Baltimore County Public Schools - DOC by A022oSp


									                  BCPS Outdoor Science Education

          Native Americans and the Environment
                     Fourth Grade

                                Camp Puh’tok

    Directions and Phone Numbers
    Overview and Indicators
    Teacher Notes
    Teacher Checklist
    General Information
    Background Information for Teachers and Parents
    Station Information

                             Camp Puh’tok Directions

Camp Puh'tok is readily reached via the Baltimore Beltway (I-695). Take exit 24 North
on the Baltimore-Harrisburg Interstate (I-83) to Mt. Carmel Road - Hereford exit 27.
Turn right onto Mt. Carmel Road. Make a right on York Road (traffic light) and proceed
one block. Turn left onto Monkton Road (MD Route 138). Drive 0.7 (seven-tenths) of a
mile and bear left onto Big Falls Road. The main camp entrance is located 1.2 (one and
two-tenths) miles on the right and marked by a large wooden sign.

                                  Phone Numbers

Baltimore County Senior Teacher Naturalist/Team Leader Pat Ghingher 410.294.0426
Office of Science 410.887.4251
Camp Puh’tok September – May only 410.329.6560


The CAMP PUH’TOK 4TH GRADE NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAM includes a 30 to 45 minute auditorium
program and a full day of parent run stations that include Native American dwellings, tools, fire making,
legend telling, face painting, cordage, games, and weapons. Emphasis will be placed on how the Native
American used technology and available natural resources to adapt to the environment. Teachers need to
send a minimum of 6 parents to be trained and plan for at least 5 more parents to come as chaperones.
Four dollars per student is charged for facility use. September - December


Content Standard: Environmental Science
Indicator: Environmental Issues
The student will recognize and explain that people depend on, change, and are affected by the environment


Algonquian: a group of North American Indians that inhabited Maryland
Breechclout: square of leather worn by men and boys; Buckskin: skin of a deer
Clan: a family group within a tribe, descended from a common ancestor
Cordage: ropes or cord made from natural resources such as sinew, bark, and grass
Dwelling: house, shelter, place to live
Lard: fat
Natural resources: objects found in nature that can be used such as trees, water, nuts
Ochre: a rock containing iron that has oxidized
Quiver: a container or sheath for carrying arrows
Sinew: a tendon (a tough cord of connective tissue that holds the muscle to bone)
Tinder: a flammable material used to make a fire from a spark, such as grass, milkweed, and cattail
Smoke hole: an opening at the top of a dwelling that allows the smoke from a fire to escape

                                          TEACHER NOTES

Prepare at least 6 volunteer parents for the station leader training date (teachers new to program may
also come to training). If you have more than 6 parents willing to run the stations, send a maximum of 12
parents to be trained. If you have less than 5 parents willing to train, contact Pat Ghingher at
410.294.0426 before the training date. Large groups of 60 must send extra parents.

PARENT SELECTION (Please make sure parents are aware of their responsibilities)
    When selecting parents to attend the training, keep in mind that they will need to attend a half
     day of training and will be expected to lead a station for the entire day of the field trip. (If a
     parent cancels on the day of the field trip, the teacher may have to cover the missing parent’s

      Lead Parent: Choose a responsible parent from the trained parent group to be in charge of the
       station leaders. They can handle any problems that may occur and be responsible for calling all
       parents on the morning of the field trip to confirm attendance.
      Station leader parents are NOT CHAPERONES. They will be teaching a station and need to arrive
       for station set-up 45 minutes (9:00 – 9:15 AM) prior to the student’s arrival.
      Request parent chaperones to accompany the students on the trip. You will need a parent per 8 to
       10 students.
      Students and parents should be organized into FIVE travel groups prior to the trip. Groups one
       through five will be the bear, buffalo, elk, gecko, and raven clans.

Trips run rain or shine. The trip will be cancelled if Baltimore County Schools are closed or the
Hereford Zone is closed. Delayed opening for your school will also cancel the trip. Any other cancellation
comes from the school taking the trip. Rescheduling cannot be guaranteed.

Tentative schedule*:           9:45 - 10:00   Bus arrival & unloading
                               10:40 -10:50   Opening
                               10:50 - 2:15   Stations and lunch
                                2:15 – 2:30    Departure

***The schedule can be moved up or back depending on the bus arrival. This is a full day field trip
therefore outside buses are recommended to allow time for completion of activities.


___ Informed station leader parents they should arrive at Camp Puh’tok at 9:00AM.

___Remind station leader parents to bring the following:
      - Face Painting: Wet Ones, yarn, masking tape
      - Fire Making: 3-4 hour fire log, tinder
      - Weapons: 3-4 hour fire log
      - Dwellings: popcorn, journey bread, jerky, (3-4 hour fire log optional)

___ Check made out to: Salvation Army, Camp Puh’tok ($4.00/student).
                       17433 Big Falls Road        Bring check on the day of trip
                       Monkton, Maryland 21111

___Buses ordered for a FULL day field trip. If possible, plan on arriving at 9:45AM and leaving at 2:30PM

___Medical and emergency information on each student.

___Medication for individuals (check with school nurse).

___Permission slips signed by parent.

___Divide the entire group into 5 equal groups with at least one chaperone (This does not include the
trained parents). Have the groups numbered 1 through 5. Pat will give each group a clan stick prior to
their station activities to identify the student travel groups (bear, buffalo, elk, gecko, raven).

___Prepare students for the trip: Dress in warm layers and have rain gear if there is a chance of
rain. Pack a trash free lunch. Have appropriate shoes AND socks for the outside stations. Bathrooms
will be available at lunch and during the inside stations. (Students must be accompanied by a chaperone to
the bathroom). Water fountains or food machines are NOT available.

___ Student/ chaperone nametags

___After reading over the script, you may want to prepare your students for the trip with some pre trip
activities such as, time lines, Native American legends, vocabulary words etc.

___Bring 1 package of paper towels for bathroom use from your school supply.

___Cancellations due to weather or other reasons should be called in by the teacher
to Pat Ghingher at 410-294-0426


(Resource books: The Native Americans/An Illustrated History, 1993, edited by Betty and Ian Ballantin
and Native Americans of the Northeast by Colin G. Calloway)

Thousands of years ago, when the first Native American set foot on North American
soil, he found himself in an unforgiving land. The simple act of survival must have
consumed all of his strength. He used crude tools and weapons and had some sense of
society, of community, and of cooperation. Recent evidence supports the theory that
the Native American populations share a common genetic ancestor, which may have come
from an Asian homeland. It is thought that the first migration throughout North,
Central, and South America may have arrived twelve to fifteen and possibly twenty-five
thousand years ago.

Archaeologists generally believe that the first North Americans followed the “game
trail” across the Bering Strait. During the Ice Age, most of the earth’s waters froze
and the ocean levels lowered. The floor of the Bering Strait was exposed, making it
possible to walk from Siberia to Alaska. As the ice melted, water covered the Bering
Strait and North America became separated from the Old World until Europeans began
to venture across the Atlantic thousands of years later.

Many Native American Cultures believe a different story. They feel they have lived in
North America since time began. Creation stories vary from tribe to tribe, but most
believe the world they lived in was created on the back of a sea turtle. Native
American stories or legends tell why things were the way they were. Legends were told
and retold during the long winter nights as children and elders alike huddled close to
the warm fires. Children learned that they needed to acquire knowledge about the
world around them to live in harmony with the earth. They needed to look after the
land, respect the animals, and use the plants and other resources with care. If they
forgot to do these things, the balance and harmony that was given to the world at its
creation would be lost.

