Anatomy & Physiology Lab by KL19o9


									                             Anatomy & Physiology 34B Lab
                             Exercise 27 – Endocrine System

I. Objectives
 A. Identify the major endocrine glands in the body
 B. List the hormones produced by the glands
 C. View, draw, and label microscope slides of selected glands
II. Identify the following endocrine glands on the models and in a cat, if visible. List the
hormones secreted by each gland
 A. Brain models
     1. Hypothalamus
     2. Posterior Pituitary (neurohypophysis)
     3. Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis)
     4. Pineal gland
 B. Trachea models
     1. Thyroid gland
 C. Torso models
     1. Thymus (visible in young cats superior to the heart)
     2. Adrenal glands
     3. Pancreas
     4. Thyroid
     5. Parathyroids
 D. Reproductive models
     1. Ovaries
     2. Testes
III. View the following endocrine tissue slides under the microscope and/or in the lab
   manual. Draw the tissues seen on each slide and label the structures listed.
 A. Thyroid gland – follicle cells (what type of tissue are they?), colloid in follicles, and
   parafollicular (C) cells. What do the follicle cells secrete? _______________ What do
   the parafollicular cells secrete? _______________
 B. Parathyroid gland – chief cells. What do the chief cells secrete? __________________
 C. Pancreas – acinar cells and islets of Langerhans. What two major cell types are found
   in the pancreatic islets? _____________________What does each secrete?
 D. Adrenal gland – 3 cortex zones and the medulla. What do each of these zones produce?
     1. Zona glomerulosa _______________________
     2. Zona fasciculata _________________________
     3. Zona reticularis produce? _________________________
     4. Medulla _________________________
 E. Ovary – vesicular (Graafian) follicle, ovum, antrum, corpus luteum. What do the
   follicle cells produce? _______________ What does the corpus luteum produce?
 F. Testes – seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells. What do the seminiferous tubules
   produce? _______________ What do the interstitial cells secrete? ________________

 Homework: Answer the Lab 27 Review Sheet questions at the end of the lab.
                        Lab Exercise 28B – Endocrine Physiology

 I. Objectives
 A. Define the term metabolism, and explain how the hormones in this lab help to maintain
 B. Explain the roles of thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in maintaining
 metabolic rate
 C. Describe how estrogen and estrogen replacement therapy affect bone density
 D. Explain how a fasting plasma glucose level is used to diagnose diabetes mellitus
 E. Describe what is meant by a glucose standard curve, and how it can be used to measure
 blood glucose levels
 F. Compare and contrast type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus
 G. Explain how the levels of cortisol and ACTH can be used to diagnose some endocrine
 II. Metabolism and the Thyroid Gland
     A. Working in groups of 4, check out a lap top computer and insert the PhysioEx CD-
     B. Open the Endocrine Physiology lab activity
     C. Follow the lab manual instructions and perform Activities 1-4, answering all
         questions and filling in Chart 1 on the Effects of Hormones on Metabolic Rate.
 III. Hormone Replacement Therapy
     A. Read the section on Hormone Replacement Therapy.
     B. Perform Activity 5 and answer all questions that pertain to that activity.
     C. What are the DXA scan scores for the following:
       1. Normal bone density ___________
       2. Osteopenia __________
       3. Osteoporosis __________
 IV. Insulin and Diabetes
     A. Read the section on Insulin and Diabetes
     B. Perform Activities 6-7 and answer all questions that pertain to those activities
     C. What is a glucose standard curve, and how is it used to determine if blood glucose
         levels are above or below normal? What does the spectrophotometer do?


 V. Cortisol and ACTH
  A. Read the section on Measuring Cortisol and ACTH Hormone.
  B. Perform Activity 8 and answer all questions that pertain to the activity.
  C. What disorders are diagnosed when cortisol and/or ACTH levels are out of their
    normal ranges?
  High cortisol with low ACTH levels: _____________________
  High cortisol and high ACTH levels ______________________
  Low cortisol with high ACTH levels ______________________
  Low cortisol and low ACTH levels _______________________
Homework: Answer the Lab 28B Review Sheet questions at the end of the lab.

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