E-learning Standard

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					E-learning Standard

Surasit Vannakrairojn
NOLP
National Science and Development Agency

Surasit@thai2learn.com     5 March 2003
Outline
 E-learning Market Trend
 E-learning Standards Trend
 ADL : SCORM Specification
 SCORM: Goal, What does it Standardize?
 SCORM Run-Time Environment
 SCORM Content Aggregation Model
 What’s new in the SCORM Ver. 1.3
E-learning Market Trends: US
                                  85% growth per year

            40.00
                                                                 34.34
            35.00
            30.00
 Bil. US$




            25.00
                                                       18.65
            20.00                                                         ชุดข ้อมูล1
            15.00                              10.19
            10.00                    5.56
             5.00   1.66   3.06
             0.00
                    2000   2001      2002      2003    2004      2005
                                            Year


                                                               IDC (2000.9)
E-learning Market Trends: Japan
   About 1/10 of US market size
                     400

                     300
     Bil. Yen




                     200

                     100

                        0
                             2003                     2005
                LifeLong      9.2                     21.56
                In-House     22.07                    102.49
                Other Scl    26.41                    69.07
                Higher Ed.   54.87                    110.23
                Prim. Ed.    1.25                      5.67


                                     ALIC: E-learning White Paper(2000.9)
E-learning Market Trends: Thailand
Share of E-learning types
            6

            5

            4
 Bil. US$




                                                              4.1
                                                                           WBT
            3                                        2.7
                                                                           Others
                                            1.7
            2                 0.9
                0.2    0.4
            1                                        1.6
                1.1    1.1    1.4           1.5               1.5
            0
                1997   1998   1999          2000    2001      2002
                                     Year

                                                   Source: IDC. May 1999
Why Standards?
 To enable interoperability on different
  platform
 Protection of investment on content
  development
 Exchange of content locally and globally
E-learning Standards Trends
 Industry moving a set of standards that
  can open up the e-learning management
  and distribution environment
 A number of organizations working to
  develop e-learning standards
     Airline   Industry CBT Committee (AICC)
          Focus on standards for airline training e.g. tests,
           lessons, modules ect. (www.aicc.org)
E-learning Standards Trends
  EDUCAUSE         Institutional Management System
   Project (IMS)
       Vendor group working to build standards for e-learning based
        on work of AICC (www.imsglobal.org)
  Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL)
     US Federal government initiative (www.adl.org)

     Development of SCORM

  Allince of Remote Institutiopnal Authoring and
   Distribution Network for Europe (ARIADNE)
       An industry association focusing on e-learning standards
        issues (ariadne.unil.ch)
E-learning Standards Trends
  IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee
   (IEEE LTSC)
       Accredits the standards for the US that emerge from the
        other groups (ltsc.ieee.org)
  ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 (ITLET)
     IT for Learning, Education and Training

  Advanced Learning Infrastructure Consortium (ALIC)
     Japanese Consortium for promotion of e-leaning technology
      and infrastructure (www.alic.gr.jp)
  e-Learning Consortium Japan (eLC)
     Vendor/User company working to promote e-learning
      business and technology (www.elc.or.jp)
 Worldwide Network for Learning Technology

       CEN/ISSS         ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36


PROMETEUS




        IMS Asia
            Singapore



                                            IMS Australia
Standards Evolution
                               ADL Vision
Provide access to the highest quality education and training, tailored to
individual needs, delivered cost effectively, anywhere and anytime.

                                      Web-based
                                      Learning
                               Home               Field



               Digital Video                               Distributed
                 Gaming                                    Simulation


                      School                                In
                                                          Transit



                      Embedded                     Digital
                                         Office
                       Training                   Libraries
                     ADL Strategy
   Use network-based technologies

   Create platform-independent, reusable content

   Promote large-scale cooperation to satisfy common needs

   Develop common specifications for interoperability / reuse

   Enhance performance with emerging and next-generation
    technologies

   Provide incentives for organizational and cultural change
Why We Need Common Specifications
 Surprising as it seems, before June 2000 we couldn’t . . .

    Move a course from one web-based Learning
     Management System (LMS server) to another.

    Run or reuse course content across different LMS
     systems (multiple proprietary vendor tools).

    Create searchable learning content or media
     repositories across different LMS environments
     Servers).
Communities of Self-interest
Developed Common ADL Specifications
                             “SCORM”
        Navy                                              Standards Groups
     Army
                                                       Authoring Tool Vendors
  Air Force                         ADL           I
              Services                            Industry
                                   Co- Lab
   Marines                                             Info Tech Companies
     Joint Staff
                                                          Software Vendors
                                   Federal
                                   Agencies
                   Dept of Labor         Dept of Commerce
                    Office of Science and Technology

               President’s Task Force on Training Technology
SCORM - Definition

          Sharable Content Object
             Reference Model

  A software model that defines the
  interrelationship of course components, data
  models, and protocols such that content
  “objects” are sharable across systems that
  conform with the same model.
The SCORM - What Is It?
 A “Reference Model” that:
    Integrates industry specifications from
     many other organizations
       AICC, IMS, IEEE, ARIADNE, etc.

