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SQ3R Method for Thorough Study

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SQ3R Method for Thorough Study Powered By Docstoc
					IN THE NAME OF ALLAH ALMIGHTY AND THE MERCIFUL
  The version found written on the wall in Mother Teresa's home for children in
                                    Calcutta:

      People are often unreasonable, irrational, and self-centered.   Forgive
them anyway.

      If you are kind, people may accuse you of selfish, ulterior motives.   Be
kind anyway.

      If you are successful, you will win some unfaithful friends and some
genuine enemies. Succeed anyway.

      If you are honest and sincere people may deceive you.    Be honest and
sincere anyway.

      What you spend years creating, others could destroy overnight.     Create
anyway.

      If you find serenity and happiness, some may be jealous.    Be happy
anyway.

      The good you do today, will often be forgotten.     Do good anyway.

      Give the best you have, and it will never be enough.    Give your best
anyway.

      In the final analysis, it is between you and God.   It was never between you
and them anyway.
                   Tests of life aren’t meant to break you, but to make you.



                  As long as Enthusiasm holds out, so will new opportunities

"The butterflies are attracted to the amazing color of fire…some of them get closer and are
burned; while other butterflies stayed away to die out of coldness. The butterflies that have dared
to approach and enjoyed the fire knew that it will kill them, yet they kept approaching because
they wanted to make sense of their lives instead of living forever in darkness and coldness…"

                            Reading and Studying Strategies:


Read the Preface
Most students skip the preface. Don't! Read the preface and you'll get essential
information for understanding the author's perspective. The preface usually
provides information about the author's objective, the organizational plan of the
book, how the book is different from others on the market, and the author's
background and qualifications. Once you know the author's objective or goal, it's
easier to see relationships among the facts presented. The organizational plan is
like a road map explaining where the author will take you.

Read the Introduction
Read the introduction to the book; it's into the book. The introduction lays the
foundation for the rest of the text in the form of overview and background
information that will make it easier to digest information in the subsequent
chapters.

Make More Than One Pass
Reading articles and textbooks often requires more than one pass. It usually takes
two, three, or even more readings to grasp difficult concepts.

Take Notes
In early readings, take the briefest of notes while reading by adding brackets in
margins or underlining minimally. Note pages where you might want to take
formal notes. After reading, take more extensive notes. When reading and note
taking is are complete, reread all of your notes, think about what you've read, and
add more notes based on your reflections. Your goal is to have notes that are
concise, capture the reading - and replace it so that you don't have to go back and
reread.

Don't Highlight
If you underline text, do so minimally and stay focused on the important details.
Avoid the temptation to highlight every line. Heavy highlighting is a
procrastination tool because usually you're marking what you should learn instead
of focusing on learning it.

Read Before Class
Read the chapter before attending class so that you're familiar with the material
beforehand. Note unanswered questions or particularly difficult material, and seek
answers during class.

1. Preview: Look through the pages of your reading passage and read the
   headings of the chapter and any sections dividing the chapter. Read the first
   and last paragraph in each section. View the illustrations in each section. Read
   the captions under the pictures and take a few minutes to look at charts, graphs,
   or maps.
2. Question: Think about the information you learned in the Preview. Ask
   yourself questions about it. Think about what do you already know about ideas
   you saw during your Preview. What do you think are main points that will be
   raised in the chapter? What do you expect to learn from reading this material?
3. Read: Read the passage. If there are ideas seem important, make a note of
   them on paper. If you just can't imagine writing in your book, make notes on
   paper.
4. Reflect: Take time to reflect on what you have read. How are the passages or
   chapters inter-related? How does the information fit into things you have
   already learned? What new information did you learn? Did the passage include
   the information you expected it to cover? Was there information that surprised
   you?
5. Recite: Think about the material. Discuss it with someone else or write down
   the main points you learned. Generally, writing information down by hand will
   improve memory of the material. If writing is a problem for you, consider brief
   notes or discuss the material with other students. It is important to summarize
   the material in writing using your own words. Explain it aloud to someone else
   or recite your notes aloud to yourself. Consider using a graphic organizer to
   increase your understanding of how concepts in the reading relate to each
   other.
6. Review: Consider the main points of the material. Were your questions
   answered? Do you feel that the writer's points are fully understood?



