# Fractions by wTSxt1e

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```									  Fractions
By Jamie Ireland
Fraction Parts

   There are two parts to every fraction.
– The numerator is the number on the top
of the fraction.
   Example: ¾; 3 is the numerator.
– The denominator is the number on
bottom of the fraction.
   Example: ¾; 4 is the denominator.
How to say the Fractions
   To say the fraction you must first name it.
   Take ¾. This is pronounced three fourths.
   If you have 5/6, you would pronounce it five
sixths.
   You have units, which are numbers like
1,2,3… Then you have half (halves if plural)
and then thirds.
   After thirds you add a th to the denominator
when you name the fractions.
THE THREE QUESTIONS
   There are three questions which you should
ask yourself when dealing with fractions.
– 1. What is the unit?
   If you have a candy bar the whole candy bar is the
unit. Same if you have a piece of paper.
– 2. How many pieces are in the unit?
   If the candy bar is in three pieces then there are three
pieces in the unit. If the paper is in four pieces then
there is four pieces in the unit.
– 3. Are the pieces the same size?
   The pieces must be the of equal size.
Halves

   If you cut an object
into two equal
parts, then each
part is a half of the
object.
   Half can be written
like this: ½.
Fourths
   An object can be split
into fourths if you split
the object into four
equal parts.
   Take a piece of paper
and fold it in half.
Then fold it in half
again and the paper
will be in fourths.
Naming Fractions
   The three questions help
you to name the fractions.
   You count how many parts
there are all together and
that number is your
denominator.
– The number of equal parts
of the unit leads to the
name half, third, or
whatever the number is.
   In this case it is fourths.
?/4
   Then you count how many

More Facts
   Now that you know how to name fractions,
you should know the different types of
fractions.
   A fraction with a bigger number in the
numerator is called an improper fraction.
– Example 4/3
   A fraction that has a whole number in front
of it is called a mixed number.
– Example 1 ½
How do you say fractions
greater than one and mixed
numbers.
   For fractions greater than one you say
it like a regular fractions.
– Example: 5/3 say it five thirds
   For mixed numbers you say the whole
number and say an “and” and then
say the fraction.
– Example 2 ½ you say it two and a half.
the denominator stays
the same.
   So if you add 1/3 +
1/3, the denominator
will stay at 3.
   Then you add the top
numbers together to
get the numerator.
1+1=2
   So the answer is 2/3.
Another Practice Problem

fractions greater than one.
   You add fractions greater than one just like
– Example 4/3 + 1/3 = 5/3
whole numbers first and then the fractions.
– 1 1/4 + 1 ¼ you can add the ones together 1+1
= 2 then the fractions  ¼ + ¼ = 2/4. The
Equivalent Fractions
   Any fraction that has the
same number in the
denominator and the
numerator equals one.
– Example: 2/2=1
   To get an equivalent
fraction for any fraction,
you can multiple the
denominator and the
numerator by the same
number.
– Example: ½*2/2=2/4
Converting whole
numbers to fractions
   REMEMBER THAT ANY WHOLE
NUMBER IS A FRACTION.
   The whole number is on top of the
fractions while one is on the bottom.
– Examples
 1 = 1/1
 4 = 4/1
Equivalent fractions for
whole numbers
   Remember to multiply the top and
bottom numbers by the same number.
– Example
   4 = 4/1
   4/1 *2/2 =8/2
Converting Mixed Numbers
to Fractions Greater Than
One
   IF you have 1 ½ then to convert it to a
fraction greater than one, you have to
multiply the whole number to a fraction with
the same denominator as the fraction in the
problem so that you can add them together.
– Example 1 ½
   1 * 2/2=2/2
   2/2 + ½ = 3/2
   1 ½ = 3/2
Converting fractions greater
than one to a mixed number
   If you have 4/3 and
you want to convert
it to a mixed
number, then you
can draw a picture
like this.
   As you can see the
mixed number
would be 1 1/3.
Another way to convert
fractions greater than one
to a mixed number.
   You could also do this by figuring out how many
times the denominator goes into the numerator.
That would be the whole number and what was left
would be the fraction.
– Example 6/4
– Four goes into 6 once, with two left. That two left goes
over the four. The fraction is 1 ¼.
   Also if you have a fraction like 2 6/5, you can make
that into a fraction like 3 1/5.
– You simply add the whole numbers from the fractions to
the whole number in front of the fraction.
   2 6/5 ; 6/5 = 1 1/5; 1+2=3; 2 6/5 =3 1/5
Unlike Denominators
   First you have to make the
fractions have the same
denominator.
   To make ½ into fourths you
have to multiply both the
top and bottom numbers by
2. ½*2/2=2/4
   Now that both fractions
have the same denominator
   2/4 + 2/4 = 4/4
   And you know that 4/4=1.
Subtracting Fractions
   To subtract two fractions,
the denominator of both
fractions have to be the
same.
   The denominator will have
the same number as it did
before you subtracted. In
this case it is 4.
   The numerator is the first
numerator minus the
second numerator.
– Example: 2-1=1
   The answer would be ¼.

Another example
Subtracting mixed
numbers
   To subtract a mixed number you must first convert
it to a fraction greater than one.
– Example 2 ½ - 2/2
   Remember that 2 is 2/1. 2/1 * 2/2 =4/2
   Then you add that to the fraction 4/2+1/2=5/2
   Then you subtract 5/2-2/2 = 3/2
   You can also convert it to 1 3/2, by only converting
one of the whole numbers.
   When you are subtracting two mixed numbers you
should subtract the fraction part first then subtract
the whole numbers.
– Example 1 2/3 – 1 1/3; 2/3 – 1/3 = 1/3; 1 – 1 = 0 so
1 2/3 – 1 1/3 = 1/3

   This website uses circles and number
lines to teach fractions.
http://www.visualfractions.com/
   This site provides help in finding the
least common multiple for renaming
fractions. http://www.mathleague.com
A Good Source

   Mathematics learning in early
childhood- There is a chapter in there
that talks about fractions which was
written by Arthur F. Coxford and
Lawrence W. Ellerbruch.
   This book is sometimes referred to as the
thirty-seventh yearbook.

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