    Provides a unified learning content
     model
    Defines a standardized web “run-time”
     environment
    Takes the first step on the path to
     defining a true learning architecture
   SCORM Evolution
                  1998                        1999                      2000




ARIANDNE
IMS
IEEE
AICC
ALIC
IBM                                    ADL SCORM     ADL SCORM
Cisco                                  0.7.3         1.0                    ADL SCORM
Microsoft                                            Content Model          1.1
Macromedia Meta Data     Launch,
                                                     Run-time Environment   Post Test Phase:
Oracle                   API,                                               Clean, Fix, Trim
NetG                     Data Model,
Click2Learn              XML Course
Saba                     Interchange
Pathlore
MindLever
(many others)….
                AICC + IEEE + IMS + ADL = SCORM
                Many, many long technical meetings
             IEEE Meetings
                  Late 1999
Partial list of participants:
                   Microsoft
                          Sun
                      Boeing
                      Oracle
                        Cisco
                         IBM




              Click2Learn, Avilar, Pathlore,
                  Saba, NETg, SmartForce,      IMS Meetings
               Centra, Thinq, Macromedia,       Early 2000
                         and many more…
The Goal of SCORM
   Learning Content under SCROM must
    have the following characteristics
     Accessibility
     Interoperability
     Reusability
     Durability
The Goal of SCORM
   Accessability
     Content can be identified and located when it
      is needed and as it is needed
   Interoperability
     Content  will function in multiple applications,
      environment and software/hardware
      configurations regardless of the tools and
      platform used to create.
The Goal of SCORM
   Reusability
     Content is independent of learning context
      and can be used for many different learners.
   Durability
     Content does not require modification to
      operate as software systems are changed or
      upgraded.
What does SCORM Standardize?
V.1.2 – V.1.3
 Packaging
 Metadata
 Communication
 Sequencing
Packaging
 Provide content to move among different
  system
 Based on IMS Global Learning
  Consortium
 Content packaging create a container for
  shipping learning content from one place
  to another
Meta-Data
   To share standard information that describe the
    nature and purpose of the content.
   Based on IEEE ltsc –Learning Object Metadata
    (LOM) Specification
   This information can serve many ends, including
    cataloging, search and discovery, right mgt,
    checking technical requirement etc.
Communication
 Guidance for launching, communication
  with and tracking content in a web-base
  environment
 Based on run-time environment
  functionality defined in AICC’s CMI 001
  guideline for interoperability
Sequencing
 Defined a method for representing the
  intended behavior of an authored learning
  experience such that any LMS can
  sequence discrete learning activities in
  consistent way
 Based on the IMS Simple Sequencing
  Specification
 Will appear in V.1.3
SCORM Organization v.1.2
 BOOK 1:
 The SCORM                                   SCORM
 Overview




                                                                               BOOK 3: The
                                                                               SCORM Run Time
 BOOK 2: The SCORM                                                             Environment
 Content Aggregation Model




                                 Meta-data Dictionary (from IEEE)


                       Content Packaging (from IMS)                 Data Model (from AICC)

                                                                    Launch, Communication API (from AICC)
              Content Structure (derived from AICC)

 (Meta-data XML Binding and Best Practice (from IMS)
                               Sequencing            Local
                                 Service            Content
                   Testing/                        Repository
                 Assessment
                                                                   SCORM               Remote
                   Service                                         Content
                                  Selection                                            Content
                                                                  Packages           Repositories



                                Content
   Course                     Management       Launch      Delivery
Administration                  Service                    Service
  Service
                                                                                SCORM
                                                                                Content
                                                                             (SCOs & Assets)



                 Tracking                                                           Browser
Learner                                                                          (Presentation)
                  Service
Profiles                            SCORM
                                    Tracking
Service
                                      Data                        SCORM
                                                                    API
                Generalized                               API
                                                        Adapter
           Learning Management
               System Model
SCORM Run Time Environment
   BOOK 1:
   The SCORM                                   SCORM
   Overview




                                                                                 BOOK 3: The
                                                                                 SCORM Run Time
   BOOK 2: The SCORM                                                             Environment
   Content Aggregation Model




                                   Meta-data Dictionary (from IEEE)


                         Content Packaging (from IMS)                 Data Model (from AICC)

                                                                      Launch, Communication API (from AICC)
                Content Structure (derived from AICC)

   (Meta-data XML Binding and Best Practice (from IMS)
SCORM Run Time Environment
   To provide a means for interoperability between
    Shareable Content Object-based learning
    content and Learning Management System
    (LMS)
   To provide a common way to start content, a
    common way for content to communicate with
    an LMS and predefined data elements that are
    exchanged between an LMS and content during
    its execution
   3 aspects are Launch, Application Program
    Interface (API) and Data Model
SCORM Run-Time Environment
                    Learning Management System (LMS)



