The deepest and the longest caves in Greece

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					                                                            •      Number of deep / long caves (more than -400m
The deepest and the longest caves in                               depth)
                                                            •      Number of deep / long caves per 50.000 Km2
Greece                                                      •      Number of deep / long caves per million of
Kostas ADAMOPOULOS                                                 residents
(SELAS Club, Athens, Greece)                                Most explorations (of big potholes or caves) in our
                                                            country have been made by mainly French speleologists
                                                            while secondary explorations have been carried out by
Preface                                                     Greeks and British Speleologists. The majority have
A large number of caves has been recorded and               been found to be on Crete (45%) (see Table 1b).
explored in Greece with a great variety of interest
spanning geological, hydrogeological, palaeontologjcal,
                                                            The deepest and longest Greek caves
archaeological and folkloric. The caves in Greece are
estimated to number around 10.500 (including
underground karst forms of all kinds). These are            According to the World cave database, 619 caves
recorded in lists which are usually categorized with        deeper than 400m have been explored worldwide (up
various criteria in several speleological indexes. In the   to 2001 – Annex Table P3). In Greece there have
past, the unforgettable Anna Petrochilou had drawn up       been explored until 2005 eleven (11) potholes with a
and published indexes with the country’s deep long          depth greater than -400 metres (Table 1a).
caves in the Bulletin of the Hellenic Speleological
Society (HSS). Enough databases can be found on the         Table 1a: Greek caves with depth greater than 400m (at year
internet related to deep and / or long caves at national    2005) in descending classification (depth)
and worldwide level. One of the oldest and probably             Nr.       Cave Name                        Depth     Length     Year
most valid cave databases is that of the French                 1         Gourgouthakas               -1,208         1,000     1997
speleologist Eric Madelaine which can be found at the           2         Tafkura                     -860           6,570     1996
following URL: (                   3         Tripa tou Orniou            -610           30        2003
sophia/sis/DB/database.html). This database has
                                                                4         Stoichiomeni                -581           886       2000
been used as a reference for the present work. It
should be underlined that the specific database in              5         Peleta                      -493           500       2000
question does not include caves for which there is no           6         Tafkos sta Petradolakia     -473           1,010     1991
publication. It includes caves or potholes with depth           7         Spilia Sternou              -460                     1992
more than 300m and / or length more than or equal to            8         Epos 1                      -452                     1969
3 kilometres. For the aims of present study caves with          9         Epos 2                      -419                     1979
depth more than -400m and / or length more
                                                                10        Provatina                   -405           40        1968
than 6 kilometers have been isolated and studied.
The database has been updated with findings of recent           11        Diplotafki                  -400           1,033     1994
explorations (period 2001-2005) in Greece.
                                                            In Greece, only 3 caves with a length greater than
Big potholes and caves are exceptionally infrequent and     6.000 meters have been explored until 2005 (Table 2
simultaneously their exploration is particularly            a).
laborious. Greece has an extent of 131.940 square km,
that is to say if we suppose that the number of 10.500      Table 2a: Greek caves with length greater than 6.000m, in
caves is right, it corresponds to one (1) cave or           the year 2005 in descending classification (length)
pothole for each 12.5 Km 2. Currently in Greece                 Nr.       Cave Name                   Depth         Length    Year
there are only 11 caves with depth more than -400m                  1     Diros                                     15,400     1974
that is to say hardly one (1) per 12.000 Km2 and                    2     Maaras                                    10,340     1985
hardly one (1) cave with length more than 6000m
                                                                    3     Tafkura                          -860      6,570     1996
per 44.000 Km2. That is to say that within 12.000
Km2 there are barely 1000 caves / potholes and only
one of these is considered big (= > 400m depth or >         Today the only cave in Greece which satisfies both the
6000m length). In a lot of cases these caves have           two criteria above of (length and depth) is the pothole
important geological or hydro geological importance         "Tafkura" (- 860m) in the Anogeia of Mylopotamos,
with result their protection is immediately connected       in the Rethymnon Prefecture of Crete (Table 3).
with the protection of underground water.                   Respectively, at world level, there have been hardly 155
                                                            caves explored that satisfy both conditions.
In the statistical analysis that follows, they are
                                                            Table 3: Caves with length greater than 6000m and depth
mentioned given based on the most topical list that is      greater than 400 meters.
available today for the bigger caves (length and depth)
in Greece. Simultaneously, an effort is made to                 Nr.        Cave Name            Depth             Length        Year
correlate this with corresponding data from the rest of
the world, the growth of explorations over time, the                  1    Tafkura                  -860           6,570       1996
correlation of the number of caves with demographic
elements (such us population), geographic distribution
and other statistical analyses round these caves.