                   Active Reading: Comprehension and Rate



Reading before class:

1. Make the most of class time.
When you read ahead of time, you're more likely to understand the organization of
the lecture. You'll be better able to figure out what's important and what isn't (and
thereby take effective notes).

2. Understand the topic and what you don't understand.
If you've read beforehand you can focus your attention on filling gaps in your
understanding by paying more attention during some parts of the lecture and by
asking questions.

3. Participate.
Most classes require at least some participation -- answering questions and
participating in class discussions. It's easy to participate when you know the topic.
Reading beforehand helps you to know the topic and have the time to consider
your perspective and opinions.

4. Show off.
Reading before class lets you show that you've read, that you care, and that you are
intelligent. You'll be able to ask intelligent questions and participate in a way that
demonstrates preparation, interest, and mastery of the material.

5. Participate in group work.
Many classes require group work, often in class. If you've read, you're ready and
likely will not mooch on your classmates, or benefit from their hard work. In turn,
if you've read you can tell when the group is taking a wrong turn.
6. Test Yourself to Determine How Well You've Learned the Material
After your reading session, quiz yourself on the main points. What was the main
idea? Who are the characters in the story? What information did you learn? Jot
down your thoughts in your own words to help you remember them and give you
deeper insight into the topic.




               3 R's for Academic Survival

Here is a lean and wiry system containing all the essential techniques for
mastering textbook assignments. This is an "exam passer".

R1         READ. Read the chapter paragraph by paragraph. Read and re-read
until you can answer the question: "What did the author say in this
paragraph?"

R2         RECORD. Once you are able to describe what is in the paragraph, you
will want to retain that learning by underlining, making notes in
the margin, or making notes in your notebook.

R3         RECITE. Cover up your notes or printed page and recite aloud.
Remember! If you can't say it now, you won't be able to say it
tomorrow in class, nor write it in a week on an exam; so while
you still have a chance, try and try again, until you can say it.




                                          SQ3R Method for Thorough Study


Step 1: SURVEY -   Look over material critically. Skim through the book and read
                   topical and subtopical headings and sentences. Read the
                   summaries at the end of chapters and books. Try to anticipate
                   what the author is going to say.


                   WRITE these notes on paper, in sequence; then look over the
                   jottings to get an overall idea or picture. This will enable you
                   to see where you are going.


Step 2: QUESTIONS - Instead of reading paragraph headings such as "Basic
                Concepts of Reading," change to read, "What are the Basic
                Concepts of Reading?" These questions will become "hooks"
                on which to hang the reading material.


WRITE these questions out; look over the questions to see the
emphasis and direction; then attempt to give plausible answers
before further reading.



Step 3: READ -     Read with smoothness and alertness to answer the questions.
                   Use all the techniques and principles demonstrated in class.


WRITE notes, in your own words, under each question. Take a
minimum number of notes-use these notes as a skeleton.



Step 4: RECALL** -    Without looking at your book or notes, mentally visualize
                and sketch, in your own words, the high points of the material
                immediately upon completing the reading.


a. This forces you to check understanding.

b. This channels the material into a natural and usable form.

c. This points up what you do not understand.
d. This forces you to think.



Step 5: REVIEW - Look at your questions, answers, notes and book to see how
                 well you did recall. Observe carefully the points stated
                 incorrectly or omitted. Fix carefully in mind the logical
                 sequence of the entire idea, concepts, or problem. Finish up
                 with a mental picture of the WHOLE.




