Embedded Literacy_ Language and Numeracy

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					                                                                                                                                             Briefing 14

Embedded Literacy, Language
and Numeracy (LLN)
                                                              Embedded Literacy, Language
This briefing aims to:                                        and Numeracy
• give an overview of current
                                                              Extending and developing Embedded LLN approaches is a development priority
  thinking and practice                                       for education and training providers across the post-6 sector. This briefing aims
  on embedded Literacy,                                       to provide an up-to-date overview of current information so that key staff in all
                                                              contexts know what’s available and are able to access it easily. Each section starts
  Language and Numeracy
                                                              with a brief introduction, followed by details of specific sources of information under
• signpost practitioners                                      the headings of:

  from all contexts to what’s                                      A.    Definitions and starting points                                         Page    2
                                                                   B.    ‘How to’ guides and case studies                                        Page    3
  out there and available to
                                                                   C.    Teaching resources                                                      Page    5
  help you.                                                        D.    Sources of help and support                                             Page    7
                                                                   E.    Professional development routes and resources                           Page    9
                                                                   F.    Research                                                                Page   11
                                                                   G.    The policy context                                                      Page   13
                                                                   H.    Planning, accreditation and funding issues                              Page   15
                                                                   I.    Glossary of acronyms                                                    Page   18
                                                              Choose your own starting point. The information will be of relevance to:
                                                                   •     Frontline and support staff working with actual or potential learners
                                                                   •     Teachers and trainers in vocational and other subject areas
                                                                   •     Skills for Life teachers and trainers
                                                                   •     Team leaders, supervisors and managers in education, training and the
                                                                   •     Leaders and managers
                                                                   •     Human Resource staff, staff development managers, teacher trainers and
                                                                         trainee teachers

This briefing was prepared in                                 in adult and community learning, workplace, work-based training, voluntary and
December 2007.                                                community, offender learning and further education settings across the region.

In this fast-moving area it is                                You can access this e-briefing on-line on
essential to keep up to date with                             www.talent.ac.uk/content.asp?CategoryID=847
new developments. These are widely                            If you have further information you think should be included please contact
promoted and publicised through the                           londonstrategicunit@ioe.ac.uk
organisations and websites referred to
in each section.                                              A note on terminology
                                                              Current terminology has been used throughout, with acronyms (eg LLN) written in
                                                              full at first usage. Click on any acronym for a direct link to the glossary.
Live links throughout this e-briefing are underscored. To
access them please double click.

                  LSU is part of the London Centre for Leadership in Learning
                                                 at the Institute of Education
                                   A. Definitions and starting points
                                   Adult literacy, language and numeracy are defined as:
                                       The ability to read, write and speak in English and to use mathematics at a
                                       level necessary to function and progress at work and in society in general
                                       Skills for Life Strategy, Department for Education and Skills (DfES) 2001
                                   Since 200, literacy, language and numeracy have been brought together as ‘Skills
                                   for Life’ in the government’s national Skills for Life strategy. The strategy emphasises
                                   that people want and need to improve their skills in a context and for a purpose
                                   – whether it’s to help children at school, to be able to manage personal finances, or
                                   to cope and progress at work.
                                   Embedded literacy, language and numeracy (LLN) puts this thinking into practice:
                                       ‘Embedded teaching and learning combines the development of literacy,
                                       language and numeracy with vocational and other skills. The skills acquired
                                       provide learners with the confidence, competence and motivation necessary
                                       for them to succeed in qualifications, in life and in work.’
                                       Skills for Life Strategy Unit, (DfES) 2003
                                   Recent research shows that embedded LLN is most effective where vocational or
                                   other subject practitioners work in partnership with language, literacy and numeracy
                                   practitioners in unified programmes which:
                                       •   Present an integrated whole to learners
                                       •   Have two or more learning aims within a single programme, including LLN
                                       •   Integrate LLN teaching in a variety of ways.
                                   This results in:
                                   •   Higher retention and success rates overall
                                   •   Much higher achievements in language, literacy and numeracy.
                                   This perspective on embedding has now supplanted earlier approaches. As a rule
                                   of thumb, if a learner experiences a programme as a whole including LLN, it is
                                   successfully embedded. This applies also to staff:
                                       ‘Things are done differently – instead of vocational AND key skills I feel I am
                                       part of a team of engineering teachers.’
                                       LLN Practitioner
                                   While government priorities mean that the main focus of embedded LLN at present
                                   is on vocational training, delivered in the workplace or in preparation for work,
                                   embedded LLN approaches are equally relevant and successful across the full range
                                   of post-school contexts for education and training, including community settings.