The main indicators that are used are the following:

                                                            "The biggest and the longest caves of Greece 2005 " - K.ADAMOPOULOS
                                                                                                                               1 / 12
Table 1b: Greek caves with depth, more than -400m (at year   expedition reported that the team explored three small
2005) per geographic region.                                 new chambers after climbing from the bottom of the
 Nr.     Cave Name           Geographic region
 1       Gourgouthakas       Crete                           "Epos 1 and 2" (451m and - 419 m)
 2       Tafkura             Crete                           First exploration attempts took place between 1966-67-
 3       Tripa tou Orniou    Epirus                          68 but without result. Only in 1969 the first of the two
 4       Stoichiomeni        Sterea Ellada                   twin caves was explored ("Epos 1") by P. Livesey
 5       Peleta              Peloponnesus                    while shortly later (in 1973) American cavers repeated
                                                             their achievement. “Epos 2" cave was also explored by
         Tafkos sta
 6                           Crete                           British cavers 4 years later, in September of 1979.
                                                             Since that time many expeditions have been in the cave
 7       Spilia Sternou      Crete                           in order to push the exploration but without any
 8       Epos 1              Epirus                          significant progress (zero new passages reported).
 9       Epos 2              Epirus                          From the day of its discovery, Epos remained the
 10      Provatina           Epirus                          deepest cave in Greece up to 1991.
 11      Diplotafki          Crete
                                                             "Tafkos sta Petradolakia" (-475m)
Table 2b: Greek caves with length bigger than 6.000m, at     The cave was explored in 1989 up to the depth of -
year 2003 per geographic region.                             380m (lake). In 1991 after a cave dive (Ph.Brunet), the
                                                             cave reached its current depth of -473m and thus
 Nr.     Cave Name           Geographic region               remained the deepest in the country (until 1995). The
     1   Diros               Peloponesus                     exploration was conducted by the French cavers
     2   Maaras              Macedonia                       (GRESPA VI – responsible J.Y. Perrier). The first Greek
     3   Tafkura             Crete                           cavers to make the descent were members of HSS (up
                                                             to -380m). The most recent explorations of new
In world level it appears that the number of deep caves      departments 1 were realized by SELAS club (Athens) in
are roughly equal to the number of long ones (619 and        2002 during "Anogia – Ntelina 2002" with myself
671 respectively). However, the possibilities to discover    leading the expedition.
a cave which is both deep and long are much less (155
worldwide) that is to say hardly 13.7% of the total          "Spilia Sternou” or “Sternon” (-460 m)
Number of big caves.                                         The cave is located in Leuka Ori Mountains (2456m) on
                                                             Crete at an altitude of 2080m. It was explored for the
                                                             first time by French cavers (GSO – ASEAUPS) in the
History of explorations in the                               years 1990, 1991 and 1992. The French team published
deepest caves of Greece.                                     their report in “Spelunca” (their survey describes the
                                                             cave up to -400 m depth). The last exploration attempt
                                                             took place in the summer of 2005 by SELAS club
The deepest caves
                                                             (Athens), during the “Sternes 2005” expedition led by
You may find below a concise exploration background          the author. During this expedition the Greeks cavers
according to the relative bibliography, chronologically      went down as far as the -460m mark and stopped in a