                                                    LMS
                                                    LMS
                                                  Server
                                                  Server

                                                                                      Server Side



                                                                                       Client Side
                                                 Browser
 Data Model
 Actual data sent
 back and forth
                                                                              Asset         Launch
 between SCO
 and LMS                                                                SCO




                      API
                      API
                                                           JavaScript
                                                           JavaScript
                    Adapter
                    Adapter




                              API   (Communications
                              Link between SCO
                              and LMS)
Launching mechanism
 Launch only Asset and SCO
 The LMS uses the URL defined by the
  learning resource’s launch location,
  defined in the content package
 The actual launch must be accomplished
  using the HTTP protocol
Launching mechanism
   ASSET
      SCORM launch model only requires that LMS launch the
       asset using the HTTP protocol
      There are no need to communicate, using API and data
       model, back to the LMS
   SCO
      SCORM launch model requires that an LMS only launch one
       SCO at a time and that only one SCO is active at a time
      Only LMS may launch SCO, SCO may not launch other SCOs
      LMS must launch the SCO in a browser window that is a child
       window ao a child frame of the LMS window that exposed the
       API Adapter as a Document Object Model (DOM) Object.
Application Program Interface (API)
   Fulfills many of the SCORM’s high level
    requirements for interoperability and reuse
   Based directly on the Run-Time Environment
    functionality defined in AICC’s CMI001
    Guidelines for Interoperability v3.4
   In its simplest terms, an API is merely a set of
    predefined functions that the SCO can rely on
    being available
    API vs. API Adapter
   API
     Set of predefined functions that the SCO can rely on
      being available
     Hides implementation details from the SCO and thus
      promotes reuse and interoperability
   API Adapter
     Piece of functional software that implements and
      exposes the functions of the API
     How the insides of an API Adapter are implemented
      should not matter to content developers provided they
      use the same public interface (API)
LMS Requirements for API Adapter

   The LMS must launch the SCO in a browser
    window that is a child window or a child frame of
    the LMS window that contains the API Adapter
   The API Adapter must be provided by the LMS
   SCORM does not provide restrictions on the
    implementation of the API Adapter
   The API Adapter must be accessible via the
    Document Object Model name ―API‖
    SCOs and the API
   SCO requirements
     Each SCO must find the LMS Provided API
      Adapter
     Each SCO must call LMSInitialize(―‖)
     Each SCO must call LMSFinish(―‖)

   All other API Function calls are optional
    API Functions
   Execution State
     Initiates   and closes communication with LMS
   Data Transfer
     Enables  information to be collected and
      stored by the LMS
   State Management
     Allows error messages to be viewed when an
      error has occurred
Exploring SCORM Version
1.2
     SCORM Run-Time
     Environment API
API and SCORM
    API Execution State Functions
   LMSInitialize()
     Indicates   to the API adapter that the SCO is
      going to communicate with the LMS
     Allows the LMS to handle LMS-specific
      initialization issues
     Requires this function before calling any other
      API functions
    API Execution State Functions
   LMSFinish()
     Must  be called by the SCO before it
      terminates
     Signifies that the SCO can be assured that
      any data set using LMSSetValue() calls has
      been persisted by the LMS
     Signifies that the SCO has finished
      communicating with the LMS
    API Data Transfer Functions
   LMSGetValue()
     Allows   the SCO to obtain information from the
      LMS
     Used to determine:
       Values for various categories (groups) and
        elements in the data model
       Version of the data model supported

       Specific category or element supported

       Number of items currently in an array or list of
        elements
    API Data Transfer Functions
   LMSSetValue()
     Allows   the SCO to send information to the
      LMS
     Used to Set the current values for various
      categories (groups) and elements in the data
      model
API Data Transfer Functions
   LMSCommit()
     Requires that any values not yet persisted by
      the LMS be persisted
     Ensures to the SCO that the data sent, via an
      LMSSetValue() call, will be persisted by the
      LMS upon completion of the LMSCommit()
    API State Management
    Functions
 LMSGetLastError
 LMSGetErrorString
 LMSGetDiagnostic
Data Model
     Data    Model
    Data Model
 Provides a common data model to ensure
  that a defined set of information about
  SCOs can be tracked by different LMS
  environments
 Derived from the AICC CMI Data Model
  described in the AICC CMI Guidelines for
  Interoperability v3.4
Data Model
 Data model is partitioned into eight categories
  core                    objectives
  suspend_data            student_data
  launch_data             student_preference
  comments                interactions
Exploring SCORM Version
1.2
     SCORM Run-Time
     Environment Data Model
Data Model and SCORM
Data Model
cmi.core
 Information required to be furnished by
  all LMS systems
  •   cmi.core.student_id
  •   cmi.core.student_name
  •   cmi.core.lesson_location
  •   cmi.core.credit
  •   cmi.core.lesson_status
  •   cmi.core.entry
  •   cmi.core.score.raw
  •   cmi.core.lesson_mode
 Data Model
cmi.suspend_data
 Unique information generated by the SCO
  and stored by the LMS to pass back to the
  SCO the next time it is attempted or later
  in the current attempt
 Normally used for restart information
 Data Model
cmi.launch_data
 Unique information needed by the SCO
  during launch
 Provided by the content developer in the
  content package (using the ADL Extension
  adlcp:datafromlms)
Data Model
cmi.comments
 Mechanism for collecting and
  distributing comments to/from a SCO
  • cmi.comments
  • cmi.comments_from_lms
Data Model
cmi.objectives
 Identifies how the student has
  performed on learning objectives
  covered in the SCO
  • cmi.objectives.n.id
  • cmi.objectives.n.score
  • cmi.objectives.n.status
Data Model
cmi.student_data
 Information to support customization of
  a SCO based on a student’s
  performance