 ‘You wouldn’t expect a maths
teacher to teach plastering..’     Back to top of document
Embedding literacy, language and
numeracy in post-16 vocational

programmes – the impact on
learning and achievement. NRDC,
November 2006

Page 2
         B. ‘How to’ Guides and Case Studies
         A number of paper- and web-based publications provide substantial overview
         information as well as practical guidance on the planning and delivery of embedded
         LLN. These are listed in chronological order, with the most recent first. A number of
         useful case studies in a variety of contexts are also included.

         1. Embedding: Developing Adult Teaching and Learning: practitioner guides,
         Helen Casey, Mary Conway, Sue Grief and Desiree Lopez
         Important new guide on putting the findings of the most recent National Research
         and Development Centre (NRDC) research into practice. Produced as part of a series
         of practitioner guides by the National Institute for Adult and Community Education
         (NIACE) with NRDC with a planned publication date in early 2008, and available
         free from www.niace.org.uk/publications or downloadable from www.nrdc.org.uk/

         2. Practical guidelines for embedding Skills for Life into vocational programmes,
         Skills for Life Development Centre ‘Making Learning Work in Sussex’, March 2006
         Outcomes of a Learning and Skills Council (LSC)/Council for British Teachers (CfBT)
         funded project drawing on experience of a number of ‘trailblazer’ organisations with
         input from a wide group of other experts and practitioners. Background information
         on embedding followed by detailed guidance on planning, delivery and evaluation
         and additional information.
         Printed copies available at some events; whole publication downloadable from

         3. Practical guidance for embedding Skills for Life, Skills for Life Quality Initiative,
         March 2006
         Web-based publication covering most of the areas in this e-briefing and including
         a helpful section on approaches to staffing embedded Skills for Life learning.
         Downloadable from www.sflqi.org.uk/online/materials_2.htm under ‘Embedding
         Skills for Life Guidance’ 2..

Page          e-briefing
         4. Lifelines 21: Developing embedded literacy, language and numeracy:
         supporting achievement, Jan Eldred, National Institute of Adult Continuing
         Education (NIACE) 2005
         Well-respected general introduction incorporating the outcomes of NIACE research
         and development work in this area. ‘This practical guide offers different models
         of delivery that can be adapted to suit both the learners and the programme of
         study. It draws on examples developed by teachers and outlines the challenges and
         complexities of this approach as well as the opportunities and advantages.’ NIACE
         Publications Catalogue.
         To order from www.niace.org.uk £7.95

         5. Raising Standards Guide: Embedded Learning
         One of a series of Raising Standards Guides written with inspection in mind, this
         gives specific guidance on what needs to be in place to ensure quality in programmes
         with embedded LLN against each of the five Common Inspection Framework
         questions. A separate section looks at preparation for inspection.

         Case Studies
         1. Partnership teaching to embed literacy, language and numeracy into
         vocational programmes at Northampton College and Working together to
         develop embedded schemes of work
         Examples of successful approaches to embedded LLN arising from the Skills for Life
         Improvement Programme 2006-7.
         Both freely downloadable from www.sflip.org.uk/casestudies.aspx

         2. An integrated approach to teaching key skills in Construction – a case study
         Detailed case study based on a video recording of a lesson showing how key skills are
         integrated into construction-related programmes.
         Published by the Key Skills Support Programme in 2006 and downloadable from

         3. An integrated approach to teaching key skills in Business Studies and
         Information Communication Technology (ICT) – case studies.
         Detailed case studies based on video recordings of lessons showing how key skills are
         integrated into Business Studies and ICT programmes.
         Published by the Key Skills Support Programme in 2006 and downloadable from

Page 4         e-briefing
         4. Key Skills for employability, and A big rise in achievement through
         integrating key skills
         Case studies on implementing embedded key skills in offender learning settings
         developed through the Key Skills Support Programme. Listed under ‘Guides’ and
         downloadable from www.ksspforwork.org.uk/