categorized from the oldest to the newer explorations        narrow passage with very good perspectives. The Greek
for the deeper caves of the country.                         cavers realized that the cave had been explored up to
                                                             this point (but unfortunately there had been no
"Provatina" (-408 m)                                         publication of the results).
Provatina was explored by a British army expedition in
1968. The pothole was located for first time by English      "Djplotafki" (-400m)
cavers in 1965 (Cambridge University Caving Club). Jim       This cave was initially explored in 1984 by British cavers
Eyre (1966) was the first who tried to descend and           (SUSS) up to a depth of (-174m). In 1993 the French
explore the cave but he stopped at -156m (he used            expedition (GRESPA VI - SCSP Ales, led by J.Y.Perrier
rope ladder). The next year, British soldiers used a         and Th. Monges) went down to a depth of -330m, while
mechanically-driven winch and a basket with iron cable       in 1994 the exploration was terminated at a depth of
in order to descend to the bottom of the cave. Their         -400m (due to a siphon) – There was a limited
effort was performed in two phases, first up to the          participation by Greek cavers in both the 1993 and
depth of -177m the summer of 1967 and finally down           1994 expeditions. A completely unexplored part, 250m
to the bottom of the cave (-408) in 1968. An American        long, was found in 2002 during “Anogia – Ntelina 2002”
expedition in 1973 descended the cave using                  expedition (led by the author).
speleological techniques (ropes) while the first
European cavers who repeated their achievement were
the French P. Sombardier and F. Poggia 1976. Since
then a lot of expeditions have gone down to the bottom
of this cave both foreign and Greek. The first Greek
who descended Provatina was Kostas Zoupis, founding            Long sections at a depth of -130m as well as an
                                                             alternative route that leads once again to the final
member of SPELEO club (Athens) and today Chairman
                                                             sump (-450m) but bypassing the lake at-380m (It is
of Hellenic Speleological Federation (HSF). The last
                                                             no longer necessary to carry boats into the cave),
known exploration effort was undertaken in 1998 by           Mission Report for Anogeia Delina 2002, (under
SELAS club (Athens). Nikos Mitsakis, the leader of this      publication)
                                                             "The biggest and the longest caves of Greece 2005 " - K.ADAMOPOULOS
                                                                                                                          2 / 12
"Tafkura" (-860 m, length 6570m)                            Biggest in length
Tafkura was explored for the first time in 1978 by R.
Maire (FR), up to a depth of -100m. In 1995 the
                                                            The longest caves in Greece (except Tafkura) are also
exploration reached a depth of -485m (and length of
                                                            the major show caves in the country.
1000m) under the French association "La Tonche" with
the participation of Greek cavers (Leader Th. Monges,
member of CREI (committee of FFS). In 1996 a                "Diros Caves'" (15.400m)
common expedition between three clubs (La Tonche –          Diros (Glyphada Dirou or Vlyhada Dirou) cave was
ASBE – Caving Team of the Technical University of           discovered in 1923 by residents of the region. The first
Heraklion Crete) continued the explorations up to depth     systematic exploration of the cave was done by the
-810m and to a length of 4500m. In 1997 the first           unforgettable I. Petrocheilos and his spouse in 1949.
purely Greek mission "Tafkura 1997" (SP. OM. TEI and        After the death of I. Petrocheilos (in 1960), Anna
H.S.S. Dep. Crete) led by the author. At that time 500m     Petrocheilou and the HSS continued the explorations.
of length were added to the cave. Finally in 2002 during    Up to 1960, 1.6km of corridors had been explored.
SELAS expedition “Anogia – Delina 2002” the cave            Since 1961 the cave is open to the public (show cave)
ended up with a new length (6570m) and a new depth          after a proposal of A. Petrocheilou and HSS. The HSS
after a successful -50m dive (by N.Mitsakis) in the         explored some 1500m more in the period between