Most archaeologists divide the history of the Native Americans into three periods. The
Paleo-Native American period was from approximately 25,000 to 10,000 years ago. The
inhabitants hunted large animals like the mammoth and the mastodon. The caribou and
musk ox, which now live further north, were also hunted. During the Archaic period,
10,000 to 3,000 years ago, the warmer, wetter climate supported deer, elk, bear, small

mammals, fish, and birds, which were hunted by the Native Americans. New wild plants
were able to grow and berries, nuts, and roots were gathered for food and medicine.
The Native Americans moved with the seasons to hunt and gather where the natural
resources were plentiful. Improved tools were made along with shelters and dugout
canoes. The Woodland period from 3,000 to 1500A.D. found the Native Americans
making pottery, hunting with bow and arrows, and developing systems of agriculture for
crops of corn, squash, and beans. Much advancement had spread from the south to the
northeast. In the shorter growing period of northern New England, cultivated crops
were not as important. The Native Americans settled in larger numbers in villages.
From 1500A.D. to the present is the Contact period, when the Native Americans were in
constant contact with the Europeans.

The first identifiable Native American people are called Clovis, after an archaeological
site in New Mexico. Perceptions of these people come from a mammoth kill site dating
from 9500 B.C. to 9000 B.C. These were probably the first Americans. Some
archaeologists feel that Native Americans could have arrived as early as forty thousand
years ago. There is little evidence to support this controversial theory. A site known as
the Meadowcroft Shelter in southwestern Pennsylvania provided evidence of a fire pit,
two human bone fragments, and some stone tools. The oldest radiocarbon date is just
under nineteen thousand years ago. This however, is controversial and at this time, the
only acceptable proof of the earliest occupation of the western Hemisphere comes from
the Clovis presence.

The Native American used multiple survival strategies such as hunting, fishing,
harvesting wild plants, and farming. This led to a great diversity in the Americas, which
was dependent upon the regional extremes of temperature and climate.

As with the Clovis society, most developing cultures had respect for the animals that
helped sustain them. The carcass may have been butchered in a special way, using all
parts of the animal. In the southwest, men continued to hunt but the economic burden
shifted to the women. Their foraging and gathering made them principal providers. It
became a matriarchal society with prosperous women sometimes taking more than one

Unlike their Clovis ancestors, the California Native Americans adapted to their
environment relying on more than a few species of plants and animals. They lived off
fish, shellfish, seals, whales, deer, bear, elk, rabbit, and a variety of seeds. They
hunted and foraged but did not farm. These nonagricultural people had the highest
aboriginal population density in North America.

Middle American civilizations became more dependent on agriculture. This includes the
Mayan (300-900A.D.) and Aztec (1325-1520A.D.) civilizations. The sedentary lifestyle
(remaining in one area) created multisocietal systems with marriages occurring with
social equals only. Great cities were built and land was looked at differently than it was
by the hunter/gatherer societies. Most commoners were farmers living outside the city
limits but craft specialists, traders, and warriors could be found in the city.

The southwest developed a diversified lifestyle combining farming with hunting and
gathering. The Eastern Woodlands hosted Native American people speaking at least 68
distinct languages. This area was inhabited by people for at least 10,000 years. They
learned to protect themselves against fluctuations in natural resources by economic
exchanges with others; by moving their home range with the seasons to take advantage
of availability of grasses, fruits, nuts, fish, and game; by staying close to the major
river valleys; and by storing food for future use.

Bison-hunting and maize-growing Native Americans prospered in the Great North
American Plains with its cold winters and hot summers. Like all societies, the Native
Americans of the plains had conflicts. Most could be resolved through mitigation. If
this failed, the common form of Plains warfare usually involved ambushes and ritualized
battles causing few deaths.

Horses evolved on American soil forty million years ago but became extinct in their
homeland. The horse was not reintroduced until 1493 by Christopher Columbus. During
pre-Columbian times, the Native American hunted the buffalo on foot. The Plains
Native Americans developed ways to kill large numbers of bison and minimize danger to
the hunters. One way was to send the bison over the edge of a precipice.

Northeast Native Americans

In post-Columbian times, the Northeast was occupied by Algonquian communities along
the coastal watersheds and Iroquois living along the interior waterways. These were
two of the largest language families in the area. Tribes that were included under the
Algonquian family might not have spoken the same exact language, but shared
similarities. Both groups were matrilineal with the women performing the life-giving
duties of farming. Storable food raised by the farming communities were traded for
furs, meat, nuts, and exotic goods such as flints, mica, and shells bartered for along the
coast-to-coast trade routes.

 Dwellings consisted of longhouses and wigwams. The longhouses were occupied by many
families of the same matrilineage and were 50 to 200 feet long and 25 feet wide.
Sometimes a palisade, or tall fence was built around the village for defense.
Northeastern Native American tribes usually consisted of several villages, bands, and
clans loosely united by language, kinship, and shared interests. Villages usually
numbered in the hundreds but could be as large as several thousand. Numbers would
vary with the seasons.

The family was very important to the Northeast Native American life and included the
extended family of grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and in-laws. Children were a
part of the family activities from birth and learned to respect their elders, especially

Clans were groups of related people who could trace their descent to a common
ancestor. Each clan had an animal symbol. For example, the Delaware had Wolf, Turkey,
and Turtle clans. Some cultures were matriarchal and would trace their ancestry on
their mother’s side of the family. A boy whose mother was from the Bear clan would
not be allowed to marry someone from his clan. If he married into the Turtle clan, his
children would be members of the turtle clan and would be raised by that clan.

Numerous social structures helped to keep order with the diversified peoples occupying
the Northeast. Many governed themselves through a variety of relationships and
obligations that served the interests of all. Leaders were usually men and possibly
women who did not rule, but offered advice and tried to resolve disputes. Decisions
were not made by the majority, but by consensus of all involved. Everyone needed to
agree. Among the Iroquois, the clan mothers chose the council chiefs and could remove
them from office. People were expected to behave in an acceptable manner. The family
and community were a major importance to a person’s life and acting disruptively might
mean the loss of the clan’s support.

Some confederacies between tribes were formed. The most well known in the
Northeast was the Iroquois Confederacy or the League of the Five Nations.
Membership insured peace with other members. The five tribes were the Mohawk,
Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca. Later, after being driven from their home in
the Carolina’s, the Tuscaloosa joined, making it the League of the Six Nations.
Seasons dictated the activities in the Northeast. Early spring meant tapping trees and
boiling sap for maple sugar. Late spring involved planting corn, beans, and squash known
to some as the “Three Sisters”, as well as pumpkins, sunflowers, and tobacco. Fishing
was done near waterfalls and rapids for shad, salmon, and other fish swimming upstream
to spawn. Summer meant maintaining crops and gathering berries by the women and
children while the men hunted. Summer was also a time of visiting, trading with, and
raiding the neighboring tribes. Fall was a time of harvesting and drying the crops,
butchering and smoking meat, and tanning leather hides. Those that lived near shallow
lakes, ponds and swamps would canoe to areas of wild rice to harvest it. Winter brought
the extended families together in the village for feasts, ceremonies, and story telling.

