug blunder.


Tax-Free IRA Gifts
In the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008             As you may recall, the following rules apply:
that became law in October, Congress extended through           • Allows donors to receive distributions from
December 31, 2009 the Charitable IRA provision.                    their IRA without paying tax
    The reduction of itemized deductions as well as             • Distributions count towards required minimum
the percentage limitation on charitable income tax                 distributions
deductions for high income donors often dissuaded               • Donors must be age 70 ½
donors from making life-time charitable gifts with              • Only traditional or Roth IRAs may be used
distributions from an IRA. If a donor made a withdrawal         • Distributions must go directly to public
from his or her IRA to fund a charitable gift, the itemized        charities, not donor advised funds or support
deduction reduction and percentage limitation could                organizations
result in tax in the year in which the gift was made.           • Donors are limited to a cumulative total of
The extended Charitable IRA provision addresses that               $100,000 of these gifts
potential disadvantage.                                     Please call us if you have any questions.
                                                                                                                   15
                                              Word Search
                                              Keeping your brain
Parkinson Foundation                          active is very important.   gs    e   s   sa l    c   i an    l   so      t
                       OF THE HEARTLAND       See if you can locate
                                              the following words in
KANSAS                                        this word search.
                                                                          l n   s   a   t br    t   bpe     e   i s     r
8900 State Line Road
Leawood, KS 66206                             Parkinson                   xa    i   o   urd     a   cou     v   c t     h
913.341.8828 (tel.)                           Freezing
913.341.8885 (fax)
                                                                          ea    c   z   epe     i   edr     o   d i     r
                                              Bradykinesia
info@parkinsonheartland.org
                                              Exercise                    n i r i eosmh i o d i dd
Meg Duggan                                    Levodopa
Executive Director
                                              Nutrition
                                                                          hse r ge t n ob l o bn i
meg@parkinsonheartland.org
         PRIMARY LOGO USAGE WITHOUT TAGLINE


913.341.8828 (tel.)                           Classes                     cexpuo r g t r o p pus
913.341.8885 (fax)                            Tremor
                                              Rigidity
                                                                          rnedar l f oag a e t u
Mike Dreiling
President                                     Disease                     a i hpa r g o r c i mo r d
mdreiling@dreilinglaw.com                     DBS
913.209.3272 (tel.)                                                       eksdr sk d rus i a i d
                                              Neurological
Jennifer King                                 Balance
Director                                                                  sy t i d i g i rut n s t g
Programs and Special Events                   Education
jen@parkinsonheartland.org                    Dopamine                    educa t i o n l e e a i l
                                              Micrographia
Katie Fuchs                                                               r ach r on i csa n doa
Coordinator                                   Carbidopa
Programs and Special Events                   Chronic                     a r gr gc r u bso i bnc
katie@parkinsonheartland.org
                                              Neurologist
                                                                          pba l anc e exe n i eu
                                              Support Group
OKLAHOMA                                      Research                    t ncc i pr p r ee n opr
1000 West Wilshire Boulevard
Jim Keating                                                           the Heartland Tremor
                                              Parkinson Foundation ofParkinson                           Dopamine
Oklahoma State Director                                                                                      Non-Profit
                                              8900 State Line Road                                          U.S. Postage
jim@parkinsonheartland.org                    Leawood, KS 66206 Freezing            Rigidity             Micrographia
Phone/Fax: 405.810.0695                                                                                     PAID
                                                                          Bradykinesia    Disease         Shawnee Mission,
                                                                                                         Carbidopa
                                                                                                               Kansas
Our newsletter is published by                                                                             Permit No. 1268
the Parkinson Foundation of the                                           Exercise        DBS            Chronic
Heartland to help People with Par-
kinson’s, their relatives and their                                       Levodopa        Neurological   Neurologist
friends. It is not intended to provide
personal medical advice,which                                             Nutrition       Balance        Support Group
should be obtained directly from
a physician. Contact us at the                                            Classes         Education      Research
Foundation office if you have sug-
gestions as to how we can better
serve you.
                                                       Membership must be current to receive this newsletter.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:2
posted:11/25/2011
language:English
pages:16