         5. unionlearn
         unionlearn is currently developing case studies showing how LLN can be successfully
         combined with National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) study in the workplace.
         These will be posted on the unionlearn website in the near future. For more
         information about unionlearn see D7 below or visit www.unionlearn.org.uk.
         The case studies will be posted on the Skills for Work section of the site
         Back to top of document

         C. Teaching Resources
         Many excellent and high quality resources developed to support embedded LLN in a
         wide variety of contexts are available free to practitioners. This includes multi-media
         packs, on-line resources and materials to download. There are also some widely-used
         commercially-produced resources and tutor-collected materials. A helpful if slightly
         out of date Resources Guide to support embedded Skills for Life programmes can be
         downloaded from the Whole Organisational Approach (WOA) Pathfinder website:
         this lists most of the resources below plus other useful support material.

         1. Skills for Life – Materials for Embedded Learning
         High quality packs in 28 vocational, employability, health and community contexts
         including audio-visual materials and teachers’ notes. All are available to download
         or order free via the website below. Interactive search facility; downloaded
         materials can be customised. Currently available packs include: Trowel occupations;
         Horticulture; Family health; Effective communication for international nurses;
         Catering; Hospitality; Retail; Warehousing; Entry to Employment (E2E); Sports
         leadership; Painting operations; Cleaning skills for construction; Food hygiene; Health
         and safety (with manual handling); ICT; First aid; Early years; Hairdressing; Family
         life: the growing child; Family life: focus on parenting; Transport; Get on in the
         community; Social care.

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         2. Key Skills Support Programme Publications and Resources
         A substantial library of teaching and learning materials supporting Key Skills
         is available to download free from the website. These materials give learners
         the opportunity to learn, practise and apply key skills, particularly Application
         of Number, in the contexts of Administration; Care and childcare; Catering;
         Construction; Hospitality, sport and travel; Engineering and motor vehicle; Retail
         (including Hair and beauty); Sport and recreation.
         An up to date (2007) guide for practitioners in work-based learning on Using and
         adapting resources for key skills and Skills for Life: Guide to good practice is also
         available free to download from:

         3. National Teaching and Learning Change Programme Resources
         Subject-specific, multi-media resources developed as part of the Subject Learning
         Coaches programme. They include many practical activities for use with learners
         which can form part of an embedded programme, as well as ideas on new, exciting
         approaches to teaching and learning. Subjects currently available: Business;
         Construction; Entry to Employment (E2E); Health and social care; Information and
         communication technology (ICT); Land-based studies; Mathematics; Science; Adult
         learning; Engineering; Modern foreign languages, with Creative studies and Media
         coming soon. Active and well-supported talk-board for participating organisations
         with much sharing of ideas and resources – see D5 below.
         All LSC-funded organisations delivering post-6 education and training are entitled to
         one resource pack per subject free of charge. For details and to order go to:
         The resources can also be viewed or downloaded from the Excellence Gateway
         on the Quality Improvement Agency website.
         Go to http://teachingandlearning.qia.org.uk/

         4. BBC Skillswise
         Skillswise in the Workplace has free ICT based modules on vocabulary for plumbing,
         carpentry, electrics, childcare, plastering and decorating.

         5. Target Skills for Work
         Tribal/CTAD has developed a suite of commercially-marketed ICT-based materials,
         workbooks and multimedia materials based on the skills for work needed in
         the passenger transport, retail, care, manufacturing, hospitality, cleaning and
         construction sectors.

Page 6         e-briefing
         6. The talent website
         The talent website offers a wide range of support to teachers and trainers on all
         aspects of LLN. This includes a section on teaching materials posted by site users.
         Search for embedded materials.
         Back to top of document

         D. Sources of help and support
         A number of government-funded and supported programmes provide free support
         on developing and improving embedded LLN programmes. This support ranges
         from helpful examples and advice on websites to direct consultancy support for
         organisations. Most form part of the Quality Improvement Agency (QIA) portfolio
         of programmes, the content of which is reviewed annually. In April 2008 the QIA
         merges with the Centre for Excellence in Leadership: it is likely that this will lead to a
         more radical review of the support offer.