The Native Americans of the Northeast sported a variety of hairstyles. Some plucked
out all their hair except for a scalp lock, others wore their hair long, often in braids, or
in roach style (brushed straight back from the forehead). Both men and women in many
tribes tattooed their bodies and faces.

With the introduction of the Europeans to the Northeast area, life, as the Native
Americans knew it, changed drastically. Native Americans were puzzled by the first
Europeans they met. They found their behavior to be rude and aggressive. The Native
Americans were used to sharing and treating strangers with hospitality. Trading was an
even exchange between people. Warfare was on a small scale and was more about
personal glory than killing. After their initial contact, the Native Americans viewed the
Europeans with suspicion and fear.

More Native Americans died from the diseases brought to the Northeast by Europeans
than by their bullets. Germs from smallpox, bubonic plague, measles, influenza, cholera,
typhus, and others were new to North America. Because of their first time exposure to
these diseases, some tribes were totally lost, while others may have lost 50 to 90
percent of their numbers. Another devastating new encounter to the Native Americans
was the introduction of alcohol. Trading began as a mutually beneficial activity, which
eventually severely decreased important animal life and basic skills for survival.

The Native Americans were eager to obtain the new things such as metal goods and
woolen blankets from the Europeans. In order to survive in the New World, the
Europeans were just as eager to learn about the knowledge and skills that the Native
Americans possessed. Squanto, a Patuxent Native American who had been kidnapped to
Europe and then returned to the Northeast, aided the pilgrims of Plymouth Colony. The
Native Americans sharing of knowledge saved many of the first settlers trying to
survive the New World. Thanksgiving is celebrated in memory of the time the
Wamponoag Native Americans shared a meal with the pilgrims. The Europeans soon
adapted many of the Native Americans’ possessions to their needs. They learned to
make canoes, snowshoes, moccasins, and toboggans; and to plant corn and other
domesticated plants. Learning to tap maple trees for their sweet sap meant the
difference between life and death during harsh winters.

In summary, we tend to think of Native Americans as a single people, but they were as
diverse as the various nationalities of Europe. The natural resources of their area
dictated their way of life. The status of women for some cultures was little more than
a child bearer and worker whereas in other cultures the women controlled the political
power. Women appointed the men to the Iroquois council. If the men did not vote as
instructed or follow the women’s wishes, they could be removed from office. Some
women, in certain societies, owned the dwelling and all its furnishings, the tools, the
crops, the sheep, and the horses. The man’s possessions were restricted to his clothes
and weapons. Family responsibility among the sexes varied from tribe to tribe, but
usually the man was the hunter and the warrior, taking charge of protecting the family.

Not all tribes engaged in war. Some were pacifists. The Native Americans held many
different beliefs about the origin of man and earth, about spiritual realms, and about
afterlife. The majority believed that all living things had souls and should be shown the
proper respect and consideration. Because of this belief, the Native Americans existed
in rare harmony with their environment. Unlike the Europeans, they did not believe the
land could be owned any more than the sunshine or rain could be owned.

 The diverse Native American cultures have been evolving over the millennia. It has not
necessarily been an upward spiral from primitive to civilized cultures. Their evolution
involved adapting, problem solving, and surviving. One culture was not necessarily better
than the other. From the book, The Native Americans, “Kote Loath, a Chumash man,
grasped the dilemma of human change and evolution:”

“There is no “better” or “worse,” only different. That difference has to be respected
whether its skin color, way of life, or ideas. The Chumash have a story about this. It
begins with a worm that is eaten by a bird. The bird is eaten by a cat whose self-
satisfaction is disrupted by a mean-looking dog. After devouring the cat, the dog is
killed by a grizzly bear who congratulates himself for being the strongest of all. About
that time comes a man who kills the bear and climbs a mountain to proclaim his ultimate
superiority. He ran so hard up the mountain that he died at the top. Before long the
worm crawled out of his body.”

The Algonquian and Iroquoian languages provide us with words and names that are used
today. The following are just a few of those words.
uck/toboggan/Massachusetts/Agawam, Mass./Penobscot, Maine Niagara, N.Y./
Genesee, N .Y. /Allegheny, Pa./Erie, Pa/Susquehanna, Pa./Merrimack, N.H./
Connecticut/Illinois/Miami, Ohio/Michigan/Ottawa, Ohio/Chicago, IL

The above information was written to give the instructor a brief overview of the
complexity of the Native American history. The following scripts of the various stations
are written in a simple and general form for the fourth graders. The bulk of the Native
American experience at Camp Puh’tok is geared toward the Native Americans of the

Interesting Trivia

 The spear-thrower (Aztec name, atlatl) was so remarkable an invention that it
  spread around the world.
 Europeans arrived in the Western Hemisphere in 1492.
 More than 100 jackrabbits were needed to make a single man’s robe.
 In 1924, archaeologists found a blanket made from the skins of six hundred
  meadow mice found in Lovelock Cave in Nevada. It was 2,000 years old and still in
  usable shape.
 Also found in Lovelock Cave was a basket of duck decoys made from rushes and
  covered in feathers.
 Over a 7,000 year period, Native Americans domesticated hundreds of kinds of
  maize beginning in Mexico with a common grass called teosinte. Thumb-nail-sized
  wild teosinte cobs evolved over the millennia to a variety of species of corn
  adapted to various climates and lifestyles.
 Other plants domesticated through natural selection by the Native Americans
  were squash, beans, and avocados. (Corn coming approximately 1,000 years after
  these plants.)
 Some pharmacologists believe that Native American knowledge of herbal
  medicines equaled or possibly surpassed modern man’s expertise with natural
  drugs. Unfortunately, traditional medicines proved useless against the European’s
  introduction of measles and smallpox, which killed numerous villages of Native
 California Native Americans learned to set brushfires to deliberately burn off
  shrubby plants to minimize more catastrophic fires. The fires also left an
  environment that encouraged young shoots to grow which created attractive
  grazing lands for deer, elk, and antelope.
 Sixty percent of the food eaten all over the world today comes from plants that
  were originally domesticated by Native Americans (staples like tomatoes,
  potatoes, and corn).
 The Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon (apartment/town home to over 1,000 Anasazi
  souls) once reached five stories. A larger apartment building was not built in
  America until the Industrial Revolution almost 1,000 years later. Its construction
  helped to gather solar heat in the winter and dissipate it in the summer.
 America’s first geneticist was a Native American woman. By accident or by
  design, the first domesticated plants of the Eastern Woodland were planted by
  women. It was mostly the Native American women who retained the botanical
  information for food, clothing, dyes, cordage, and medicines. A Native American
  woman was the first farmer in eastern America.
 Obsidian was more valuable in flint knapping (chipping stone into a weapon or tool)
  than other stones. Archaeologist wondered why. It has been found in modern
  times that obsidian blades are as sharp as the newest diamond scalpels and a
  hundred to three hundred times sharper as steel blades!

 Popped corn, wrapped in buckskin, was presented by the Wampanoags to the
  pilgrims at the first Thanksgiving.
 In New England, during the 1600’s, the cordage made by Native Americans for
  their fishing lines and nets was superior to that of Europeans’ by their own

      Station Scripts






                           FACE PAINTING
                           CORDAGE STATION

TIME: 30 minutes
PLACE: Thunderbird Lodge


    You need to arrive 45 minutes before the student – usually 9:00 AM. During this
     time you will set up the station and familiarize yourself with the activities.
    Please bring the following materials for your station
                Wet Ones
                Paper Towels
                Yarn cut into 36 inch pieces and 24 inch pieces (each student will
                   need both a 36 and 24 inch piece of yarn).


