# New RDA/DRI for Iron

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```					Nutrition and Your Health
Susan Baker
Associate Professor of Science
 Qualityintake that allows you to
promotes health.
◦ Intake that provides adequate levels of each
nutrient
 Enough to meet your daily needs and to maintain
stores
 Quantityof intake that promotes a
healthy body weight.
◦ BMI between 18.5 – 24.9
◦ Waist of less than 35” in women and 40” in men
    Men        Women
1.   19.8   18.8
2.   21.1   19.3
3.   22.2   20.9
4.   23.6   23.1
5.   25.8   26.2
6.   28.1   29.9
7.   31.5   34.3
8.   35.2   38.6
9.   41.5   45.4
   Calculate using the formula:
BMI = weight in pounds       x   703
(height, inches)2

   Use an online BMI calculator/ or BMI chart
is for the energy taken in to
 Goal
equal the energy output
◦ energy in =

◦ energy out =
   Depend Upon:
◦ Weight
◦ Activity Level
◦ Lean body mass (muscle)

◦ Gender
◦ Metabolism
   Compare intake to RDA
   Follow general diet planning principles

   Use the Food Pyramid to guide intake and
activity
2.   Balance
3.   Variety
4.   Nutrient density
5.   Kcal/energy control
6.   Moderation

    By following 2-3 of these you can improve
your diet significantly - select the ones
that “speak” to you!
◦ diet that provides enough energy
and nutrients to meet the needs of
healthy people
 Balance
◦ Diet that provides enough, but not
too much of each type of food
 Don’t want overeating of one food type
to “crowd” out intake of other
nutrients….
 Variety
◦ Diet that includes a wide selection of
foods within each food group
 Eat a variety of fruits, not just oranges
 Nutrient   Density
◦ Select foods that provide the most
nutrients for the least number of
calories (nutrient dense foods)
 FF vs. baked potato……
 Other examples ??
 Kcal   Control
◦ Intake that meets nutritional needs
without excess kcal intake
 Moderation
◦ Diet that limits intake of foods high
in sugar and fat (and alcohol and
salt)
2.   Balance
3.   Variety
4.   Nutrient density
5.   Kcal/energy control
6.   Moderation

Which ones speak to you?
   Food Guide Pyramid
◦ Foods within each food group provide similar
nutrients and are from similar food sources
◦ Food Pyramid 1/2005
 Revised to address health issues in the U.S.
 Health issues such as…..
Old Food Guide Pyramid
New Food Guide Pyramid
   Grains
◦ Recommendation set in ounces
◦ Includes: bread, pasta, cereal, rice….
 Goal is for half of your servings to come from whole
grains
 How to recognize whole grains
   Vegetables
◦ Recommendations set in cups
◦ Choose a variety of vegetables
   Dark green
   Orange and yellow
   Starchy
   Dry beans
   Fruits
◦ Recommendation set in cups

What counts as a cup?
◦ 1 orange, apple, banana, ½ grapefruit
◦ 1 cup canned fruit or berries
◦ 1 cup fruit juice
 Limit juices
 Why?
   < 30% of Mainers report eating 5 servings of
fruits/vegetables per day
   3 cups Dairy*
◦ 1 cup milk or yogurt
 Choose low fat options
 Why???
◦ 1 ½ ounces cheese
 Limit cheese intake
 Why??

*2 servings for kids ages 2-8 (why??)
   Meat and meat alternatives
◦ Recommendation set in ounces
◦ Group includes:
 Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, seeds, nuts, legumes
 Choose low-fat/lean meats and poultry
 Bake, broil, or grill it.
 Don’t __________ it.
   Fats, oils, sweets, salt – use sparingly
◦ Butter, cream, sour cream, cream cheese
 Saturated fats
◦ Margarine
 trans fats, especially in stick margarine
   Fats, oils, sweets, salt – use sparingly
◦ Candy, soda, sugar, honey…..
 Sugar
◦ Processed foods
 Often a source of salt and/or trans fats
   Physical Exercise
◦ Be physically active for 30 – 60* minutes per day.
 Goal is moderate to vigorous exercise

 * 60 minutes for kids and teens
   30-60 minutes of sustained moderate
physical activity 5x per week.
◦   Walking, cycling
◦   Pushing a stroller
◦   Swimming laps
◦   Gardening……..
Trends
 Inactivity increases with age
 Physical inactivity is more common in
◦ Women
◦ Those with less education
◦ Those with a lower income.
   < 25% of Mainers report engaging in regular
physical activity
   Obesity is on the rise.
   Diabetes, even in teens, is on the rise.
   Heart disease is on the rise.
   Hypertension is on the rise.