         1. Skills for Life Improvement Programme
         Support for embedding literacy, language and numeracy continues to be a priority
         for the Skills for Life Improvement Programme in 2007-8. Providers developing or
         improving their approach to embedding were invited to apply for a package of in-
         house support linked to regional network meetings.

         2. Key Skills Support Programme
         Well-established and highly regarded support for organisations delivering key skills,
         including embedded approaches by the Learning and Skills Network (LSN). Offer
         includes centre-based consultancy and training as well as regional and national
         events and a very helpful website. Requests for centre-based support should
         be made to the Regional Support Co-ordinator for London, Lorna Jackson, on
         lornahuntejackson@ntlworld.com or lornahuntejackson@virginmedia.com

         3. unionlearn and Skills for Work
         unionlearn is the Trade Union Congress’s (TUC) workplace learning arm, aiming
         to ‘increase workers’ life chances and strengthen their voice at the workplace
         through high quality union learning.’ It also organises the work of Union Learning
         Representatives (ULRs), who promote learning and support learners in the
         workplace. Unionlearn is actively supporting Skills for Work, the government’s
         initiative promoting LLN alongside employees’ first Level 2 or  National Vocational
         Qualification (NVQ). They are powerful allies for anyone trying to develop embedded
         LLN in a workplace context. At minimum, ULRs seek to ensure that learners going on
         their first NVQ 2 or  have a chance to get a Skills for Life assessment alongside a
         vocational one.

         Skills for Work information on www.unionlearn.org.uk/skills/learn-587-f0.cfm

Page 7
         4. Quality Improvement Agency’s Excellence Gateway
         Web-based support for all aspects of teaching and learning including embedded
         approaches. An essential searchable resource base, including the outcomes of earlier

         5. Whole Organisational Approach Pathfinders
         The Whole Organisational Approach Pathfinders were three year projects to develop
         effective whole organisational approaches to Skills for Life, including developing
         embedded approaches. Practical advice and guidance developed through the projects
         is still accessible from the website via the link below. The London Pathfinder in
         Ealing, Hammersmith and West London College was particularly successful in
         developing a strategy and delivery model for embedded LLN.

         6. The QIA National Teaching and Learning Change Programme
         Staff teams involved in developing embedded approaches will find the ideas and
         approaches developed for this programme very helpful, and may choose to involve
         existing Subject Learning Coaches or sign up to join. Subject Learning Coaches are
         trained to work with colleagues in-house to raise standards of teaching and learning
         and meet together on a regional basis in a supportive network. Subjects currently
         available: Business; Construction; Entry to Employment (E2E); Health and social care;
         Information and communication technology (ICT); Land-based studies; Mathematics;
         Science; Adult learning; Engineering; Modern foreign languages, with Creative studies
         and Media coming soon. Active and well-supported talk-board with much sharing of
         ideas and resources open to participating organisations.
         and to get involved: www.subjectlearningcoaches.net/nominate/involved/

         7. Move On Up
         Move On Up takes the successful Move On approach into the workplace through
         negotiated programmes with employers under the general heading of ‘Get on at
         Work.’ Key elements of the ‘Get on at Work approach’ are:
         •   A briefing session for key personnel including HR staff, line managers and union
             learning representatives
         •   An introductory session for learners to assess whether Get on at Work is the
             right course for them
         •   A short brush-up course in LLN developing individual skills leading to testing at
             Level  or 2
         The approach is supported by a package of support in the form of guidance, case
         studies and resources through the Move On website.

Page 8         e-briefing
         8. TOTALLY SKILLED: Embedding Skills for Life in Vocational Qualifications
         This DfES-funded Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) led project ran
         from 2004 to end March 2007. The project aimed to:
         •   Support awarding bodies to work with centres to develop embedded delivery
         • Help the then new Sector Skills Councils to make LLN explicit in their vocational
         standards as they developed them.
         Working with 2 Awarding Bodies and 4 Sector Skills Councils, a range of models
         and guidance materials were developed for each context with initial assessment
         as the common starting point. DIUS is planning a second phase of this project to
         start in 2008, involving additional Sector Skills Councils and Awarding Bodies and
         expanding the range of models. No details are available to date, but all the models
         and materials developed in the first stage are freely downloadable from the website.
         Back to top of document