siphon at -810m.                                            1960 and 1966. In the year 1971 a team of American
                                                            cave divers contributed with 300m new underwater
"Gourgouthakas" (-1208m)                                    passages. In 1975 a new artificial entry was created.
As result of a consistent effort for many years, the        Up to 1989 after explorations of SPELEO club (Athens)
French team GS Catamaran succeded in 1998 to                and HSS the length of cave is almost doubled (approx.
explore the Gourgouthakas cave up to its current depth      5.3km). In 1992 the length of the cave was 6.2km due
(-1208m). Since that day the cave is by far the deeper      to exploration efforts of HSS, SPELEO and Hellenic
know cave in Greece and one of the deepest in the           Ministry of Culture. In the year 2000 Speleo Club of
world. The latest exploration in the cave took place        Nafplion and the ministry of Culture pushed the cave to
under SELAS and SPOK clubs in 2001 (expedition leader       10.606m length. Most recent explorations took place in
A. Christodoulou).                                          the year 2003 and 2004 by the Ministry of Culture
                                                            (V.Giannopoulos) and Swiss – Italian Cave divers (J.J.
"Stoichiomeni” (-581m)                                      Bolanz, P.Deriaz, L.Cassati). The current length is
The cave is situated in Viotia and was first explored (up   approx. 15.400m
to the depth of -70m), in the late 50’s by the
unforgettable I. Petrocheilos the founder of the HSS.       "Maaras" (10.340m)
The cave was re-explored by SPELEO club (Athens) in         The underground river “Maaras" is the source of the
the early 80’s up to the depth of -280m (expedition         river Aggitis in Drama district. It is the cave with the
leader K.Zoupis). Later, in 1998 SELAS club organized       longest ground plan development in Greece. The cave
an expedition which pushed the cave deeper (up to           has huge passages and it is developed without many
463m, led by N.Mitsakis). Finally in the year 2000 a        branches. The first systematic exploration started in the
SELAS expedition led by the author (in cooperation with     year 1978 by a French team in which Greek cavers
French cavers) reached today’s known deepest bottom         G.Avagiannos and N.Ioannidis participated. The leader
of Stoichiomeni at the depth of -580m. Unfortunately        of this expedition was Mr. P. Reile. The French caver
the cave is a subject of a major environmental              continued the explorations in 1980,.1981,.1982 and
catastrophe and at the present time it is not accessible.   1983 with the attendance of N. Ioannidis. In 1995 he
Greek cavers are undertaking actions for the protection     came back with Xeidakis and continued further.
of the cave and the restoration of its entrance.            Accordingly to the reports of the French team the cave
                                                            (up to 2000) had a length of 10.040m. In 2002 an
"Peleta" (-493m)                                            expedition led by T.Theodosiadis (SPELEO club Athens)
This sinkhole was initially explored and surveyed by the    undertook some diving in the caves which resulted in
unforgettable Anna. Petrocheilou (HSS) up to the depth      the exploration of 300m more.
of -70m. In year 2000 the SPELEO club Athens
continued     the    exploration     (expedition  leader
S.Nikolaidis) up to depth -493m. During that expedition
                                                            Number of deep caves (more than the
(Peleta 2000) SPELEO’s cave diver V.Trizonis dived in       400m depth)
the bottom sump at -488m without achieving a major
breakthrough (stopped at narrow underwater passage).        Among all continents, by far the most deep caves
                                                            (400m or more) are located in Europe (including also
"Tripa tou Orniou" (-610m)                                  new independent states that resulted from the
On of the most recent discoveries in Greece, which took     dissolution of Soviet Union). (Diag.1)
place in the Autumn of 2003 by a joint French – Greek
(Youth Committee/FFS and M. Diamantopoulos/SELAS)
expedition in Astraka (Epirus). This expedition explored
a completely new cave in the Vathylakkos area and
descended to the depth of -580m. In the year 2004 the
exploration continued until the current known bottom of
the cave at a depth of -610m.