    Seat students at chairs.
    Assign a parent(s) to the Cordage table; have them tape down the yarn and learn
     to tie the #4 knot.
    Divide students into two groups – half do cordage and half face paint.
    Rotate groups between Face Painting and Cordage.


      Our recorded history of Native American people begins with descriptions by
sixteenth century European traders of the Algonquian people. They were described as
handsome people who liked painting their bodies. Red was a favorite color and was often
spread over their bodies. This led to the traders calling them red men. Red and yellow
ochre rock was ground to a fine powder to make red and yellow face paint. Black paint

was made from charcoal left over from burning wood. White paint came from white clay
or chalk rock. Bear or buffalo fat was mixed with the ground rocks and charcoal to from
a paste, which was put on the skin. The face paint served as a sun block and insect
repellant as well as decoration. The Native Americans used red as a background color
the same way we might use a facial make-up or tan our bodies. Both men and women
painted their faces but men rarely used decorative paints other than red unless they
were preparing for battle. Each warrior painted himself with hopes of frightening his
enemies. Different figures or designs were drawn on the body - see pictures located on
the face painting table. The colors used for face painting meant different things to
different groups of Native Americans, but usually the following colors were used to
represent: black for death, red for life, blue for sad or trouble, white for peace, and
yellow for joy. Individuals usually carried their own bags of colors and bear grease
because these were not always easy to find and therefore considered very valuable.

        Native Americans also perfumed or scented their bodies by smoking themselves
with burning sage, sweetgrass, lavender, rosemary or other aromatic plants. They put
bear fat on their hair to make it shine and often added soot from the fire to deepen
the natural black color. In some tribes, boys were not allowed to grow their hair long
until they were sixteen. Tattooing was also popular. Some Native Americans would
tattoo symbols of their tribe on their bodies. Cheeks and arms were favorite
permanent decoration sites.

       Cordage is made by twisting or braiding various fibers together to form
different types of cording. Native Americans used the cordage they made to make
clothing, fishing line, fish nets, dwellings, and weapons. They possessed a vast
knowledge of cordage as far back as 3000 years ago. Native Americans made cord and
thread from the fibers of many plants, trees, and other material such as animal sinew
and rawhide

                            TALKING POINTS

       In the 1500’s, European traders encountered Native Americans in Maryland
        called the Algonquians. How did the traders describe these Native
        Americans? Indians, red men

       What favorite color did Native Americans use to paint themselves? Red

       What natural resources did Native Americans use to make their paint? Rocks,
         charcoal, berries, roots, bear fat

 Why did Native Americans paint themselves?        Decoration, protection from
   sun, insects, and cold, to show which clan they belonged

 Why do we paint ourselves? Decoration, protection from sun and insects

 What natural resources do we use? Oils from animals and plants, colors from
   plants and minerals

 Both men and women decorated themselves with paint. When did men usually
  wear paint? Prepare for battle

 Many Native Americans carried a bag containing paint and bear fat. What do
  you carry when you travel? What did you bring to Camp Puh’tok? Lunch,
   drink, sunscreen, hat, chap stick

 What other decorations did Native Americans use?       Tattoos, perfumes, hair
   dressings, jewelry

 When you think of colors like black, red, blue, white, and yellow what feelings
  do you think of?

 Native Americans used black for death, red for life, blue for sad or trouble,
  white for peace, and yellow for joy

                   CORDAGE TALKING POINTS

 What does cordage mean? Rope or cord

 What natural resources might Native Americans used to make their cordage?
   Plants, trees, animal sinew, and rawhide

 Why was cordage important to Native Americans? The thread, string and
   rope they made were very important in their daily lives.

 What did they use the cordage for? Making clothing, fishing line, fish nets,
   dwellings, and weapons.

                        FACE PAINTING ACTIVITY

    The Native Americans usually painted their whole bodies; students will just paint
     their face and/or arms for decoration. Red and yellow ochre will be ground to
     make red and yellow paint. White paint will be made by grinding clay or naturally
     occurring chalk. Ground charcoal from burned wood will be used to make black
    Demonstrate how to grind (not pound) rocks and how to move the paper with
     ground rock to shells.
    Have students grind rocks and fill shells with ground rock.
    Parent (not students) adds water to shell and pigment.
    Have students mix the water and ground rock with their finger then apply the
     color with fingers to their face or hands. Geometric shapes (circles, lines,
     triangles, etc.) are the easiest to master.
    Be sure students wash their hands before leaving the Face Painting table.

                         CORDAGE ACTIVITY

    If there is only one person trained for this station, make sure chaperones are
     taught how to tie the cordage knot. This can be done while the student
     orientation is taking place. Chaperones can do the cordage with half of the
     student while the trained Station Leader does the face painting with the other
     half. Groups should switch at the appropriate time.
    Have parent chaperones tape yarn to table while the Station Leader gives the
     background Information.
    Explain to students that they are going to use yarn for their cordage and will be
     making a bracelet today.
    Complete bracelets and tie onto student’s wrist.


    Count and inspect all equipment. Please report what needs to be repaired or
    Clean area but do not put equipment away.
    Do not wash shells as pigment can be used again.

ROTATION: Your group will rotate to the Games Station. Instruct them to sit at
empty tables and not to touch the games equipment until told. Students from the
Dwelling Station will come to you.
                               GAMES STATION

TIME: 30 minutes
PLACE: Thunderbird Lodge


    You need to arrive 45 minutes before the student – usually 9:00 AM. During this
     time you will set up the station and familiarize yourself with the activities.


      Seat students at empty tables.
      Give background information using “Talking Points”
      Demonstrate and explain each game.
      Divide students in half – half go to one table and the other half to the other
       table. There are three games at each table (rocks, acorns, and pillow case).
       Assign students to each game. Assign a parent to each table.
      A parent should do the bravery game (pillow case) with students.
      Rotate groups so everyone has a chance at all three games.
      Move students outside to picnic tables.
      Using the same student groups, #1’s play darts, #3’s play with hula-hoops and
       sticks, and #3’s play double bean bags (have students begin close to each other
       for bean bags).
      Rotate groups so everyone has a chance at all three games.


Native American children enjoyed playing different games. The games helped the girls
and boys improve their skills in throwing and accuracy, which prepared them for hunting.
Games also helped the children to get stronger. Native Americans did not have stores
to buy their games, but they used the natural resources of an area such as trees, vines,
stones, seeds, animals, etc. for making the games. Many of the games that were played
hundreds of years ago by the Native Americans are still being played today in one form
or another such as shinny or hockey and baggataway or lacrosse.
                                TALKING POINTS

       Why were playing games an important part of Native American girl’s and boy’s
        lives? Helped them get stronge, develop accuracy for hunting and fighting,
         tested their bravery, and fun.