         E. Professional Development Routes and Resources
         This section summarises the ways practitioners in all roles and in all contexts can
         access training in approaches to embedded LLN. This includes:
             - accredited training undertaken either as part of initial teacher training (ITT) or
             through continuing professional development (CPD) programmes as part of the
             new professional development framework.
             - non-accredited CPD routes and resources. These range from awareness-raising
             materials to packages offering practical guides to implementation. Most are
             linked to specific initiatives and have been promoted and disseminated by this
             route. Many are freely available for use in-house, or can be delivered through
             Professional Development Centres and other initial teacher training providers.
         For up to date information on current staff training opportunities in London, and for
         more information on local Professional Development Centres, see the talent website

         1. Initial Teacher Training
         All initial teacher training courses include a ‘minimum core’ of LLN, including
         approaches to embedding. This needs to be covered during the first year of training.
         All new teachers also need to show in their application for professional status that
         they have personal skills in English and maths at Level 2 – equivalent to an English
         and maths GCSE A-C.
         Two further optional units on Embedded LLN for teachers of other specialisms are
         currently available as part of initial teacher training.

Page 9          e-briefing
          2. Accredited CPD
          a. A new ‘Developing Embedded Approaches to LLN’ certificate at Level 5 has been
          developed for qualified teachers of any subject who already have personal skills in
          English and Maths at level 2. Pathways within the qualification for language, literacy
          and numeracy teachers will need higher levels of English or maths skills according
          to their subject specialism. A key focus of the module is on how literacy, language
          and numeracy teachers can work with teachers of other specialisms. Guidance
          for awarding bodies on developing this qualification is available from the Lifelong
          Learning UK (LLUK) website:
          b. The Key Skills Support Programme (KSSP) has developed a Level 4 professional
          development module in Key Skills Teaching and Learning which will be delivered
          through a network of 2 hub centres during 2007-8. Participants on the course can
          also follow a non-accredited route. More information from the Key Skills Support
          Programme website:
          Additionally, KSSP has developed ‘Level Crossing’ resources which recognise the
          cross-over between Key Skills and LLN and address this through resources and
          national events. This has included support for different levels within groups, including
          tracking issues:
          c. LLU+ at London South Bank University in partnership with LSU is piloting a Peer
          Coaching for Embedding Language, Literacy and Numeracy programme, with two
          intakes in October 2007 and January 2008. This includes a 4-day Open College
          Network (OCN) accredited course at Level  as well as membership of a pan-London
          coaching network and access to an on-line coaching forum.
          Contact Julia McGerty on j.mcgerty@lsbu.ac.uk or follow this link:

          3. Non-accredited CPD
          a. Skills for Life Improvement Programme 2007-8
          •   The package of support offered to providers developing or improving their
              approach to embedding includes a bespoke training package linked to regional
              network meetings. See D above, or read more on the website.
          •   One day courses on aspects of embedded learning are offered to providers
              working in the priority settings of Work-based learning, E2E, Train to Gain, Job
              Centreplus, voluntary and community learning and offender learning.
              For further information and to apply contact Clarre Thomas at LLU+ on
              020 785 6272 or email c.thomas@lsbu.ac.uk
          •   One-day training packages on embedded LLN are available to download, adapt
              and use. They address a wide range of training needs. Examples are Planning

              to embed, Approaches to Skills for Life for vocational teachers, Working in
Page 0
          b. Key Skills Support Programme
          Materials from the 2006 – 2007 Key Skills CPD module are available for download
          from the website. While not explicitly focusing on embedded approaches to LLN,
          this is implicit in the Key Skills approach. Scroll down from this link to see archive of
          materials for 2006-2007.
          c. The National Teaching and Learning Change Programme
          The resources developed as part of the Subject Learning Coaches programme, see
          C and D5 above, include staff development material useful to teams developing
          embedded LLN approaches.
          The resources can be viewed or downloaded from the Excellence Gateway on the
          Quality Improvement Agency website. Go to http://teachingandlearning.qia.org.uk/
          d. Better Teaching Partnership staff development materials
          The Better Teaching Partnership is a Basic Skills Agency @ NIACE programme
          offering a package of support for organisations hoping to improve their inspection
          grades. Module 5 of the Tools for Staff Development on ‘Integrating LLN into a range
          of contexts’ is available at £40.00 from BSA@NIACE.

