4. Teori Motivasi : Content Theories by 9QfUG7oE

VIEWS: 444 PAGES: 13

									4. Teori Motivasi : Content Theories

           Perilaku Organisasi
            Fakultas Ekonomi
         Universitas Padjadjaran
             Bandung 2004


                                   1
         Tujuan Pengajaran
 Pengertian dan Model Motivasi
 Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow
 Teori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg
 Teori kebutuhan McClelland
 Alderfer’s ERG theory




                                        2
 Pengertian dan Model Motivasi
   Pengertian

    The willing to exert high levels of effort toward organization
    goals, conditioned by effort to satisfy some individual need


  Model Motivasi
      Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow
      Teori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg
      Teori kebutuhan McClelland
      Alderfer’s ERG theory


Source : Stephen P. Robbins                                     3
          The Motivational Process : An Initial Model

                             I
                             Need deficiencies
                             “I want to perform well to
VI
                             earn the promotion.”
Need deficiencies                                             II
reassessed by the                                             Search for ways satisfy
employee                                                      needs
“I still want the                                             “I need to show the manager
promotion. I’ve got to try                                    that I want the promotion
another approach.”                                            work on tough assignments,
                                    The Employee              work extra hours, help co-
                                                              worker.”
V
Rewards of
punishments
“Received recognition                                         III
award; granted the                                            Goal directed behavior
opportunity to attend                                         “The Promotion.”
                             IV
training program.”
                             Performance (evaluation
                             of goal accomplished)
                             “Highest ratings on quantity,
                                                                                    4
                             quality and cost containment.”
     Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow

“That people’s needs depend on what they already
have. In a sense, then, a satisfied needs isn’t a
motivator. Human needs, organized in a hierarchy of
importance, are physiological, safety, belongingness,
esteem, and self actualization”




Source : Gibson                                    5
                Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs




                                  Self
                              actualization

                                Esteem

                        Social / Belongingness

                                 Safety

                              Physiological

Source : Stephen P. Robbins                      6
   TEORI DUA FAKTOR FREDERICK HERZBERG


  View that job satisfaction results from the presence of
  intrinsic motivators and that job dissatisfaction stems from
  not having extrinsic factors




Source : Gibson                                             7
Traditional and Herzberg Views of Satisfaction-Dissatifaction


 I. Traditional
   High job                                      High job
   dissatisfaction                               satisfaction


 II. Herzberg’s two-factor view
   Low job                                       High job
   satisfaction                                  satisfaction
                                                 (motivator)

   Low job                                       High job
   dissatisfaction                               satisfaction
                                                 (hygiene)

Source : Gibson                                             8
              Teori Kebutuhan McClelland

Learned Needs Theory
  Theory that proposes that a person with a strong need will be
  motivated to use appropriate behaviors to satisfy the need. A
  person’s needs are learned from the culture of a society




Thematis Apperception Test (TAT)
    Projective test that uses a person’s analysis of picture to
    evaluate such individual differences as need for achivement,
    need for power, and need for affiliation


Source : Gibson                                                9
            The theory focus on three needs

1.    Need for achievement

       The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards,
       to strive to succeed


2.    Need for power

      The need to make others behave in a way that they wouldn’t
      have behaved otherwise


 3.    Need for affiliation

       The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

                                                                   10
                      Alderfer’s ERG theory


 Theory developed and tested by Alderfer that categorized
 needs as existence, related-ness and growth


Existence; needs satisfied by such as food, air, water, pay and working conditions


Related-ness; needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationship

Growth; needs satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributions




 Source : Gibson                                                              11
 ERG Theory Relationships among Frustration, Importance
 and Satisfaction of Needs

Frustration            Importance             Satisfaction
of growth needs        of growth needs        of growth needs




Frustration            Importance             Satisfaction
of relatedness needs   of relatedness needs   of relatedness needs




Frustration            Importance             Satisfaction
of existence needs     of existence needs     of existence needs



 Source : Gibson                                                12
A graphic Comparison of Four Content Theories of Motivation

        Maslow                          Herzberg                  Alderfer      Mc Clelland
        (need hierarchy)                (two factor theory)
                                        The work itself
                                                                                Need for
        Self-actualization              - Responsibility          Growth
                                                                                achievement
Higher                                  - Advancement
order Esteem                 Motivators - Growth
needs
                                         Achievement
        Belongingness,
                                         Recognition
        social and love
                                                                                Need for
                                        Quality of                Relatedness
                                                                                power
        Physiological                   interpersonal relations
                                        among peers, with

Basic                         Hygiens supervisor, with
needs                        conditions subordinates
                                                                                Need for
                                         Job security             Existence     affiliation
                                         Working conditions
                                         Salary

                                                                                         13

								
To top