  • cmi.student_data.mastery_score
  • cmi.student_data.max_time_allowed
  • cmi.student_data.time_limit_action
Data Model
cmi.student_preference
 Student selected options related to SCO
  presentation
  •   cmi.student_preference.audio
  •   cmi.student_preference.language
  •   cmi.student_preference.speed
  •   cmi.student_preference.text
Data Model
cmi.interactions
 Information on each interaction measured as
  the student experiences the SCO
  •   cmi.interactions.n.id
  •   cmi.interactions.n.objectives.n.id
  •   cmi.interactions.n.time
  •   cmi.interactions.n.type
  •   cmi.interactions.n.correct_responses.n.pattern
  •   cmi.interactions.n.weighting
  •   cmi.interactions.n.student_response
  •   cmi.interactions.n.result
  •   cmi.interactions.n.latency
    Data Model
   Two types of data model elements from the LMS
    perspective:
       Mandatory elements which must be supported by the LMS
       Optional elements which may or may not be supported by the
        LMS.
   SCOs are not required to make any data model calls
       Required to make the following calls – LMSInitialize() and
        LMSFinish()
       Getting and setting of data model elements are optional.
SCORM Run-Time
Environment                       Hello
                                  True




                 Handshake
                                          Correct!
                 established


 Hello LMS
 LMSInitialize
                               Score kept
                               internally
                               (initially)
SCORM Run-Time
Environment
                                   True
                                           Got
                                          True It
                                                 True
                                                 Bye




 LMSInitialize
LMSSetValue(cmi.core.score.raw, 100)
 My score is 100 percent                         Internally
                       Content now               stored score
I’m done
LMSFinish                                        now passed to
                       “breaks” the
                       “handshake”               LMS
Run-Time Environment Behavior
       Learning Management System                                                         Sharable Content Object (SCO)
                 1. Determine SCO to Launch:
                       • user selected                                                                                           1. Find the API Adapter Object
                       • automatically using adaptive
                         (prerequisites)
                       • sequential
                 using information from the Content                                                                                2. Call API.LMSInitialize("")
                 Structure defined in the Content Package.
                 If no more SCOs to launch, finish or exit


               2. Determine and initialize the SCO’s
                  cmi.core.lesson_mode.
                  a. Does the LMS support user selectable
                     mode?                                                                                                3. SCO Specific Implementation Behavior
                  b. If cmi.core.lesson_mode is ―normal‖ and                                                                            (All optional)
                     cmi.core.credit is ―no-credit‖ change the
                     cmi.core.lesson_mode to ―browse‖
                                                                                                                        3a. Call API.LMSGetValue("cmi.launch_data")
                                                                                                                            -use if supported by SCO
        3. Determine and initialize the SCO’s cmi.core.entry.
           If cmi.core.lesson_status is ―browsed‖ or ―not attempted‖
           set the cmi.core.entry to ―ab-initio‖ else set it to ―resume‖                                                3b. Call API.LMSGetValue("cmi.core.entry")




                                                                                           Learner Interacts with SCO
                                                                                                                            if entry is "resume", get lesson_location,
                                                                                                                            suspend_data and resume at appropriate
                                                                                                                            location in SCO
                              4. Launch the SCO                      Launch

                                                                                                                        3c. Call API.LMSGetValue
                                                                                                                            ("cmi.core.lesson_mode") conditional
                   4. Service the API Calls made by the SCO                                                                 behavior based on mode
                      LMSInitialize("")
                      LMSGetValue(element)
                      LMSSetValue(element, value)                     API and Datamodel                                 3e. Call API.LMSSetValue to record any
                      LMSGetLast Error()                                                                                    optional information as needed. (e.g.
                      LMSGetErrorString(errorCode)                                                                          scores, status, objectives, interactions, etc.)
                      LMSGetDiagnostic(errorCode)
                      LMSCommit("")
                      LMSFinish("")                                                                                               3f. call API.LMSCommit("")