       What natural resources were used to make their game equipment?
         Corncobs, Canada goose feathers

       Look around this area, what other natural resources could be used to make
        games? Vines, wood, rocks, seeds, animal parts

       In order to survive in the environment Native Americans needed to develop
        their 5 senses. What are the 5 senses? Hearing, sight, smell, touch, taste

       Why would developing their 5 senses be important? Awareness of danger,
         hunting, and defending themselves

       What game might Native American children play that would help develop the
        sense of touch and test bravery? Identify an object in a bag – choose
         volunteer to demonstrate

       Why is it important for us to develop our 5 senses? Survival – smell a fire or
         see and hear a fast car approaching

                            GAME ACTIVITIES

            ** Explain how to play each game right before they play it.

                                 Inside Activities

Bowl Games: These two games are made with stones, acorn caps, beans, baskets and
           There are four sets of these games (two per table)

      Stones: Five or six stones are used. One side is painted or has a buffalo on it.
      Place the stones into a basket with the painted or carved sides up. The basket is

      hit LIGHTLY on the table with just enough force to make the stones jump but
      not so hard that the bounce out of the basket. If all rocks show the same design
      or are all blank the score is 10, if only one rock is different than the others the
      score is 5, if two rocks are different than the others the score is 2. The score
      is kept with beans.

      Acorns: This game is like the stones game but uses a small container and acorn
      caps. Shake the caps and turn the container upside down on a skin. Use the
      above scoring system.

Bravery Guessing Game: Various objects are in the pillowcase. Students test their
bravery by reaching in the bag of unknown objects, then guessing what the object is
before pulling it out the pillow case.

                                   Outside Games
                  ** No sitting on stone wall or fences

Double Bean Bags: (Made from skins of animals and stuffed with stones, beans or clay).
Each student needs a stick and a beanbag for the game and should play in pairs.
Students should be close at first then may move farther apart after they get the idea.
The double beanbags cannot be touched with the hands. Bags must be thrown and
caught with a stick. If the bags are missed, a stick is used to pick them up. Have the
students see how many throws and catches they can make without missing for one or
two minutes.

Corncob Darts & Grapevine Hoop: Made from corncobs and goose feathers and a hoop
from wild grape vines. Each student should have 1 or 2 darts. The parent holds the
grape vine hoop while students take turns throwing the corncob dart through it.

 Moving Hoop: use the large grapevine wreath with two ropes on each side. Assign 2
students to hold the wreath suspended in the air using the ropes. Student should
GENTLY move the wreath back and forth while the other students take turns throwing
darts through the middle of the wreath.

    Count and inspect all equipment. Please report what needs to be repaired or
    Clean and straighten area.

ROTATION: Your group moves to the Weapons Station on the field. Your next group
will be coming from Face Painting

                            WEAPONS STATION

TIME: 30 Minute
PLACE: Field


    You need to arrive 45 minutes before the student – usually 9:00 AM. During this
     time you will set up the station and familiarize yourself with the activities.
    Please bring the following materials for your station:
                3-4 hour fire log

How to Manage the Weapons Station

    Do not start fire until you bring the first group.
    Give background information using “Talking Points”
    Demonstrate and explain weapons
    Assign parents to direct the spears, blow darts, and rabbit stick. The trained
     parent should do the bow and arrow.
    Number the students 1 through 4. #1’s start with the spears and atlatls, #2’s
     rabbit stick, and #3’s blow darts, # 4’s bow and arrows.
    Rotate groups so everyone has a chance at use all four weapons.


       In order to survive, Native Americans had to hunt for their food. In this area,
they hunted deer, rabbit, fish, buffalo, and a very long time ago the woolly mammoth.
The rabbit stick was used for smaller animals, the larger spear for larger animals. The
atlatl was used with the large spear so it could be thrown faster and harder. A special
fishing spear was used to catch fish. (Only show the fishing spear- NOT TO BE USED)
Later, as the big animals disappeared, the Native Americans invented the bow and arrow
for more accurate hunting of smaller game. They made weapons from the natural
resources available to them. Sometimes they traded with other tribes from different
places to get things that were not in their area.

       Bows were made from ash, oak, hickory, and witch hazel. The strings were made
from plants or animals (cordage from the inside of bark and sinew or tendon in the deer
leg). Arrows were assembled using cordage and hoof glue.

       Survival was difficult and the Native Americans wasted very little. They used all
parts of the animals that they hunted. They used the meat for food, the skins for
clothing, the bones for tools and weapons, the hooves for glue, sinew for cordage,
feathers for weapons, games, and ornamentation, etc. DO NOT LET ANYONE THROW

                                  Talking Points

Takes place in tipi

       If you were hungry, where would you go to eat?

       What might Native Americans that lived in Maryland eat? Deer, rabbit, fish,
          buffalo, woolly mammoth - show picture

       How would they get their food? Hunt

       What did Native Americans use to hunt with? Bow and arrows, spears, rabbit
          sticks (for smaller animals), harpoons (fishing)

       What natural resources were used for making this arrow? Wood, feather,
          sinew, bone or stone.

       Where did the above natural resources come from?
             Arrows: wood-trees, feathers-birds, sinew (material used to tie arrow
                  heads to the arrow)-tendon of deer, arrow heads- bone or stone
             Bow: ash, oak, hickory, witch hazel

       Without stores, where did Native Americans get their wood, string, glue,
        bone, and skins? deer and other animals

       Explain why the deer was named the supermarket of the woodland?
        So many items were made from this animal – nothing wasted.
          skin-clothing and shelter
          bones-tools and weapons

           tendons-sinew and string

         Unlike Native Americans who wasted very little, modern day Americans have a
          reputation of being a “throw away society”. What do you think this means?
           We buy many things that can’t be reused or recycled and instead are thrown

         How can we make better use of our resources? Reduce, reuse, recycle.

                                WEAPON ACTIVITES

**All students must be chaperoned when handling or using
                                      Bow and Arrow

Close supervision is necessary.
    Inspect equipment after each group for frayed string, splintering, string
       attachments, etc.
    Make sure the shooting area is clear at all times.
    Everyone should stay behind the wait line until it is his or her turn.
    Have each student shoot 3 arrows.
    Shooters should stay behind the shooting line until all arrows are shot.
    Have the children walk to find the arrows and walk back with the arrows.
    No one should place the arrow on the string until everyone is behind the shooting
       line and the person in charge has given the okay.
    The children should not pull the bowstring past their face.

                                       Rabbit Stick

Closesupervision is necessary.
     Inspect equipment after each group for splintering.
     Make sure the shooting area is clear at all times.
     Everyone should stay behind the wait line until it is his or her turn
     Have student throw rabbit stick at stuffed animal three times from the shooting
    Students should retrieve the rabbit stick they threw.

                                        Spears and Atlatl

Close   supervision is necessary.
        Inspect equipment after each group for splintering
        Make sure the shooting area is clear at all times.
        Everyone should stay behind the wait line until it is his or her turn.
        Students should throw two spears.
        Spear throwers should stay behind the throw line until both spears are thrown.
        Have students retrieve the spear they threw.
        Students repeat the above.
        Students then throw the spear two more times using the atlatl.

                                          Blow Darts
Close   supervision is necessary.
        Count blow darts after each group
        Make sure the shooting area is clear at all times.
        Everyone should stay behind the wait line until it is his or her turn.
        Two students can be at the shooting line at a time.
        Students should dip the shooting tube in alcohol before using.
        Dart is placed into the back of tube (end where mouth goes.)
        Give short bust of air to shoot out dart.
        After all darts are shot, only shooters should retrieve the darts.