   A quality nutritional intake combined with
regular physical activity can reverse these
trends.
% Obese   Year
10-14            1995
15-19            1996
15-19            1997
15-19            1998
15-19            1999
15-19            2000
15-19            2001
20-24            2002
15-19            2003
20-24            2004
Increasing Prevalence of Obesity (BMI _

1991: Only four states had obesity
rates greater than 15 percent.

Key:
No Data
<10%
10%–14%
1996: Over half of the states
had obesity rates greater than               15%–19%
15 percent.                                  20%–24%
_
>25%

2001: Only one state had an obesity
rate below 15 percent, most had
obesity rates greater than 20 percent
and one had an obesity rate greater
than 25 percent.
(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data   <10%       10%–14%   15%–19%     20%–24%   ≥25%
(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data   <10%      10%–14%    15%–19%    20%–24%   ≥25%
(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data   <10%      10%–14%    15%–19%    20%–24%   25%–29%    ≥30%
   Reduced risk of:
◦   Heart disease
◦   Type II diabetes
◦   High blood pressure
◦   Obesity
◦   Osteoarthritis
◦   Dying prematurely!
   What factors contribute to a poor diet and
obesity:
◦ AT UMA?
   What factors contribute to a healthy diet and
lifestyle:
◦ At UMA?
   Improve quality of intake by:

   Improve quantity of intake by:

   Increase activity level by:
   Increase intake of:
◦ Whole grains
◦ Fruits (but not juices)
◦ Vegetables
◦ Cheese
◦ Trans fats
◦ High fat choices
 Goal is less than 3 g fat/serving
   How do I do this?
◦ Replace 2-3 foods in your diet with healthier
choices.
 Reduce fat content of milk
 Turkey sandwich with mustard instead of roast beef
with mayo.
 Low fat popcorn instead of chips
   Reduce portion size
   Reduce fat content of intake
◦ especially saturated fats
   Keep physically active
   Build lean body mass – muscle
◦ Weight bearing exercise
◦ Walking
Small changes can make a
significant difference!
   Greater health benefits occur with increased
duration, intensity, or frequency of physical
activity.
◦ diet that provides enough energy
and nutrients to meet the needs of
healthy people
   Balance
◦ Diet that provides enough, but not
too much of each type of food
 Don’t want overeating of one food type
to “crowd” out intake of other
nutrients….
   Variety
◦ Diet that includes a wide selection of
foods within each food group
 Eat a variety of fruits, not just oranges
   Nutrient Density
◦ Select foods that provide the most
nutrients for the least number of
calories (nutrient dense foods)
 FF vs. baked potato……
 Other examples ??
 Kcal   Control
◦ Intake that meets nutritional needs
without excess kcal intake
   Moderation
◦ Diet that limits intake of foods high
in sugar and fat (and alcohol)
   Record all of the foods you eat today (to
include the quantity of each.)
   Determine the # of servings from each
food group of Food Group Pyramid.
   Comment if this reflects normal eating
for you.
   Evaluate the quality and quantity of
your intake – use the Food Guide
Pyramid and class presentation to guide
   Make realistic suggestions as to how
   Evaluate your level of physical activity
   USDA Food Pyramid
   Aim for a Healthy Weight
 Great web site for anyone trying to lose weight
 You can also evaluate your own personal health risks
on this site – check it out!
   Short attention span
   Inability to concentrate
   Irritable
   Decreased physical performance
   Increased number of infections

   Most of these are also symptoms of low
blood sugar!
   Adult males 19 – 70+ yrs: 8 mg/day
   Females 19-50 yrs: 18 mg/day
   Females 51-70+ yrs: 8 mg/day

   Vegetarians: 2x DRI due to low availability of
non-heme iron
   Heme Sources – better absorbed
◦ Meat, fish, poultry (animal sources of iron)
   Non-heme sources – poorly absorbed
◦ Iron enriched cereals and grains, legumes, spinach,
kale, seeds

   Vitamin C enhances the absorption of iron

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