    5. If there is a mastery score in the content structure for the SCO, the LMS
       can change the lesson_status to ―passed‖ or ―failed‖, depending on the
       value of the cmi.core.score.raw value compared to the mastery score. If
       there is no mastery score defined for the SCO in the content structure,
       the LMS cannot override the lesson_status set by the SCO. If
       cmi.core.credit is set to ―no-credit‖, the LMS may not change the
       lesson_status, unless the SCO’s lesson_mode is ―browse‖ – the LMS                                                          4. Call API.LMSFinish("")
       may set the lesson_status to ―browsed‖.
SCORM Content Aggregation Model
    BOOK 1:
    The SCORM                                   SCORM
    Overview




                                                                                  BOOK 3: The
                                                                                  SCORM Run Time
    BOOK 2: The SCORM                                                             Environment
    Content Aggregation Model




                                    Meta-data Dictionary (from IEEE)


                          Content Packaging (from IMS)                 Data Model (from AICC)

                                                                       Launch, Communication API (from AICC)
                 Content Structure (derived from AICC)

    (Meta-data XML Binding and Best Practice (from IMS)
SCORM Content Aggregation Model
 To provide a common means for
  composing learning content for
  discoverable, reusable, shareable and
  interoperable source
 Define how learning content can be
  identified and describe, aggregated into a
  course or portion of a course and moved
  between systems that may include LMS
  and repositories.
    SCORM Content Aggregation Model

   Content Model
       Nomenclature defining the content components of a learning
        experience
   Meta-data
       A mechanism for describing the components of the content
        model
   Content Packaging
       Defines how to represent the intended behavior of a learning
        experience
       Defines how to package learning resources for movement
        between different environments
Content Model Components
   Asset

   Sharable Content Object (SCO)

   Content Aggregation
Asset




 Any or all of the above can be combined to form learning
 content delivered over the Web. As assets, they have no
 responsibility to communicate directly with the LMS.
Sharable Content Object
(SCO)




  One or more assets “glued” together with interactivity and
  tracking of the learner (e.g., score, completion status) that
  achieves a learning objective.
    Content Aggregation
   A map that can be used to aggregate
    learning resources into a cohesive unit of
    instruction
     Course
     Chapter
     Module
   Applies structure and associates learning
    taxonomies
Content Aggregation
Meta-Data
     Meta-Data
SCORM Meta-data
    Meta-Data
   Data about data
   Provides a common nomenclature so that
    learning content can be described in a common
    way
   Can be collected in catalogs, as well as directly
    packaged with the learning content it describes
   Learning content that is described with meta-
    data can be systematically searched for and
    retrieved for use and reuse
    SCORM Meta-Data
   Directly references the IEEE LTSC* Learning
    Object Meta-data (LOM) v6.1 draft standard and
    the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data v1.2.1
    Specifications
   SCORM defines which data elements are
    mandatory for describing:
     Assets
     SCOs
     Content   Aggregations.
    Meta-Data: Key Terms
   Information Model
     Essentiallythe dictionary of meta-data
      elements to be used to describe a content
      model component
   XML Data Binding
     Defines how to encode, or bind, the dictionary
      elements (Information Model)
     Currently only an XML Binding is provided
    SCORM Meta-Data Information
    Model
   Describes the available data elements permitted to build
    SCORM conformant meta-data records
   Broken into nine categories based on definitions found in
    the IMS Learning Resource Meta-Data Information
    Model
             • General            •   Rights
             •   Lifecycle        •   Relation
             •   Meta-metadata    •   Annotation
             •   Technical        •   Classification
             •   Educational
Exploring SCORM Version
1.2
      Meta-Data Information Model
Meta-data and SCORM
    General
   Identifier –      Description
    RESERVED          Keyword
 Title               Coverage
 Catalog Entry
                      Structure
  (catalog, entry)
                      Aggregation Level
 Language
    Lifecycle
 Version
 Status
 Contribute
     Role
     Entity
     Date
    Meta-Metadata
   Identifier – RESERVED
   Catalog Entry
     Catalog
     Entry

   Contribute
     Role
     Entity
     Date

   Meta-data Scheme
   Language
    Technical
 Format                 Installation
 Size                    Remarks
 Location               Other Platform

 Requirement
                          Requirements
     Type               Duration

     Name
     MinimumVersion
     Maximum Version
    Educational
 Interactivity Type     Context
 Learning Resource      Typical Age Range
  Type                   Difficulty
 Interactivity Level    Typical Learning
 Semantic Density        Time
 Intended End User      Description
  Role                   Language
    Rights
 Cost
 Copyright and Other Restrictions
 Description
    Relation
 Kind
 Resource
               – RESERVED
     Identifier
     Description
     Catalog Entry
        Catalog
        Entry
    Annotation
 Person
 Date
 Description
    Classification
 Purpose
 Taxonpath
     Source
     Taxon
       ID
       Entry