    Count and inspect all equipment. Please report what needs to be repaired or
    Cover targets and secure with bungee cords.
    Leave cones, ropes, and metal quivers in place.
    Put arrows, rabbit stick, atlatls, darts and stuffed animals in basket.
    Place basket and remaining equipment in front of shed.

ROTATION: Your group rotates to the Hogan for the Legend Telling/Fire Making
Station. The Games Station will come to you

                         FIRE MAKING STATION

TIME: 30 Minutes
PLACE: Navaho Hogan


   You need to arrive 45 minutes before the student – usually 9:00 AM. During this
    time you will set up the station and familiarize yourself with the activities.
   Please bring the following materials for your station:
                   3-4 hour fire log
                   Tinder for fire making.

How to Manage the Fire and Legend Station

     Arrange stuffed animals on cot next to door in the order they occur in the legend
     Do not start fire until you bring the first group.
     Fill wooden bowl with water and place the three “cooking” rocks in fire to heat.
     Meet students outside of Hogan to begin the “Talking Points”
     Have students enter and sit – boys on left (south), girls on right (north)
     Before telling legend, pass out stuffed animals in the order they occur in the
     Select three girls to be the yellow jackets. They will move behind the benches as
      they follow the fire stick from animal to animal. This will allow everyone to see
      the stuffed animals better.
     Collect animals.
     Divide the student into groups of three for fire making. One will hold the
      fireboard, one will use the bow and spindle, and one will hold the bow in place
      using the palm rock.
     Students should rotate within their group so all have the opportunity to try each


       The NAVAHO or NAVAJO HOGAN was used in the Southwest. The entrance
faced east to honor the sun. Women lived on the North side and men lived on the south
side of the Hogan. When they moved around the main fire, they always moved clockwise
just as they thought the sun moved in the sky. Most Native American dwellings were
symbolic of many of their beliefs and not just shelters. Their dwellings were a very
important part of their lives.

       Many Native American cultures did not have a written language; instead they used
legends to pass on information from generation to generation. Legends are stories that
are told and retold by tribal elders to help people to remember their past and to explain
why things are the way they are. Native Americans from this area (Northeast) told
stories during the long cold season not only to inform but also to entertain.

   One skill which was very important to the Native Americans was fire making. They
made fire-making tools from the things around them. Preparation was the most
important part of fire making. A supply of dry tinder was very important. This could be
made from the inside of bark, usually red cedar, which was well rubbed between the
hands until it was reduced to frazzled shreds. The tinder was formed into a nest and
kept in readiness. A fireboard with holes and notches was placed on top of another
board or flat rock, and a drill or spindle made of soft maple or elm was held upright in
the hole and spun between the palms. Using a bow instead of the palms to spin the
spindle was found to be better. The constant rubbing (friction) of the spindle on the
fireboard created a hot ash that was scrapped into the tinder nest and blown with a
steady strong breath until a small fire was produced. The drill stick had to get to 900
degrees Fahrenheit in order to start a fire. This process took a lot of practice.

                                TALKING POINTS

                                   Hogan and Legend

    Meet students outside of Hogan to begin the “Talking Points”

    The Hogan was a very special place or the Navajo people – so we must enter it
     quietly and with respect.

    Seat boys on left (south) and girls on right (north)

 Many Native Americans did not have a written language. How did the children
  learn about their traditions and past?
   Legend telling (stories from the past)

 Who usually told legends to the children? Tribal elders

 Who would be our tribal elders? Older adults such as grandfathers

 During what time of the year were stories told in the Hogan fire? Winter

 Have students close their eye and use their sense of smell and hearing to prepare
  for the legend.

 Pass out puppets and “fire stick” to students for acting out the legend as you
  read “Fire Race” .

                             Legend Discussion
 Did you like the legend?

 Explain what the legend was about

 Describe the main lesson of the legend. Cooperation and teamwork help them
   build the fire and survive.

 Did you learn anything new from this legend?

 If you were a Native American, would this story help you learn about your
  tradition and past?

                             Fire Making

 Why was fire making very important to Native Americans?
   Cooking, warmth, clearing the land for gardens.

 What natural resource did Native Americans use for making fires? Wood

 In addition to logs for the fire, a material was needed to catch the first spark
  and start the fire. This is called tinder.

    What do we often use for tinder when making fires in our home fireplaces?

    What might Native Americans have used? Dry grasses, mosses, cattails, dry
      seeds- like milkweed, and inside of tree bark. Show different tinder materials

    Show fire making tools: Tinder nest, fireboard, bow, and spindle.

    How hot do you think the drill stick has to get to start a fire?
      900 degrees Fahrenheit

    Rub Hands together – what happens? They get warm.

    What causes hands to get warm?
      Friction – when two objects are rubbed together they form heat.

*Do not build Hogan fire too high and do not let students get close to fire.

*Make sure fire is in control when your group leaves Hogan.

                         FIRE MAKING ACTIVITIES

    First - Demonstrate and explain the fire making activity.

    Divide the student into groups of three for fire making. One will hold the
     fireboard, one will use the bow and spindle, and one will hold the bow in place
     using the palm rock.

    Pass out equipment.

    Students should rotate within their group so all have the opportunity to try each

    Collect and count all equipment – set up for next group.

SAFETY: Do not let the students get close to the fire. Do not build the fire too high.
Make sure the fire is controlled if you need to leave. A small number of students may
not be able to stay in the Hogan for various reasons. The extra book can be given to a
chaperone who can let the student read the book outside the Hogan.


    Explain how Native Americans used hot rocks placed in wooden or stone bowls to

    Fill wooden bowl with water if not already done.

    Use metal scoops to remove rocks from fire to bowl.


    Count and inspect all equipment. Please report what needs to be repaired or

    Pack puppets and fire stick in Plastic container.

    Pack all other materials into basket.

    Sweep inside area of Hogan.

    Take box and basket to storage area behind Council Ring. If raining, leave
     materials in Hogan.

ROTATION: Send your group to the Totem Pole where they will meet the Dwelling and
Tools station leader. Students are not to go into the Council Ring. Your next group will
be coming from the Weapons station.

                            “LEGEND OF THE FIRE RACE”

Retold by Jonathan London (This book will be at your station. The following gives you a
chance to practice prior to the trip.) “Da neho!” (Iroquois for “That is all!”)

Long ago, the animal people had no fire. Day and night, they huddled in their houses in
the dark, and ate their food uncooked. In the winter, they were so cold, icicles hung
from their fur. Oh, they were miserable!

Then one day, wise Old Coyote gathered everybody together. “We have heard about
fire”, he said. “But the only fire is far upriver, at the world’s end. It’s guarded by the
Yellow Jacket sisters high atop a snowy mountain. They are wicked, and will not share
it. But listen, if we all cooperate and work together, we can steal the fire.” There was
much fearful murmuring about the Yellow Jacket sisters, but all grew quiet as Coyote
told them his plan. Then he went on his way.

Grandfather Coyote slowly trudged up the mountain at the world’s end. When at last he
came to the Yellow Jacket’s house, smoke was rising from the smoke hole.

Coyote looked inside. The three old sisters were sitting around the fire. Coyote said,
as friendly as can be, “If you let me in, I’ll make you all look pretty.” Suspicious, the
three sisters put their heads close together and buzzed. “Come in,” they said. “But no

Old man Coyote sat down and took a chunk of oak bark between his toes and held it in
the fire. When it had burned into a blackened coal, he marked their yellow faces and
bodies with black stripes to make them pretty. “Now,” said Coyote, “if you close your
eyes, I will make you even prettier.”

