Anatomy & Physiology 34B Lab Exercise 27 – Endocrine System I. Objectives A. Identify the major endocrine glands in the body B. List the hormones produced by the glands C. View, draw, and label microscope slides of selected glands II. Identify the following endocrine glands on the models and in a cat, if visible. List the hormones secreted by each gland A. Brain models 1. Hypothalamus 2. Posterior Pituitary (neurohypophysis) 3. Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis) 4. Pineal gland B. Trachea models 1. Thyroid gland C. Torso models 1. Thymus (visible in young cats superior to the heart) 2. Adrenal glands 3. Pancreas 4. Thyroid 5. Parathyroids D. Reproductive models 1. Ovaries 2. Testes III. View the following endocrine tissue slides under the microscope and/or in the lab manual. Draw the tissues seen on each slide and label the structures listed. A. Thyroid gland – follicle cells (what type of tissue are they?), colloid in follicles, and parafollicular (C) cells. What do the follicle cells secrete? _______________ What do the parafollicular cells secrete? _______________ B. Parathyroid gland – chief cells. What do the chief cells secrete? __________________ C. Pancreas – acinar cells and islets of Langerhans. What two major cell types are found in the pancreatic islets? _____________________What does each secrete? __________________ D. Adrenal gland – 3 cortex zones and the medulla. What do each of these zones produce? 1. Zona glomerulosa _______________________ 2. Zona fasciculata _________________________ 3. Zona reticularis produce? _________________________ 4. Medulla _________________________ E. Ovary – vesicular (Graafian) follicle, ovum, antrum, corpus luteum. What do the follicle cells produce? _______________ What does the corpus luteum produce? ______________ F. Testes – seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells. What do the seminiferous tubules produce? _______________ What do the interstitial cells secrete? ________________ Homework: Answer the Lab 27 Review Sheet questions at the end of the lab. Lab Exercise 28B – Endocrine Physiology I. Objectives A. Define the term metabolism, and explain how the hormones in this lab help to maintain it. B. Explain the roles of thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in maintaining metabolic rate C. Describe how estrogen and estrogen replacement therapy affect bone density D. Explain how a fasting plasma glucose level is used to diagnose diabetes mellitus E. Describe what is meant by a glucose standard curve, and how it can be used to measure blood glucose levels F. Compare and contrast type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus G. Explain how the levels of cortisol and ACTH can be used to diagnose some endocrine diseases II. Metabolism and the Thyroid Gland A. Working in groups of 4, check out a lap top computer and insert the PhysioEx CD- ROM B. Open the Endocrine Physiology lab activity C. Follow the lab manual instructions and perform Activities 1-4, answering all questions and filling in Chart 1 on the Effects of Hormones on Metabolic Rate. III. Hormone Replacement Therapy A. Read the section on Hormone Replacement Therapy. B. Perform Activity 5 and answer all questions that pertain to that activity. C. What are the DXA scan scores for the following: 1. Normal bone density ___________ 2. Osteopenia __________ 3. Osteoporosis __________ IV. Insulin and Diabetes A. Read the section on Insulin and Diabetes B. Perform Activities 6-7 and answer all questions that pertain to those activities C. What is a glucose standard curve, and how is it used to determine if blood glucose levels are above or below normal? What does the spectrophotometer do? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ V. Cortisol and ACTH A. Read the section on Measuring Cortisol and ACTH Hormone. B. Perform Activity 8 and answer all questions that pertain to the activity. C. What disorders are diagnosed when cortisol and/or ACTH levels are out of their normal ranges? High cortisol with low ACTH levels: _____________________ High cortisol and high ACTH levels ______________________ Low cortisol with high ACTH levels ______________________ Low cortisol and low ACTH levels _______________________ Homework: Answer the Lab 28B Review Sheet questions at the end of the lab.
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