       Taxon

 Description
 Keyword
    SCORM Meta-Data XML
    Binding
 Based on the IMS Learning Resource
  Meta-Data XML v1.2.1 Specification
 Defines how to encode, or bind, the
  ―dictionary‖ elements in XML
 XML is only one possible encoding; others
  may emerge over time, but the information
  model should persist
Exploring SCORM Version
1.2
      Meta-Data XML Binding
Meta-data XML and SCORM
    SCORM Meta-Data
    Application Profiles
   Provide specific guidance for implementing
    meta-data in the SCORM environment
   Define SCORM mandatory elements and how
    they are to be encoded to be SCORM
    conformant
   Define meta-data for SCORM Content Model
    Components
     Asset
     SCO
     Content   Aggregation
Meta-data Profiles and SCORM
Content Packaging
Content Packaging

    Asset


               Content Aggregation




       SCOs
Content Packaging
   Directly references the IMS Content Packaging
    v1.1.2 Specification
   Provides a standardized way to represent
    learning resources (content structure) in the
    exchange process between systems
   Provides a common input/output format that any
    system can support
   SCORM packaging adheres to the IMS Content
    Packaging Specification but provides additional
    explicit implementation guidance for packaging
    assets, SCOs and content aggregations
Content Packaging
   Defines a manifest file (packing slip) describing the
    package itself which contains:
       Meta-data about the package
       An optional organization section that defines Content
        Structure and behavior
       A list of references to resources in the package.
   Defines how to create an XML-based manifest
   Includes directions for packaging the manifest and
    learning resources
       Example: The manifest itself is ―zipped‖ up with the learning
        resources for ―upload‖ to a system—LMS or repository
Components of a Content
Package

                     Content Structure




                      SCOs & Assets
Content Package – Meta-Data
Component
    Meta-Data Component
   Data about data
   Describes the package as a whole
   ADL currently does not have a Meta-data
    Application Profile for Package Level Meta-data
     Developers are free to choose from any elements
      from the SCORM Meta-data Information Model
   Meta-data (throughout content package) can be
    handled in one of two ways
     Inline
     External   (to package)
Content Package –
Organizations Component


                   Content Structure
    Organizations Component
   Use to provide the content structure for the
    learning resources (assets,SCOs)
     Defines the learning taxonomy (units, blocks,
      modules, lessons)
     ADL does not bind a user to a particular
      learning taxonomy
   Package allows for multiple taxonomies to
    be represented
Content Structure
   Provides the content developer with the means to
    author collections of objects into a cohesive unit of
    instruction, apply structure and associate specific
    behaviors that can be uniformly reproduced across
    LMS environments
   Map to be used to sequence/navigate through the
    learning resources defined in the content package
       Describes the structure or taxonomy to be applied to the
        learning resources for use by the LMS that will launch the
        resources
    Traditional Content Authoring
   CBT authoring tools provided the means to
    create parts of a course as well as how and
    when the content would be presented to the
    learner
   Content and content structure were usually
    developed using the same tools and proprietary
    data formats
   Shift to Internet-based technologies and the
    notion of reusability continues to change the
    authoring process
    SCORM Content Authoring
   Content Structure tells the LMS in what order
    to present learning resources (SCOs, assets)
    to the learner
   Authoring process consists of authoring
    Learning Resources and collections of
    learning resources, maybe with different tools
   Two distinct products of the authoring
    process:
     SCOs  launched in a browser environment
     Content Structure information that is taken in by
      the LMS and processed during run-time
Representing Content Structure
   Content Hierarchy
     Defines a tree-based representation that groups
      content objects in a logical order
   Context Specific Meta-data
     Describes how the Learning Resource is to be
      used in a particular collection or aggregation
   Sequencing and Navigation
     Tellsthe LMS what Learning Resource is to be
      presented to the learner and when
Content Hierarchy
   Authoring a collection of learning resources into a
    logical structure involves organizing the learning
    resources into a learning taxonomy hierarchy
   This hierarchical grouping might be used to represent
    concepts like Item, Chapter or Topic
   The SCORM Version 1.1 terms course and block
    have been replaced with the IMS term item
   A combination of resources is generally categorized
    as content
SCORM Content Structure
SCORM Content Structure
SCORM Content Structure
    Context Specific Meta-Data
   Meta-data that is specific to a learning
    strategy
   Incorporated into the content hierarchy
     Content  Packaging Specification allows for meta-
      data to be place with organization and item
      elements
   Context independent meta-data usually refers
    to immutable, stand-alone meta-data records
    for digital assets, content objects, or
    collections of objects
Content Package – Resources
Component