**Note: More time should be spent on recall than on reading.



Management skills:

                         The Japanese Management Style

During the 1970s and 1980s, worldwide attention has focused on the successes of
Japanese firms doing business in the US , Europe , and elsewhere. Nissan , Toyota,
Honda ,NEC , Sanyo, Panasonic , and numerous other Japanese brand names have
become household words throughout the world. Only two or three decades ago,
the largest and most successful international firms came almost exclusively from
the US and Western Europe. How have the Japanese attained such an impressive
position in world markets? As we have already seen in "the US auto Industry
case." The Japanese auto manufacturers are currently exceeding their American
and European competitors in labor productivity and in reducing production costs.
In addition in many industries the quality of Japanese products is perceived to be
better than that of firms from other countries. Companies that want to compete
successfully against the Japanese will need to achieve similar results in their own
business activities. The purpose of this case is to focus attention on the issue of
labor productivity, using the Japanese model as a basis for the discussion.
Japanese style management has been widely analyzed, from its emphasis on long-
term employment to its concept of consultative decision making. The central
issue in all of the analyses is that Japanese firms appear to pay more attention to
human resources (i.e. the people who work in the firm) than do firms from other
countries. Among the policies used by Japanese firms for human resource
management are these four key elements:

   1.   Long-term employment
   2.   Slow performance evaluation and promotion.
   3.   Generalist career paths
   4.   Consultative decision making.
             Since world war���� large industrial corporations in Japan have
             followed a practice of hiring their employees and managers directly
             from high school or college, then keeping them employed
             throughout their careers within the same firm. Very little mobility
             exists between companies, since Japanese society has come to
             expect that a person will remain with the same employer until
             retirement. A very positive aspect of this practice is that it provides
             job stability for every one in the firm, so that individuals tend to
             identify their own interest more with the company, which must
             perform well if their jobs are to be protected.

              Also, the company can justify expenditures on the training of
             employees, knowing that they will remain and offer benefits to the
             company from their increased skills. The negative aspect (from a
             western point of view) is that few socially acceptable choices exist for
             someone who wishes to change companies during career, regardless
             of the reason. By giving careful evaluation to each employee and
             manager, Japanese firms demonstrate a sense of caring for the
             person. Also, by promotion managers through the ranks of
             management very slowly, the firm conveys to all that long-term
            performance is what counts. Even after the long initial period, ranks
            tend to be equal among people with similar seniority.

Is what count: is what matters; what's important.

     Though tasks and compensation become differentiated according to
performance. People "save face" by maintaining equal rank with other in heir
cohort through the years, even while the firm can be manage capably by assigning
the key decisions to those who demonstrate the greatest ability to handle them.

Handle= deal with.

A third characteristic of Japan human resource management is the use of a
generalist career path. That is Japanese workers and managers are trained in one
area of specialization when they join the firm, and then rotated among
assignments and specialization during their careers so that everyone learns
several job skills. Someone hired as a financial analyst .may be shifted into the
personnel department after four or five years and then into government business
relations after that.

A worker who spends all or most of his time on an assembly line may be moved
into repair work and subsequently into another type of assembly- line activity.
This policy enhances the flexibility of the firm, because people can be shifted from
job to job. It also enables the firm to operate more efficiently by imparting more
skills to managers and workers. Thus, no one becomes over specialized, and every
one spends some time in areas outside of the initial area of specialization,
although a worker or manager may return to preferred specialty after spending
time working in other areas.

Finally, Japanese firms use a system of consultative decision making, which
attempts to pass information about important company activities from the top
managers all the way down to the lowest-ranking workers. In particular, decisions
that will affect people in any area of the firm are discussed with those people
before the decision is made, so that the affected workers and managers can voice
their opinions and concerns before a problem arises.
For example, an auto company will distribute information about a proposed new
assembly line, so that workers affected by the change will be able to see its
impact on them and discuss it with their superiors before the change is made.

Because top managers have been rotated through several functional areas of the
company, they tend to understand the concerns of people at lower levels and to
be responsive.

Because all employees involved in the decision have the opportunity to raise
concerns about potential problems, the firm can avoid errors that otherwise
would occur. Ultimately, top management must take responsibility for decisions,
so this process does not imply that everyone has equal say in decision making. It
is the conscious effort to create communication from bottom to top and top to
bottom in the firm, and the fact that this information flow enables managers to
make better decisions, that is so crucial here.

