Similarities and Differences by 177P72yh

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									Similarities and Differences




            pa 06-06           1
Similarities and Differences
   Comparing

   Classifying

   Creating Metaphors

   Creating analogies
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McREL’s Strategies

 Marzano (1998) analyzed
 selected research studies on
 instructional strategies that
 could be used by teachers in
 K-12 classrooms.
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Category                 Average Percentile Number of Effect
                         Effect    Gain     Sizes
                         size (ES)
Identifying              1.61      45       31
similarities and
differences
Summarizing and          1.00      34       179
note taking
Reinforcing effort and   .80       29       21
providing recognition
Homework and             .77       28       134
Practice
Nonlinguistic            .75       27       246
representation
Cooperative learning     .73       27       122
Setting objectives and   .61       23       408
providing feedback
Generating and           .61       23       63
testing hypotheses
Questions, cues, and     .59       22       1,251
advance organizers              pa 06-06                       4
Comparing




Examine how things are alike
 and different based on
 common characteristics.

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Recommendations for practice:

1.Give
 students a
 model for
 the process



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Recommendations for practice:
2. Use
 familiar
 content to
 teach
 students the
 steps for
 comparing.
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Recommendations for practice:

3. Give
                         ?
 students
 graphic                 x
 organizers              y
 for                     z
 comparing

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Recommendations for practice:


4. Guide
 students as
 needed



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Purpose: to compare and contrast
__________ and ____________
Characteristics




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Purpose: to compare and contrast
__________ and ____________

How are they most alike?
___________________________

What is the greatest difference
between them? ______________
___________________________



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Using what you know and have
learned, write 2 sentences to
compare and contrast ___ and ___.

1.



2.




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  Compare the two sources: A. How is what
  Talmadge wrote like the painting? How is it
  different?

                            “Such a scene of
                              sorrow and weeping
                              I had never before
                              witnessed.”

                                 Benjamin Talmadge


B. Identify each as a primary or secondary
source. Explain the reasons for your
choices.
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Classifying

Consider how items are similar
and different then group using
similarities to define categories.



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                 Metaphors
Definition:
Figure of speech in which a word or phrase
  that literally denotes one object or ideas is
  used with or in place of another object or
  idea, to suggest a likeness between them.



                     is

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    Why Metaphors?



Think about a time when you
   used a metaphor to explain
   something that was otherwise
   difficult to explain.


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             Metaphors

   War is hell.
   Love is a rose.
   My brother is a killer whale.
   No man is an island.




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The pen is mightier than the sword
    Graphic Organizer for Metaphors
           War is hell.
    Noun                                Noun
                    Relationships
Characteristics                     Characteristics
Metaphors versus Similes
   A metaphor states the comparison
    directly using “is”, for example,
    “He is a rock.”

   A simile states the comparison
    using “like” and “as”, for example,
    “The stars were like jewels in the
    sky.”

                  pa 06-06           20
Metaphors
1. A circle is____________.
2. A dandelion is _____________.
3. The internet is _____________.
4. The cafeteria is ____________ .
5. Love is ____________.
6. A school is ___________.
               pa 06-06              21
Metaphors (continued)
7. An airport is ____________.
8. A dictator is _____________.
9. My spouse is _____________.
10. A flute is ____________ .
11. A book is ____________.


               pa 06-06           22
Metaphor Websites
   http://www.sil.org/lingualLinks/lexico
    n/MetaphorsInEnglish/Index.htm

   http://www.stuntmonkey.com/metaph
    or/

   http://therussler.tripod.com/dtps/mixe
    d_metaphors.html

                   pa 06-06             23
Assessment:
   No man is an island.
    In this metaphor, why is a man
     compared to an island?
a.   Man is stronger than a lion.
b.   Man needs others to survive.
c.   Man has no feelings to share.
d.   Man is smaller than the world.
Creating Analogies

   Involves relationships between
    pairs of elements
   Looking for similarities between
    pairs of elements

Ruler: length :: measuring cup: __??___

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Creating Analogies




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Analogies: It’s All About Relationships!

   help us make connections between
    things that are different;

   help explain an unfamiliar concept by
    making a comparison to something we
    understand;

   most complex format for identifying
    similarities and differences.

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Graphic Organizer for Analogies


                   is to


  Relationship:



                   is to




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Number of casualties in Vietnam War= 50,000
How to make this number real to students?



           casualties              Vietnam War
                         is to


   Relationship:


           seats                   Coors field
                         is to




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Creating Analogies: Type 1
George Bush: the US :: Tony Blair: Great Britain

RELATIONSHIP:__________________________

Teacher Directed—students must explain the
relationship




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Creating Analogies: Type 2
Mitt Romney:MA :: _________: FL

RELATIONSHIP:__________________________

Teacher Directed—Present students with one
missing element; students must explain the
relationship




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Creating Analogies: Type 3
Happy: Sad:: _________: ________

RELATIONSHIP:__________________________

Student Directed—Students must provide more
elements and explain the relationship




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Creating Analogies: Type 4
Doctor: _______:: _________: ________

RELATIONSHIP:__________________________

Student Directed—Students must provide more
elements and explain the relationship




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Creating Analogies: Type 5
______: _______:: _________: ________

RELATIONSHIP:__________________________

Student Directed—Students must provide all
elements and explain the relationship




                   pa 06-06                  34
Web sites for Analogies
   http://www.teachersdesk.org/vocabanal.html
    card game
   http://www.infoplease.com/spot/analogy.html
    explanation, examples, analogy of the day
   http://www.factmonster.com/analogies?month=Nov&
    day=30 analogy of the day
   http://www.wordmasterschallenge.com/more_sample
    s.htm samples
   http://www.quia.com/cb/7146.html game, like
    Jeopardy


                      pa 06-06                  35
Similarities and Differences
   Comparing

   Classifying

   Creating Metaphors

   Creating analogies
                  pa 06-06     36

								
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