                        SCOs & Assets
    Resources Component
   The collection of learning resources (SCOs,
    assets)
   Use to represent the learning resources.
     Can   be internal or external to the content package
   Referred to at various points within the
    organizations component
   Meta-data can be used to describe the
    resources
     Context independent meta-data
     Should be described as stand-alone (not in a context)
      resources
Content Package – Physical
File Component
Content Package – PIF
Component
Content Packaging Information
Model
   Describes the available data elements permitted in
    building SCORM conformant packages
   Adheres strictly to the IMS Content Packaging
    Information Model but extends it to include elements
    that were formerly defined in the SCORM 1.1 Content
    Structure Information Model
   SCORM conformant packages must adhere to the
    usage of these extensions as they are defined in the
    SCORM
Exploring SCORM Version
1.2
      SCORM Content Package
      Information Model
Content Package and
SCORM
    Content Packaging XML
    Binding
   XML binding for the SCORM Content
    Packaging Information Model
   Directly references the IMS Content
    Packaging v1.1.2 Specification
   Guided by specific rules
     XML   binding will adhere to the XML 1.0
      specification
     XML binding must maintain the definitional
      structure of the SCORM Content Packaging
      Information Model
Exploring SCORM Version
1.2
     SCORM Content Packaging
     XML Binding
Content Packaging XML and
SCORM
So I Want To Use
SCORM For All My
Content, Right?
Not Exactly
When do you need SCORM?
You do want to be SCORM (1.2) conforming if:
1. You want to design learning content that tracks learner
   performance and progress and adapts accordingly
2. You plan to use an LMS to deliver and manage learning content
3. You are designing content that might be reused in other learning
   contexts
4. You want to create a library of learning objects

You probably don't need to be SCORM conforming if:
1. The content is short lived and won't be reused
2. You never plan to use an LMS to deliver and track content
3. You do not have content that has complex behaviors such as
   remediation
4. You want only simple, static, hyperlinked content as reference
   material
   How the SCORM Fits
Instructional Capability,
Modeling & Simulation,                Technical
Intelligent Tutoring,                Specification
Economic Models,
Policy,
R&D, etc.




  SCORM is necessary, but not sufficient ...
What’s new in the
SCORM   TM Version

1.3?
SCORM Version 1.3
   SCORM Content Aggregation Model
     Content Model
     Meta-data
     Content Packaging
     Sequencing - new

   SCORM Run-Time Environment
     Data   Model
Content Model
                         Sharable Content Object (SCO)

   Asset               Asset                Asset
                        JPEG               JavaScript

   Sharable Content    Image

                                  Asset
                                           Functions
                                                           LMS



    Object (SCO)                  HTML
                                Fragment
                                               Asset XML
                                               Fragment



   Sharable Content
                          Sharable Content Asset (SCA)
    Asset (SCA) - new   Asset                Asset
                        JPEG               JavaScript
                        Image              Functions

                                  Asset
                                  HTML         Asset XML
                                Fragment       Fragment
Sequencing
Overview
Background
   Plugfest 4 and Plugfest 5 – Validated
    that SCORM 1.2 was being adopted
    and that ―it worked‖
     Content  developers demonstrated use of
      Content Packaging, Run-Time
      Environment and Meta-data conformance
     The obvious missing piece was the ability
      to create robust sequencing behaviors in
      an interoperable fashion
     The ―86 MB SCO‖ was still prevalent
Background (cont.)
   Plugfest 6 – Introduced and demonstrated
    sequencing based on the IMS Simple
    Sequencing Specification (public draft version
    0.7.5)
   Since Plugfest 6, the IMS Simple Sequencing
    Specification has been significantly updated.
   The final specification is currently in vote
       (more information at: http://www.imsglobal.org/ )
   The voting period ends January 15th 2003
Sequencing Timeline (tentative)

            11/1/2002 - 1/15/2003
                                              1/15/2003 - 1/31/2003         SCORM V1.3 Release
            IMS SS Voting Period
                                         Preparation of Final IMS SS Spec




11/1/2002                                                                          3/14/2003
                                           1/15/2003
                                    IMS SS Voting Period Ends
                                                      1/31/2003
                                                  IMS Public Release
                                                     of Final Spec
What Is Sequencing?
   Predictable, consistent ordering and delivery of
    learning activities, in an instructionally
    meaningful manner, regardless of delivery
    environment
     Designers/authors   specify sequencing behaviors at
      design/authoring time.
     Activities are sequenced at time of delivery depending
      on specified behaviors and the learner’s actions.
     Sequencing behaviors are external from the content
      to enable greater degree of granularity and reuse
Problems that the IMS Sequencing
Specification is Trying to Solve
 Code for sequencing is embedded with
  code inside learning resources
 Sequencing behavior is inconsistent in
  different delivery systems
 Models of sequencing are proprietary or
  idiosyncratic
 Models of sequencing behaviors and
  activities are poorly defined
                      SCORM 1.2 Sequencing
Activity A                           Conditional branching
   If status == “satisfied”         logic is built into the
   Then goto C
   Else goto B                      Resource
                                     Can‟t easily reuse
Activity B
                                    Resources, because
             Goto C
                                    of „hard wired‟
                                    dependencies
Activity C

 If status == “not satisfied”
 Then goto A
 Else goto…
SCORM 1.3 Sequencing
  Activity A
  Activity A
                                   If status != “satisfied”
     If status == “satisfied”
     Then goto C
     Else goto B