Other aspects of Japanese human resource management could be noted, but
those already discussed give a good idea of the basic differences between those
firms and their competitors from other countries. One of the major subjects of
discussion by managers in the US during the past few years has been the
possibility of transferring some of the Japanese style to US firms. Are people from
different countries and cultures similar enough that Japanese practices can be
used elsewhere? An illustration of these issues follows.

Case Study:

The Morioka manufacturing company (also known as 2m) is a fairly typical large
Japanese corporation that makes abrasives for automobile and industrial
clutches, grinding and sanding machines, and specialized polishing equipment. In
1985 the company had about a 70 percent market share in Japan, and had gained
almost 25 percent shares in most western European countries and in North
America. Total worldwide sales were over 250 billion yen in 1984.
2m has been evaluating a proposal to acquire a factory formerly operated by
Bendix Corporation in California. The factory produced industrial clutches, which
Bendix sold to a variety of companies for use in industrial machinery. Because the
factory shut down only last year almost half of the 300 workers formerly
employed there would be available to work for 2m. Mr.Yoshi Hajima. The
director of 2m's international Division was wondering about the advisability of
investing in the US at all. He knew that the political pressure on Japan to import
more US goods and to invest in US to provide more American jobs was strong and
most likely would continue through the rest of the decade.2m could face
limitations on its exports to the US market at any time. Since that market now
provided about 40 percent of the company's worldwide sales, maintaining US
business was critical.

The Bendix factory was not completely outmoded, but it would require
substantial investment to up the machinery. The location in California was not a
problem for US sales because of the excellent transportation system in the US. In
fact, there was only one negative aspect of the whole idea: Hajima had seen
various studies that showed an enormous productivity gap between output per
worker in Japan and in the US

Outmoded= out of fashion.

He was not excited about the prospect of dealing with the Americans, even
though there was no current threat of union fight (that is an effort by workers to
organize a union to demand better treatment by management). Other Japanese
firms had successfully invested in the US market, though very few of them had
achieved anything near the productivity levels their Japanese operation.

DIGEST: Decide Imagine Generate Evaluate Select

Decide: process: series of steps to a chive s.th
Imagine: the situate

Generate: create many solutions.

Evaluate: see the advantages and the disadvantages of s.th

Select: consult other people

Taken-for-granted: I accept it without thinking about it.‫شٌئ مسلم به‬

Human responses (HR)‫الموارد البشرٌة‬

The advantages: ‫الفوائد‬

      Security ‫األمن‬
      Identifying your interests with the company‫ربط مصالحك بالشركة‬
      Providing training courses‫التزوٌد بالدورات التدرٌبٌة‬
      Scholarships‫الثقافة‬
      Contingency plan: get under-prepared‫خطط احتٌاطٌة‬

       General career paths: rotating between different jobs‫التنقل فً عدة وظائف‬
       Consultative decision: ‫القرار التشاوري‬
       Slow performance evaluation and promotion:‫التقٌٌم البطئ لألداء والترقٌات‬


          Six thinking hats looking at a decision from all points of view



White hat:

With this thinking hat you focus on the data available. Look at the information
you have, and see what you can learn from it.
Red hat:

You look at problems using intuition gut reaction and emotion. Also try to think
how other people will react emotionally. Try to understand the responses of
people who do not fully know your reasoning.



Black hat:

Look at all the bad points of the decision. Look at it cautiously and defensively. Try
to see why it might not work. This is important because it highlights the e/weak
points in a plan. It allows you to eliminate them alter them or prepare
contingency plant to counter them.



Yellow hat:

Help you to thinking positively. It is the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see
all the benefits of the decision and the value in it. Helps you to keep going when
every thing looks gloomy and difficult.

Green hat:

Its stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative solution to a
problem. It is a freewheeling way of thinking, in which there is little criticism of
ideas. A whole range of creativity tools can help you here.