          Changes in Professional Development from September 2007
          For more information on the new professional development framework and what it
          means for you and your organisation visit the LLUK website www.lifelonglearninguk.
          org or call LLUK’s free information and advice service on 020 796 5798.
          From this date, all qualified teachers need to register with the Institute for Learning
          IfL and demonstrate that they are involved with a minimum of 0 hours CPD a year.
          If embedded LLN is a priority for you or your organisation, this should be part of your
          personal or organisational CPD plan. For further information on the CPD entitlement,
          go to www.ifl.ac.uk/services/p_wwv_page?id=40
          Back to top of document

          F. Research
          Substantial research on approaches to Embedded LLN has been carried out by the
          National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) since 200. Current policy
          and practice stems from the new perspectives identified in the NRDC November
          06 study ‘You wouldn’t expect a maths teacher to teach plastering.’ This and two
          other recent studies are summarised below, along with current work. Information on
          current projects, and copies of completed studies are available free to download or
          order from www.nrdc.org.uk

Page          e-briefing
          1. ‘You wouldn’t expect a maths teacher to teach plastering...’ Embedding
          literacy, language and numeracy in post-16 vocational programmes – the impact
          on learning and achievement. NRDC, November 2006
          Important study whose findings show that embedded LLN provision is correlated
          with higher levels of motivation, attendance, retention and achievement where
          vocational/subject staff work in partnership with LLN specialists. The research
          identified four key success criteria: organisational structures; team work; staff
          attitudes and beliefs; and features of teaching and learning, curriculum and materials.

          2. Embedded teaching and learning of adult literacy, numeracy and ESOL: 7 Case
          Studies, NRDC, August 2005
          Study exploring the characteristics of embedded LLN, with detailed case studies in a
          range of different contexts.

          3. Embedded teaching and learning, LSC Skills for Life Quality Initiative Research
          Resources, March 2006.
          A summary of findings on embedding drawn from the 7 Case Studies and a range
          of other NRDC studies: includes also a list of the other NRDC studies in which
          embedded LLN is the sole or a significant focus.

          4. NRDC Research on behalf of the Department for Innovation, Universities and
             Skills (DIUS)
          This includes:
          •   Consultation events with practitioners in January 2008 on what more can be
              done to increase the use of embedded approaches.
          •   Base-line survey on extent of embedded provision, January 2008, mailed out to
              identified contact points within all LSC providers of LLN.
          The outcomes of this research will be reported to DIUS by end March 2008.
          Back to top of document

Page 2         e-briefing
          G. The policy context
          As part of its Skills Strategy, the government commissioned Lord Leitch to carry
          out a review and make recommendations on the action needed to raise the skills
          level in the UK to compete effectively in the world economy. The Leitch Review was
          published in December 2006, and the government’s Leitch implementation plan
          World Class Skills in July 2007. Building on a range of previous reports, strategies and
          policy documents, World Class Skills reinforces the overriding government priority
          to raise the numbers of adults in employment with vocational and LLN skills and
          qualifications. These changes run in tandem with radical reforms to the qualifications
          framework for 4-9 with the introduction of the new diplomas incorporating
          Functional Skills. Particular issues for London are addressed in the draft London Skills
          and Employment Strategy. The key documents are listed and their relevant main
          points summarised briefly below.

          1. World Class Skills: Implementing the Leitch Review of Skills in England
          As part of a plan to 2020:
          •   Puts employers centre-stage with the introduction of an employer-demand led
              model for identifying and planning delivery
          •   Moves much of the funding and responsibility for post-6 education and training
              to employers through Train to Gain and a new UK Commission for Education and
              Skills which will co-ordinate the work of Sector Skills Councils
          •   Invites employers to access funding and support via Train to Gain through an
              Employers’ Pledge committing them to train their workforce to a minimum first
              full Level 2 vocational qualification and basic literacy and numeracy skills
          •   Stresses the important role of unions and ULRs in this process
          •   Sets new LLN targets for 20 of 89% of adults qualified to at least Level 
              literacy, and 8% to at least Entry  numeracy
          •   Makes the link with the reforms to education and training for 4-9 year olds,
              including the new Diplomas
              ‘We are making basic English, maths and ICT skills the cornerstones of young
              people’s education, integrating them into Diplomas, Apprenticeships and
              GCSE English, maths and ICT, as well as creating a stand-alone qualification.’