Here was Coyote’s chance! While the Yellow Jackets’ eyes were closed, he took the
charred oak in his teeth, and silent as the moon in the sky, he crept outside. Then he
raced down the mountain like the wind.

When the Yellow Jacket sisters found out that Coyote had tricked them, they were
screaming mad. They, too, flew like the wind. And it wasn’t long until they caught up to

They were almost on him when Coyote tripped, rolled downhill like a snowball, and landed
smack at Eagle’s feet. Snatching the glowing coal in his talons, Eagle spread his wings
and took to the sky.

Eagle was swift, but the Yellow Jackets soon caught up with him. Suddenly, Eagle
dropped the coal. Below, Mountain Lion caught it in his great teeth, and bounded off
through the snow. Still, the furious Yellow Jackets followed.

Just as they were about to sting Mountain Lion, Fox snatched the fiery coal, and
bounced in among the tall cedar and pine. Fox ran and ran, until she was so tired, she
couldn’t take another step. She huffed and huffed. Her breath made clouds, and the
Yellow Jackets were right behind her.

Just in time, Bear took the fire and lunged away through some brambles. Bear, too, was
quick, yet the Yellow Jackets were right on top of her. Even Bear could not fight them
off, and she finally tumbled in exhaustion.

As Bear fell, Measuring Worm, the Long One, took the fire. The Long One stretched
way out over three ridges, yet the Yellow Jackets were there, waiting, ready to strike.

Somehow, right under the Yellow Jacket’s eyes, Turtle sneaked in, grabbed the fire,
and scrambled off. But of course Turtle was slow, and one of the Yellow Jacket sisters
stung him in his tail. Akee! Akee! Akee!

Turtle pulled in his head and legs and flip-flopped down the hill. Fallumph. Fallumph.
Fallumph. The Yellow Jackets were swarming all over Turtle, when Frog leaped out of
the river and swallowed the fire. Gulp!

Then Frog hopped back into the river - plop - and sat on the bottom. The Yellow
Jackets stormed the river, circling once, circling twice, circling three times, buzzing the
surface. They waited and they waited and they waited, but Frog held the fire, and his
breath. Finally, the Yellow Jackets gave up, and flew back home.

As soon as the Yellow Jacket sisters were gone, Frog burst out of the water, and spat
the hot coal into the roots of a willow growing along the river. The tree swallowed the
fire, and the animal people didn’t know what to do.

Then once again Coyote came along, and the animal people said, “Grandfather, you must
show us how to get the fire from the willow.” So Old Man Coyote, who is very wise and
knows these things, said, “Hah!” and he showed them how to rub two willow sticks
together over dry moss to make fire.

From that time on the people have known how to coax fire from the wood in order to
keep warm and to cook their food. And at night in the seasons of cold, they have sat in
a circle around their fires and listened as the elders told the old stories. And so it is
even to this day. Kupanakanakana.

                           DWELLING AND TOOLS

TIME: 30 Minutes
PLACE: Dwelling


   You need to arrive 45 minutes before the student – usually 9:00 AM. During this
    time you will set up the station and familiarize yourself with the activities.
   Please bring the following materials for your station:
               3-4 hour fire log
               Popped corn
               Beef or deer jerky
               Journey bread (see recipe below)

                               JOURNEY BREAD RECIPE

                         1C White CORN MEAL
                         1/8 tsp SALT
                         1/4 C or more MAPLE SYRUP
                            ENOUGH WATER TO MAKE STIFF BATTER (about 2T)

                   MAKE 6 SMALL, THIN PATTIES (or more)
                   FRY IN HOT OIL UNTIL BROWNED (approx. 4 min.)


     Do not start fire until you bring the first group.
     Meet students at the totem pole and begin the “Talking Points”
     Visit the dwellings in the following order: Longhouse, Pueblo, and Chickee.
     If there is time, visit the Waginogan.


                                     TOTEM POLE

 (Northwest) Totem poles told a story about the owners’ history. Native American
tribes that made totem poles similar to the one at Camp Puh’tok lived on the Northwest
coast such as Washington State and Alaska. Most totem poles were much taller than
Camp Puh’tok (40 to 70’). If a stranger came into a village, he or she would look for a
totem pole that had his clan animal because he knew he would be welcomed in the village.
The clans represented on the totem pole at Camp Puh’tok are (top to bottom) are chief,
raven, frog, killer whale, eagle, bear, beaver, and turtle. The most important figure was
usually carved on top.

                               IROQUOIS LONGHOUSE

 (Northeast) These dwellings were actually much larger than the one at Camp Puh’tok.
They were made from saplings bent over and tied together to make a rounded roof and
sides. The sapling frame was covered with tree bark. These longhouses were one of the
first “mobile homes”. The tree bark was rolled up leaving the frame. They could carry
the bark to a warmer location and put it on a frame left from the previous year. In the
summer they could move back. There would be rows of houses making up a community
(see picture in Longhouse). More than one family lived in a longhouse, which could be
extended as the family grew. They could also move the “shingles” on the roof to make a
place for the smoke to leave the house. This was called a smoke hole. The smoke
helped to dry and flavor food that was stored in the longhouse for the winter. The
Native Americans hunted, gathered, and farmed for food during the warmer months.
Some of that food was hung from the ceiling of the longhouse to dry so there would be
food for the colder months.

      Beef Jerky - These are pieces of dried and smoked meat like Native Americans
might have eaten.

       Furs - Native Americans smoked and dried their meat and vegetables with the
cooking fire. The fires kept them warm, but not warm enough at night. They used a pile
of skins on a wooden framed bed where the family slept together for warmth.

        Mortar & Pestle – Native Americans would pound the corn in a mortal and pestle
until it was very fine. They would use this to make different breads. During the colder
months, the Native Americans from the Northeast would gather the sap or liquid from
sugar maples. This sap has sugar in it. By boiling sap they made maple sugar. They
would combine the maple sugar and corn meal to make Journey Bread.

      Soapstone Bowl - Soapstone is a soft rock and easier to carve than most rocks.
There are a lot of soapstone rocks at Camp Puh’tok but not at other places. The Native
Americans did not carry the bowls with them when they moved. They would carve a new
bowl out of available material at their new home. They would use these bowl for
cooking. Hot rocks were continuously added to liquids, meats, grains, or vegetables in
the bowl until the ingredients were cooked. Students will get a chance to carve some

                                     HOPI PUEBLO

(Southwest) This dwelling was made from stone or adobe (mud and clay). The pueblo
here at Camp Puh’tok is made of cement and cinder blocks because the rainy weather of
Maryland would dissolve a mud pueblo. The pueblo at Camp Puh’tok has a wood floor
instead of a dirt floor. Pueblos were built on top of each other and ladders were used to
get to the top buildings – see pictures located in pueblo. The Hopi women built most of
the pueblos and owned the house.

      Clay Pots - There was a lot of mud and clay in the southwest area so the Native
Americans used this resource to make many things. They did not have as many trees as
you see at Camp Puh’tok.

      Basket - Native Americans wove a variety of natural materials into baskets. This
basket was made from split river cane (a form of bamboo that can be found in parts of
the east).

      Peppers - Vegetables were grown during the warm season and hung up to dry so
they would last through the winter when food was scarce.