Blue hat:

Its stands for process control. This is the worn by people chairing meeting. When
running into difficulties because ideas are running dry, they may direct activity
into green hat thinking. When contingency plans are needed, they will ask for
back hat thinking.
Core words:

Neutral ≠ biased ‫منحاز‬

Intuition ً‫الحس الداخل‬

Pessimistic ‫ ≠متشائم‬optimistic ‫(متفائل‬adj)

Pessimism ‫ ≠تشاؤم‬optimism ‫(تفاؤل‬n)

Pessimism ≠ optimism is the concept ‫مصادر وتعبر عن المفهوم بحد ذاته‬

Eliminate: ‫التخلص منها‬

Contingency: is an event that might or might not happen.

‫حدث ما ٌمكن له أن ٌحدث أو ال ٌحدث‬

Counter: respond to an attack with opposing view.

‫الرد على هجوم ما من وجهة نظر معاكسة‬

   Resilient plans: able to return quickly to the original shape ‫قابل ألن ٌعود بسرعة إلى‬
                                                                          ً‫وضعه األصل‬

                               Apollo Produits du Soleil

Mr. Depardieu was worryied about how he was going to get the support of his
employees in meeting a very important production deadline. Business had not
been easy for Apollo Produits du Soleil since it was acquired by a German
corporation four years ago.

Since that time annual sales had decreased from 9.5$million to 6.8$million. In an
industry which had grown by 11% in the last four years, Apollo had lost business
and market share. In recent vears, attitudes toward the sun and its effects on the
skin had begun to change, creating new opportunities for the industry. But Apollo,
plagued by management problems, had failed to take advantage of the trend.
Light tanning of the skin become fashionable in Europe after World War1. It was
the symbol of success and leisure, conjuring up images of the rich and famous
relaxing on the beaches of St. Tropez. Suntans gained in popularity particularly
their special French tanning lotions and oils.

In 1970, Apollo was the first sun care products company to offer tropical-smelling
oils and lotions for tanning. Two years later, Apollo expanded its line of suntan
lotions and oils to offer a complete line of tanning care products. These products
enabled customers to accelerate their rate of tanning and also to preserve their
tans. These before-and-after tanning products were introduced with an
advertising camping that stated." To Radiate That Healthy Glow Use Apollo". By
1980, Apollo Produits du Soleil had built a 40% share of the French market. Apollo
was also investigating the prospect of exporting its products to the US and other
European countries. In 1983, Hautweichmittel Gmbh, a German skin care
corporation, acquired Apollo in a hostile takeover. Mr. Depardieu was not fired
during the takeover but was allowed to remain company president. Even so, he
never got used to being the employee of a large foreign conglomerate. In the
years that followed, Apollo experienced the uncertainties that resulted from
being transformed into a subsidiary.

The parent company was not familiar with the French tanning product market,
nor with French tastes. Instead of reinvesting profits back into the business for
research and development, Hautweichmittel used the funds to offset losses in
other corporate holdings. Corporate decisions were mad in Germany not France.
Employees did not support the German company. Morale continued to decline
and Apollo began to lose market share to competitors.

These developments coincided with significant changes in people's attitudes to
ward the sun and outdoor recreation. The deterioration of the ozone layer in the
upper atmosphere brought a marked increase in cases of skin cancer and a
heightened awareness of the risks posed by the sun. People began to wonder not
only about weekend sunbathing at the beach but also about the cumulative
effects of inadvertent exposure to the sun brought about by everyday activities
such as gardening strolling and even sitting at an outdoor cafe. Consumers began
to demand a reliable sunscreen that would provide maximum protection against
harmful rays. Sun-worshippers wanted a product that would allow them to tan
while protecting them against skin cancer and premature aging.

Sun worshippers: are those people who like to make sun tan a lot; they like to
always enjoy the sunbath.