Page          e-briefing
          2. 14 -19 Education and Skills: Implementation Plan
          Published February 2005
          •   Sets out priority for functional skills ‘to support learning and for employment’
          •   Reinforces link with employment and Sector Skills Councils
          •   Introduces Diplomas in vocational areas
          •   Strengthens work-based options
          Sets out a detailed timetable for implementation.
          Details on progress on the most relevant areas of development relating to embedded
          LLN (Functional Skills and the Foundation Learning Tier) are included in Section H of
          this briefing.

          3. London Skills and Employment Strategy
          Published October 2007.
          The London Skills and Employment Board (LSEB) was established to provide
          leadership in improving adult skills and employment in London. Chaired by the
          Mayor of London and employer-led, with representation from all key stakeholders,
          it is developing a long-term strategy focusing on improving skills in London and
          on identifying ways of tackling worklessness. The draft plan is currently out for
          consultation, with a final strategy due for publication in early 2008. It incorporates
          some variations from national planning which reflect London’s particular challenges:
          in particular, the low levels of qualification amongst lower skilled workers and high
          level of demand for English for speakers of other languages (ESOL).
          The draft strategy suggests responses to five challenges faced by London:
          a. A fundamental change to the employment and skills support available for
          b. An ambitious new Employer Programme
          c. A new level of responsiveness from London’s learning and skills providers
          d. An integrated skills and employment structure.
          e. Public funding aligned to the challenges and priorities identified in the draft
          Back to top of document

Page 4         e-briefing
          H. Planning, accreditation and funding issues
          The policy changes outlined in the previous section with a move to an employer-
          and learner-demand led model bring with them major changes to the planning and
          funding regime in the post-6 sector. These coincide with the move to new delivery
          and accreditation models including ESOL for Work, Employability courses and
          Functional Skills. Most of these changes are still in development or at the trial stage.
          The notes below reflect the situation in December 2007, and should be read with this
          in mind. Current funding arrangements remain in place until July 2008.

          1. Funding through the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) 2007-2008
          Current guidance on planning and funding programmes with embedded LLN through
          the LSC is covered by the Funding Guidance for Further Education in 2007/8. This
          guidance is valid until July 2008. It can be downloaded from:
          LSC Factsheet 8 - embedding gives detailed guidance on current LSC thinking on
          embedded LLN, including a section on funding. It can be downloaded from:
          Key points are:
          •   Embedded LLN involves at least one vocational learning aim and one literacy,
              language (ESOL) or numeracy learning aim
          •   Each learning aim receives its related programme weighting
          •   Only the LLN learning aim will qualify for the .4 programme weighting uplift
          •   The overall teaching and learning hours for the learning programme must be
              greater than the vocational learning aim delivered on its own
          •   Teaching and learning relating to both vocational and LLN learning aims must be
              discussed with learners and recorded in teaching records.
          •   Work is in progress on developing courses which have one unified set of learning
              aims, combining both vocational and LLN. At present, no such courses are
              recognised for funding purposes.

          2. Funding through the LSC 2008-2009
          The LSC proposals for the new 6-8, Adult Learner- and Employer-responsive
          funding models were published in November 2007 and are currently out for
          consultation, with binding directives due to be issued early in 2008. Some different
          requirements apply to ESOL. LSC contract-holders are advised to begin planning in
          line with the new model now. Read the plans and respond to the consultation on:

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          3. Train to Gain: planning and funding for workplace training
          Offers free training for employees mostly at Level 2, including LLN, arranged via
          a Train to Gain broker, and is the main route for planning and funding workplace
          provision. LSC-funded, with its own funding route. Full information on the scheme
          and how to participate through www.traintogain.gov.uk .
          There are some important changes to the LSC guidance on LLN for the year 2007
          -2008 extending the range of the LLN offer to stand-alone LLN as well as LLN
          linked to vocational qualifications. The LSC is also piloting Entry Level  in Literacy,
          Language and Numeracy in London only. These changes are laid out in the briefing
          sheet Requirements for funding Train to Gain 2007-8 version 2:
          Train to Gain: a plan for growth November 2007 – July 20 sets out the LSC’s
          longer term planning, including information on the London pilot on page 8.