                                                            "The biggest and the longest caves of Greece 2005 " - K.ADAMOPOULOS
                                                                                                                         3 / 12
Diagram 1: Number of caves with depth bigger than 400m
per continent.                                            It can be noticed that there is a very rapid growth over
                                                          the last ten years. Up to 1995 the number of deep
                                                          caves was six (6) and in a period of eight (8) years this
                                                          almost doubled and became 11 (in 2003 - Diagr.2).
                                                          Today, Greece is ranked 11th in the worldwide
                                                          classification and 9th in the European classification of
                                                          countries by number of deep caves (Diagr.5 and

                                                          Number of deep caves per 50.000
                                                          square kilometers

                                                          It is true that deep caves are exceptionally infrequent.
                                                          In the European continent today we find on average
                                                          0.98 deep caves per 50.000 km2 (Diagr.7).

                                                          In Greece this ratio appears to be much higher (4.3
                                                          caves per 50.000 km2, explaining to a certain extent
                                                          how the country is classified 11th in world and 9th in
This it is explained because Speleology (and especially
                                                          Europe. Slovenia, now the base of UIS, is ranked first
vertical techniques) is more developed in Europe than
                                                          (with 49.3 caves per 50.000 km2) followed by Austria
other regions. More specifically, 533 deep caves (the
                                                          (38.2 caves per 50.000 km2) and Switzerland (with
86% of deep caves on the planet) exist in Europe, 43
                                                          29.1 caves per 50.000 km2) (Diagr.8). The worldwide
exist in Latin America (6.7%) while 14 exist in Oceania
                                                          (Top 15) classification is almost the same as the
                                                          European one. (Diagr.9)
Speleology in Greece, is developing rapidly in the last
                                                          Diagram 3a: Depth of the deepest cave in Greece by the
20 years. The number of speleological clubs is            decades.
increasing continuously (Diagr.4) which combined with
the efforts of foreign expeditions and the development
of techniques and equipment had contributed to rapid
increases in the number of deep caves explored in
Greece. (Diagr.2 and 3 and 3a).

Diagram 2: Number of known deep caves in Greece per
exploration year (classified every five-years).

                                                          Diagram 4: Number of speleological clubs in Greece per

It should be noted that not only did the number of
deep caves increase but so did the absolute depth of
caves in Greece, which almost tripled compared to
previous decades. (Diagr.3a)

Diagram 3: Trend of number of deep caves explored in
Greece per year of exploration.

                                                          "The biggest and the longest caves of Greece 2005 " - K.ADAMOPOULOS
                                                                                                                       4 / 12
Diagram 5: Number of deep caves per country - World                                        Diagram 9: Number of deep caves per 50.000 Km2 -
classification - Top 15 countries                                                          Classification of Top 15 countries in Europe.




                                                                                                                                                                    8,7                          4,2
                                                                                                                                                                                                   1,0 1,0 0,6 1,0 0,6






                                                                                                                     Czech rep.
Diagram 6: Number of deep caves European countries–
classification – Top 15 countries
                                                                                           Number of deep caves per million of

                                                                                           In examining number of deep caves per million
                                                                                           habitants in differetnt countries (or continents) a slight
                                                                                           variance between Europe (with 0.7 caves / million
                                                                                           inhabitants.), Oceania (0.5 caves / million inhabitants),
                                                                                           Latin America (with 0.1 caves / million inhabitants) and
                                                                                           the rest of the world becomes visible (Diagr. 10).

                                                                                           Diagram 10: Number of deep caves per million habitants by
Diagram 7: Number of deep caves per 50.000 Km2 (per
continent).                                                                                                         0,48

                                                                                                                                                        0,08                  0,06                 0,03         0,01                        0,00
                                                                                                                                                    AMERICA AND

                                                                                                                                                                               NEAR EAST



                                                                                              EUROPE AND

                                                                                                THE NEW



                          0.11 0.10
                                                          0.08 0.02 0.02
                                  AMERICA AND
                      NEAR EAST



         EUROPE AND


                                                                                           Diagram 11: Number of deep caves per million habitants by
           THE NEW


                                                                                           country - World classification of Top 15 countries.

Diagram 8: Number of long caves per 50.000 Km2 – World
classification - Top 15 countries.                                                                                  4,5
            49,3                                                                                                                                   2,6 2,2 2,2 2,2
                                                                                                                                                                   1,9 1,5
                38,2                                                                                                                                                       1,0 0,9 0,6
                                                                                                                                                                                       0,4 0,2

                                                                                                                                                                                             N. Zealand







                                      16,5 10,6
                                                8,7 4,2     1,0
                                       11,7 9,6         1,3     1,0
                                                  5,2              1,0








                                                                                           At country level (world classification) Slovenia appears
                                                                                           to have 10.1 deep caves per million habitants, Austria
                                                                                           follows with 7.9 and Georgia with 4.5. Greece, takes
                                                                                           the 11th      place with 1 deep cave per million
                                                                                           inhabitants. (Diagr.11). The picture is same for the

                                                                                           "The biggest and the longest caves of Greece 2005 " - K.ADAMOPOULOS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 5 / 12
top three countries in Europe. Greece is ranked 9th in                                                                                                                 Diagram 14: Number of long caves by country – World
this classification (Diagr.12).                                                                                                                                        Situation of 15 leading countries.