Mr. Depardieu found out that two of Apollo's top French competitors were
introducing a new line of suntan products. These products contained a special
formula that enabled sunbathers to remain outdoors for long periods of time
without any damage to their skin. He informed the management at
Hautweichmittel that unless Apollo reacted quickly to the competition, Apollo
would continue to lose sales and market share.

Apollo told the parent company that despite the low budget devoted to research
and development, Apollo's engineers were able to develop and test a new line of
natural cosmetics-moisturizers, foundations and lipsticks that could shield the
skin from the sun.

Market research conducted by the German company also indicated that the
product line could be very successful. By targeting the products to men women
and children alike Mr. Depardieu thought that Apollo would become a leader
once again in the French market and possibly a strong contender for the
European market.

The management at Hautweichmittel agreed to let Mr. Depardieu produce the
cosmetics and sunscreen lotion in time for the summer holiday season just six
months away. The vice-president of finance of the German company told Mr.
Depardieu to package and produce 22900 cases of the new product line 13100
cases of sunscreen lotion , 5000 cases of lipstick, 3000 cases of moisturizer and
1800 cases of foundation.

500000$ advertising budget would be allotted for the new product introduction.
Hautweichmittel's vice-president of finance wrote in a memo to Mr. Depardieu
"since we experiencing severe financial problems, we will not be able to increase
salary and wage expenses to meet the production deadline. Therefore you wont
be able to hire any additional employees. If the goods are not ready for sale by
April is extreme cost-cutting measures will have to be taken at Apollo or selling off
the operation"


Corporation: large company or business.

Company: is a branch of corporation.

Establishment: long-time established company.

Sun-tan: sun-screen= protecting the skin from the harmful effects of s.th

So... San-tan: sign of leisure and luxury.



Take over: gain control of company by buying shaper

‫االستحواذ : اكتساب السٌطرة على الشركة بواسطة شراء حصصها‬

≠

Merger: equal companies ‫االندماج‬



Decrease sale: lose

Corporation president: the ruler

Parent company: ‫الشركة األم‬

Subsidiary company: ‫الشركة الفرع‬
German company ‫ >>>شركة ألمانٌة‬Germany: ‫ألمانٌا‬

Deadline: fixed date of completing a taskً‫الموعد النهائ‬

Production line:‫ = خط اإلنتاج‬assembly line

Sequential = serial ‫متسلسل‬



The Comfort zone:
I used to have a comfort zone where I knew I wouldn't fail.
The same four walls and busywork were really more like jail.
I longed so much to do the things I'd never done before,
But stayed inside my comfort zone and paced the same old floor.

I said it didn't matter that I wasn't doing much.
I said I didn't care for things like commission checks and such.
I claimed to be so busy with the things inside the zone,
But deep inside I longed for something special of my own.

I   couldn't let my life go by just watching others win.
I   held my breath; I stepped outside and let the change begin.
I   took a step and with new strength I'd never felt before,
I   kissed my comfort zone goodbye and closed and locked the door.

If you're in a comfort zone, afraid to venture out,
Remember that all winners were at one time filled with doubt.
A step or two and words of praise can make your dreams come true.
Reach for your future with a smile; success is there for you!

When things go wrong, as they sometimes will,
when the road you're trudging seems all uphill,
when the funds are low and the debts are high,
and you want to smile but you have to sigh,
when care is pressing you down a bit - rest if you must,
but don't you quit.

Life is queer with its twists and turns.
As every one of us sometimes learns.
And many a fellow turns about when he might have won had he stuck it out.
Don't give up though the pace seems slow - you may succeed with another blow.

Often the goal is nearer than it seems to a faint and faltering man;
often the struggler has given up when he might have captured the victor's cup;
and he learned too late when the night came down,
how close he was to the golden crown.

Success is failure turned inside out - the silver tint of the clouds of doubt,
and when you never can tell how close you are,
it may be near when it seems afar;
so stick to the fight when you're hardest hit - it's when things seem worst,
you must not quit.

Be thankful when you're tired and weary,
because it means you've made a difference.

Find a way to be thankful for your troubles,
and they can become your blessings.

.

				
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