                                    If status == “satisfied”
   Activity B
   Activity B

               Goto C

                                           Goto C


   Activity C
   Activity C
                                     If status == “not satisfied”
    If status == “not satisfied”
    Then goto A
    Else goto…
IMS Sequencing Working Group
Accomplishments
   Developed a taxonomy for sequencing of
    learning activities.
   Defined the scope of the version 1.0
    specification.
   Collected & analyzed use cases to derive
    requirements.
   Developed draft sequencing spec - currently
    working toward public draft.
Sequencing Specification Scope
   Focus on simplistic approach for sequencing version 1.0
   Specify sequencing behavioral model
   Define information model for sequencing extensions to
    IMS content packaging v1.1.2
   Define tracking information models as needed to enable
    sequencing
   Encompass complex content (SCOs) as well as simple
    content (learning resources that do not communicate at
    runtime)
   Specify navigation events that trigger sequencing
    requests
   Does not address specifics of user interface navigation
    controls
   Does not address look & feel (skins) issues
Use Cases
   Boeing - Fuel Valve Maintenance
   NETg - Precision Learning
   Click2Learn - Soft Skills Course (Blended
    Content & Services)
   GIUNTI - Preservation of Paintings on Wood
   WebCT
   NYU Online
   CISCO – ILG
Sequenced Learning Activities Found
in Use Cases
      Learning Activities
      Offline Activities
           Description/instructions provided online
           Student works offline
           Online student submission
           Offline marking by instructor
      Assessments
           Pre/Post assessment
           Quiz
           Final Examination
      Remediation
           based on performance of an activity or assessment results
           Selection of Whole or partial learning activity
      Ancillary Resources (e.g. Reference, FAQ, Glossary, IETM )
      Expert Consultation
      Review /Preview of Activities
      Feedback summary
      Progress indication
Use Case Requirements
   Sequencing Structures
       User selection (Ad-hoc)
       Linear
       Parallel
   Navigation
       Go to next
       Go to previous            Table of Contents chat glossary help
       User select next                             Content Stage
       User select from TOC
                                                                         Ancillary
       Re-start an activity                                              Stage
       concurrent activity

   Activity Navigation States
       User Selectable/Not Selectable
       Visible/Not Visible
IMS Sequencing Specification
Components
   Sequencing model
     Behavior  model
     Information models
          Sequencing information model
          Tracking model
   XML binding
     Extensions    to the IMS content packaging spec
      V1.1.2
   Best practice implementation guide
     Guidance for tool developers
     Guidance for content creators
Content Package Structure
                   Sequencing

                   Item
                   Item
                    Item
                    Item
                    Item
Sequencing Information Model
   Control - describes where navigation events can originate
    from
      Flow, Choice, Mixed, Auto
   Traversal
      Sequential, Any, Concurrent
   PreviousAllowed – is backward traversal permitted (true/false)
   Selection - how the set of sequenced items for the current
    aggregation are selected and ordered.
   Pre-Condition (condition, action)
      E.g. if max attempts exceeded, skip this item
   Post-Condition (condition, action)
      E.g. if failed, retry the item
   Etc… to be defined.
Tracking Information Model
     Tracking information
       Activity attempt count
       Activity duration
       Activity completion
       Activity score
       Activity mastery
       Referenced learning objective/competency
        completion
     Activity launch limits
       Time limits for completion
       Time based availability
       Maximum attempt limit for completion
       Prerequisite completion prior to entry
Sequencing Behavior Model Upon exit of an item,          ?
                          evaluate pre-conditions
                          and then, evaluate the
                          status of the cluster to
                          determine impact it‟s parent

                                         Based on a sequencing request, traverse the
                                        Translate navigation events item‟s
                                         organization and evaluate each
                                          into sequencing requests
                                         availability for launch based on:
      Navigation
                                                     –Item state/status
      Interpreter
                                                     –Pre-Condition evaluation

     Sequencing Process
                                          Prepare and deliver
                                          the “selected” items‟
                                          resources
  The Missing SCORM piece
                    SCORM 1.2
Where we are       (Adds Packaging)




                                                     SCORM 2.0
  SCORM 1.1
                        SCORM 1.3 (?)
                                                      Advanced,
                                                       Adaptive
                                                     Architecture

                                      Improved
                                      Data Model
                                      Elements
               Sequencing &
               Navigation
                   The missing                     Where we really
                  near-term piece                    want to be
        ADL Future Versions of
        SCORM
                        2000                     2001                       2002                      2003



ARIADNE
IMS
IEEE
AICC                                                            SCORM 2.0             SCORM 3.0       SCORM 4.0
                                                                New Architecture      ITS             TBD
             SCORM 1.0      SCORM 1.1                           - highly adaptive     Simulation      (Need
IBM
             Content Mod.   Clean/Fix                           - new content         Perf. Supp      Research
Microsoft
                                                                models                Advanced        Now for
Macromedia Run-time Env.
                                                  SCORM 1.3     - first integration    Capabilities   This)
Cisco                            SCORM 1.2
NetG                                                            of performance
                                 Add              Sequencing    support &
Click2Learn                      Content
Saba                                              “Ultralite”   simulation
                                 Packaging
Pathlore                         Profiles &
Centra,                          New Meta-data
(many others)….
THANK YOU

				
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