                                                                                                                                                                                Cuba                  9
                                                                                                                                                                            Slovenia                  11
                                                                                                                                                                                Brazil                12
Diagram 12: Number of deep caves per million habitants                                                                                                                           New                  12
per country – European classification of Top 15 countries.                                                                                                                  Australia                 12
                                                                                                                                                                              Russia                   16
                                                                                                                                                                          Switzerland                   18
                                                                                                                                                                            Romania                     18
  10,1                                                                                                                                                                        Mexico                     21
                                                                                                                                                                                    UK                   22
              7,9                                                                                                                                                             Austria                     27
                                                                                                                                                                                Spain                       35
                                                                                                                                                                                  Italy                      40
                         4,5                                                                                                                                                  France                                                                               108
                                    3,3                                                                                                                                          USA                                                                                                                  178
                                                  2,6 2,2 2,2 2,2                                                                                                                             0         20             40         60           80            100     120             140   160        180   200

                                                                                        1,0 0,9
                                                                                                              0,2 0,1 0,2 0,2 0,1
                                                                                                                                                                       Diagram 15: Number of long caves by country – European
                                                                                                                                                                       classification of 15 leading countries.









                                                                                                                                                                                Poland                  6
                                                                                                                                                                               Georgia                  4
                                                                                                                                                                              Slovakia                  5
                                                                                                                                                                              Germany                   5
                                                                                                                                                                                Ukraine                  7
                                                                                                                                                                                Croatia                 5
Number of long caves (more than                                                                                                                                               Slovenia                    11
6000m length)                                                                                                                                                               Switzerland                      18
                                                                                                                                                                              Romania                        18
                                                                                                                                                                                      UK                      22
                                                                                                                                                                                Austria                         27
The number of long caves in Greece is very small                                                                                                                                 Spain                                                 35
compared to other countries in Europe and worldwide.                                                                                                                                Italy                                               40
                                                                                                                                                                                France                                                                                                                 108
In the diagrams that follow (Nrs 14 to 21) Greece is                                                                                                                                              0                    20                 40                  60                    80          100         120
absent. Comparing continents, Europe is in the lead
with 354 long caves against 185 of North America. The
3rd position is occupied by Latin America with 51 caves                                                                                                                Number of long caves per 50.000 Km2
of this category. (Diagr.13). At the country level, the
USA is ranked 1st worldwide with 178 long caves                                                                                                                        The European Continent once again appears to have
(including the longest cave ever found in the world)                                                                                                                   the higher frequency of in the number of long caves per
followed by France (108 caves) and Italy (40 caves)                                                                                                                    50.000 Km2 (0.65 caves per 50.000 Km2) - see
(Diagr.14). France and Italy are also at the top of the                                                                                                                Diagr.16) while North America has 0.42 and Oceania
European classification followed by Spain (35 caves)                                                                                                                   0.18. The first country in the worldwide classification is
(Diagr.15)                                                                                                                                                             Slovenia (with 27.1 caves), followed by Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                       (21.8 caves) and Austria (with 16.1 caves) (Diagr.17)
Diagram 13: Number of long caves per 50.000 Km2 (by
continent).                                                                                                                                                            Diagram 16: Number of long caves per 50.000 Km2                                                                                      (by
                         NEAR EAST                      6

                                   AFRICA                   17                                                                                                                          0.65

                                     ASIA                   28

                            OCEANIA                          30                                                                                                                                       0.42
              NORTH AMERICA                                                                185
                                                                                                                              354                                                                                                                          0.07
 INDEPENDENT STATES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.06
                                                   0        50        100     150       200       250        300        350         400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            AMERICA AND

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               NEAR EAST



                                                                                                                                                                                 EUROPE AND

                                                                                                                                                                                   THE NEW


                                                                                                                                                                       Precisely the same picture is also observed at European
                                                                                                                                                                       level (Diagr.18) it is clear that the way Europe is
                                                                                                                                                                       broken into states is a decisive factor especially
                                                                                                                                                                       affecting this indicator.