      Popcorn - Corn or maize (Native American word for corn) was a very important
food for the Native American. It could be used in many ways. One way to eat the corn
was to pop it, making it easier to eat. Eating dried corn could split and break-off teeth
which could be very painful and dangerous to the Native Americans. Without full use of
the teeth, it would be difficult to eat all the foods necessary for good health

                                 SEMINOLE CHICKEE

 (Southeast) The Seminole Native Americans lived south of us where it was warmer
(Florida). They used the natural resources that grew in their area. The floor was made
of wood from a variety of trees and the roof was made of thatch (palm-like leaves).

      Skins – Native Americans used deer skins to make their clothing, shoes, and
Curing (or tanning) animal skins was very hard work and took a long time to complete.
There were many stages in the tanning process that skins went through before
becoming usable. The brain of the animal was actually used in the tanning of animal skins.

       Gourds - Gourds were grown in vegetable gardens along with squash, beans and
corn. Native Americans used gourds of various sizes for bowls dippers and musical

      Tools – In order to grow gourds and other crops Native Americans needed tools
to work in their gardens. The Native Americans used natural things from their
environment to make their tools. The celt or stone axe was used to cut into wood such
as cutting down a tree. These different drills (hand drills and “power” drill) were used
to make holes.

                                TALKING POINTS

                          Totem Pole
    Tells about the people (clan) who made it.
    This type found in Washington and Alaska
    This one shows animal clans of village.
                          Top to bottom – chief, raven, frog, killer whale (orca), eagle,
                          bear, beaver, turtle

                   Look at Native Americans Dwellings
    How can you tell where the Native Americans that lived in these dwellings were
     from? The natural resources they used to build their houses. palm fronds –
      south east (Fla.), clay – south west

    Iroquois from the northeast lived in dwellings like these.

    Actual ones much larger than this model. Made of bent saplings and covered with
     tree bark.

      Longhouses were mobile – The bark rolled up and carried to winter location
       then put on frame from previous year.

      Show picture of longhouse “neighborhood”.

      How did Native Americans heat the longhouse?
       Fire, bark on roof moved to one side for smoke to escape. Also used furs
       to keep warm

      Where do you think their food was stored?
       Hung from ceilings to dry – flavored by smoke form fires- like beef jerky

Soapstone Bowl Carving
    Soapstone is a soft rock and can be carved. This is the same rock the
     3,000-year-old bowl found at Camp Puh’tok is made from.
    Do you think Native Americans would carry this with them when they
     traveled from place to place? No, too heavy. They would leave objects like
     this behind in caches – secret storage places.

Mortar and Pestle
   What did Native Americans used these for? To grind corn.

Journey Cakes
    Native Americans would combine ground corn with maple sugar and water
      then bake into a bread called “journey cakes”. Sometimes dried berries
      were added for variety.

                    Longhouse Activities

   Divide students into three groups:
          Group #1 will carve soapstone

             Group #2 will pound corn

              Group #3 will eat jerky and journey bread, examine furs and

   Assign parents to help with each activity.
   Rotate students through activities.
   Count materials before leaving long house

                         Hopi Pueblo

    Enter Pueblo fro the side door

    Pueblos built Southwest Native Americans

    Real ones made from stone and adobe (mud and clay)

    Built by women and owned by them.

    Why did the Southwest Native Americans not use wood for their dwellings? Not
     many trees in southwest.

    Were they afraid of the pueblo dissolving when it rained? No, not much rain in
      the southwest.

    Would this kind of dwelling work at Camp Puh’tok? No, too much rain.

     Clay pots
    What are these pots made from? Clay – mud and clay is abundant in the
      southwest and was used a resource by the Native Americans.

    Corn or maize, as Native Americans have called it, was a very important food for
     them. They prepared it in many ways – baked such as bread and tortillas and

**Pass out popped corn to eat.

    What resource might Native Americans used to make this basket? Grasses,
      reeds, deer skin, sinew

    Native Americans grew vegetables like peppers in the summer. How did they
     prepare them so they could be used in the winter? Hung them up to dry


    Would you like to live in this building here in Maryland? Too cold in winter.

    Native Americans had to find materials to build everything they had in the
     environment. This included their tools. Explain how they might use this tree
     branch? Rake

    How would you use this Native American hoe? Planting or weeding a garden

    Why wasn’t a modern hoe or rake like this used? Native Americans had not
      discovered metals, a natural resource.

    What natural resources did they use to make their hoe? Wood, and a scapula
      (shoulder blade) from a deer.

    Inside of the Chickee are gourds like the ones Native Americans grew. What
     might they have used them for? Bowls, dippers, and rattles

     Deer Skins
    You buy your clothing at a store – Native Americans had to use the natural
     materials provided by the environment to make everything they wore. They used
     animal skins and furs for their clothing. Was this easy? No, very work intensive
      – look at examples of deer hide tanning and final product

    What materials do you think Native Americans used to drill holes? Stone or very
     hard wood.

**Demonstrate and explain how to use the hand drill then “power drill”

     Celt Ax
    What instrument did Native Americans use to chop down trees?
            Celt ax – made of stone and wood.

**Demonstrate and explain how to use the Celt ax – no swinging above shoulder and
student must kneel.

                            Chickee Activities

        Divide students into three groups:
             Group #1 will use drills on the pieces of wood at picnic table.

               Group #2 will rake leaves.

               Group #3 will use the Celt axes.

         Station Leader should work with the drilling activity (emphasize that
         students should not stab the wood - just drill)

         Assign parents to help with the other activities.

         Remind parent at the Celt ax activity to have students kneel when using
         ax and only raise it to shoulder level. Students should use safety
         goggles at this activity.

         Rotate students through activities.

 Waginogan – Visit this dwelling if time allows.
    Where would Native Americans that used dwellings like these live? North
         East and Great Lakes

      What natural resource was used to wrap around this building? Bark of
         birch trees – bark peels easily from these trees.

     Do you recognize these nuts? Acorns

      What kinds of trees produce acorns? Oaks – acorns are oak seeds

      How did Native Americans use acorns as a natural resource?
         Food –
         Acorns cannot be eaten raw – Before eating acorns, Native Americans
                1. Bury them in mud for a year or
                   2. Let them mold in a basket and then bury them in sand
                   3. Poured hot water over ground up acorns and cooked

      Wooden Long Bowl
         What resource did Native Americans use to get maple syrup? Maple trees

          How might this log have been used to make maple syrup? Maple tree sap
            was put on log with very hot stones. The water evaporated and left behind
            maple sugar.

Rotation: Your students travel to Thunderbird Lodge for the Face Painting and
Cordage station. The group from Legend and Fire will come to you. Meet them at the
totem pole.


Count and inspect all equipment. Please report what needs to be repaired or

       Empty corn from pestles into plastic corn container.
       Turn pestles upside down and leave in the Longhouse.
       Push soapstone bowl under bunk bed.
       Place soapstone carving tools, furs, flat basket, pictures, and container with
         corn in the plastic box.
       Take box and mortars to storage area behind the Council Ring.
       Sweep Longhouse.

       Place all materials into the plastic container.
       Take box to storage area behind the Council Ring.
       Sweep Pueblo.

       Place drilling boards on table in Chickee.
       Place all other equipment except rakes and hoes in the plastic box.
       Take box, rakes and hoes to storage area behind the Council Ring.


To top