          4. ESOL for Work
          These new qualifications are designed to meet the immediate English language
          needs of migrant workers, both those in employment or intending to work. They
          are intended both to provide more appropriate courses for this group and to take
          pressure off places in traditional ESOL courses. Courses are ‘listed’ as approved by
          the LSC, but unlike other ESOL courses:
          •   Do not contribute to national Skills for Life targets
          •   Do not attract the funding uplift for other LLN courses
          •   Are not automatically free to learners
          The details are clearly spelled out in the downloadable LSC FACT SHEET 0 – ESOL
          (English for Speakers of Other languages) for Work from:

          5. Employability Skills
          New programmes delivered through Jobcentre Plus, offering unemployed people
          an integrated package and pathway to support them back to work and in work. Key
          features are:
          •   Accredited employability training at Entry  and Level 
          •   LLN at Entry  to Level 2 through embedded delivery
          •   Flexible programme, with work experience, placements and tasters leading
              to a job
           Employability Pilots are taking place in London colleges through a range of
          partnerships including Jobcentre Plus, employers, local community organisations and
          community regeneration projects. Promotional material to support the programme
          is now available free of charge from DIUS publications. Current LSC provider
          guidance is available on:


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          6. Functional Skills Pilots
          Functional Skills are a key element of the 4-9 curriculum reform. The aim is
          to develop one set of qualifications in English, maths and ICT which will be built
          into the new programmes for all learners age 4 and over. Standards have been
          agreed and new qualifications are currently being piloted in over 000 centres and
          Diploma Gateway consortia. The pilot period will run until 200, and there is no
          date confirmed as yet for the new qualifications to come on-stream, with many key
          issues still being negotiated. A Functional Skills Support Programme has been set up,
          and a series of regional and in-house briefings is currently available to providers at
          6+ through the Learning and Skills Network (LSN.) For further information on the
          briefings, call Stuart Barr on 020 7492 5259, or visit the website:

          7. Foundation Learning Tier
          The Foundation Learning Tier aims to develop accredited Progression Pathways
          which will raise participation and achievement within the context of appropriate
          progression opportunities for all learners aged 4 and above. By 200 there
          should be:
          •   A curriculum offer which recognises a broad range of opportunities at Entry and
              Level , including LLN
          •   Clear and appropriate progression routes towards Level 2 or other positive
          •   An improved offer for individuals based on improved initial assessment and
              personalised programmes
          •   Clear funding mechanisms to support participation, achievement and progression
          Initial trials from January to July 2007 have been followed by a second phase of
          development on 4 national trial sites. A document on ‘Developing effective practice
          in foundation learning: messages for the implementation of Progression Pathways at
          Entry Level and Level ’ is downloadable from:
          Back to top of document

Page 7         e-briefing
                          I. Glossary of acronyms

                          BSA      Basic Skills Agency
                          CfBT     Council for British Teachers
                          CPD      Continuing professional development
                          CTAD     Cambridge Training and Development
                          DfES     Department for Education and Skills (now DIUS)
                          DIUS     Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills
                          E2E      Entry to Employment
                          ESOL     English for speakers of other languages
                          GCSE     General Certificate of Secondary Education
                          HR       Human Resources
                          ICT      Information and communication technology
                          IfL      Institute for Learning
                          ITT      Initial teacher training
                          KSSP     Key Skills Support Programme
                          LLN      Literacy, Language, Numeracy
                          LLUK     Lifelong Learning UK
                          LSC      Learning and Skills Council
                          LSEB     London Skills and Employment Board
                          LSN      Learning and Skills Network
                          LSU      London Strategic Unit
                          NIACE    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education
                          NRDC     National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy
                                   and Numeracy
                          NVQ      National Vocational Qualification
                          OCN      Open College Network
                          PDC      Professional Development Centre
                          QIA      Quality Improvement Agency
For further information
                          QCA      Qualifications and Curriculum Authority
please contact:
                          SfL      Skills for Life
Institute of Education
20 Bedford Way            TUC      Trade Union Congress
London                    ULR      Union Learning Representative
                          WOA      Whole Organisational Approach
Tel: 020 762 656
Fax: 020 762 668

Email: lsu@ioe.ac.uk      Back to top of document

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