                                                                                                                                                                       "The biggest and the longest caves of Greece 2005 " - K.ADAMOPOULOS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 / 12
Diagram 17: Number of long caves per 50.000 Km2 – World
classification by country.
                                                                                                         Diagram 20: Number of long caves per million inhabitants –
                                                                                                         Worldwide classification by country.

                  21.8                                                                                      8.7

                      16.1                                                                                              5.6 5.2
                                                                                                                                                 3.6 3.3 3.3
                            9.9                                                                                                                                                 2.5
                                  6.6                                                                                                                                                         1.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.1 1.1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8
                                    5.5 5.1 4.9 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.1 3.8 3.6
















Diagram 18: Number of long caves per 50.000 Km2 –                                                        Diagram 21: Number of long caves per million habitants –
European classification by country.                                                                      European classification per country.

               27.1                                                                                         5.6

                      16.1                                                                                                                       1.8
                                                                                                                                                           1.1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0.4 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.7
                                  6.6         4.9     4.4     3.5








                                        5.1                                                1.5
                                                4.5     3.8           2.9         1.6





               Czech rep.

Number of long caves per million of                                                                      Conclusions
                                                                                                         Unfortunately there is no world database of all caves
Nr of Long caves per million of habitants in countries or                                                regardless of length and depth. Such a database would
in continents gives different perspectives. Oceania is                                                   allow us to make statistical analysis and to answer
                                                                                                         questions like “which is the country with more caves
present for the first time in a leading place (1.02 per
                                                                                                         than any other in the globe?” etc. However with the
million habitants) (Diagr.19) At country level
(worldwide classification) countries with very small                                                     data that are availiable it is confirmed inductively that
                                                                                                         Greece is a country with great potential and a very high
populations appear to be at the top (Belize, Slovenia
                                                                                                         number of deep caves compared to the rest of Europe
and New Caledonia) (Diagr.20). At the European level
Slovenia is once again first followed by Austria and                                                     or rest of the wolrd. Future developments in the
Switzerland (Diagr.21).                                                                                  explorations will increase these figures more. The
                                                                                                         potential of the country both in number of caves and in
Diagram 19: Number of long caves million habitants (by                                                   depth is great. It could be stressed that the
continent).                                                                                              unforgettable E.Platakis had recorded in Anogia region
                                                                                                         (Crete) only three (3) caves while in practice today
                                                                                                         more than 250 have been explored.
                                                                                                         From the statistical analysis it is obvious that in Europe
                  0.61                                                                                   there are not so many long caves as commpared to the
                                  0.44                                                                   American continent. The opposite is the case with the
                                                                                                         number of deep caves, which exist in much higher
                                               0.10         0.04             0.02                0.01    numbers in Europe than in America.
                               AMERICA AND

                                                              NEAR EAST



                               EUROPE AND

                                                                                                         At country level, Slovenia the base of UIS, possesses

                                THE NEW

                                                                                                         the first place above all the others, almost in every


                                                                                                         indicator, whereas Greece is usually ranked well
                                                                                                         (between 8 and 12) in most indicators concerning the
                                                                                                         deep caves.
                                                                                                         "The biggest and the longest caves of Greece 2005 " - K.ADAMOPOULOS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         7 / 12
                                                         Sources from the internet (Internet)
Acknowledgements                                         -  World     Cave    Database,       E.MADELAINE,
-   To the Dr. of Geology Mr V. Giannopoulos, for           sophia/sis/DB/database.html,
    his proposals, corrections and the contribution of   -  Demographic data: U.S. Census Bureau, Population
    essential bibliography.                                 Division,    International    Programs   Center,
-   Mr K. Zoupis Chairman of Hellenic Federation of         Washington, DC 20233-8860, Sep 2003
    Speleology for the information from his files.       -  Extent per country: Information taken from
                                                            Internet (see Annex)
-   "Contribution in the study modern and old            ABSTRACT
    environments of most important Greek caves",         This article is a statistical analysis on the number of
    Doctoral Thesis, V. I. GIANNOPOYLOS, ATHENS          deep and long caves using several indicators like
    2000                                                 number of deep caves, number of deep caves per
-   "The largest caves of Greece", 3rd Pan-Hellenic      50000 sq Km, number of deep caves per million
    Speleological      Meeting,       K.ADAMOPOULOS      inhabitants, number of long caves, number of long
    (S.EL.A.S), Glyphada, 2000.                          caves per million inhabitants and number of long caves
-   "Helenic-French expedition in the Astraka            per 50000 sq Km. Caves deeper or equal to the depth
    September 2003, M.DIAMANTOPOULOS (S.EL.A.S),         of -400m are considered as deep while caves longer or
    (under printing)                                     equal to 6000m are considered as long. Greece is the
-   "Peleta 2000" Report of expedition, P. NIKOLAIDIS    focus but the analysis was made against the rest of the
    (SP.EL.E.O), Athens 2000                             world using Eric Mandelane ' s, World Cave Database
-   "Stoichia 2000", Report of expedition, K.            (
    ADAMOPOULOS         – T. MONGES (S.EL.A.S       –    sophia/sis/DB/database.html)            as   a   source.
    G.S.H.L), Athens, 2000                               Population data is sourced from U.S. Census Bureau,
-   "Anogia-Ntelina 2002", Report of expedition K.       Population Division. Land surface information per
    ADAMOPOULOS (S.EL.A.S), Athens 2002                  country has been collected through internet resources.
-   “Le Karst du Massif du falakro, Resurgence de        As a general conclusion caves found in Europe and Asia
    Maaras”, P. RILE (F.F.S), France 2000                are deeper than the caves in all other continents. Caves
-   “Expedition Speleo en Grece”, P.DUMORTIER –          in America are longer than those in the rest of the
    A.WALTHAM, Bulletin d'Information et de Liaison –    World. The top country according to most of the
    Semestriel – No 10 – Societe Speleologique du        indicators is Slovenia. Greece is ranked between 8 th
    Plantarel, France Avril 1982                         and 11 th place worldwide or within Europe on the
-   "Sternes 2005"          Report of expedition K.      indicators concerning deep caves.
    ADAMOPOULOS (S.EL.A.S), Athens under printing

                                                         "The biggest and the longest caves of Greece 2005 " - K.ADAMOPOULOS
                                                                                                                      8 / 12
Pict.1: Satelite image of Greece with the approximate deep and long cave locations.

                                                              "The biggest and the longest caves of Greece 2005 " - K.ADAMOPOULOS
                                                                                                                           9 / 12
Table P 1: Number deep and long caves per country – Elements 2001 World
Cave Database.

                                                                               Nr               Nr
Geographical Area                             Country                          of               of
                                                                                                            Nr of Caves
                                                                           Deep Caves       Long Caves
AFRICA                                        Algeria                           3               1                 4
                                              Ethiopia                                          1                 1
                                              Kenya                             1               1                 1
                                              Madagascar                                        6                 6
                                              Morocco                           1               2                 3
                                              South Africa                                      4                 4
                                              Tanzania                                          1                 1
                                              Zaire                                             1                 1
AFRICA Total                                                                    5               17               21
ASIA                                          China                             2               4                 5
                                              India                                             1                 1
                                              Iran                              1                                 1
                                              Japan                             2               1                 3
                                              Laos                                              2                 2
                                              Malaysia                          2               4                 6
                                              Philippines                                       6                 6
                                              S. Korea                                          3                 3
                                              Thailand                                          4                 4
                                              Vietnam                                           3                 3
ASIA Total                                                                     7                28               34
EUROPE AND THE NEW INDEPENDENT STATES         Albania                          3                                  3
                                              Austria                          64                27              68
                                              Belgium                                            3                3
                                              Bosnia                                             1                1
                                              Bulgaria                                           3                3
                                              Croatia                           12               5               17
                                              Czech rep                         1                3                3
                                              France                           128              108            196
                                              Georgia                           23               4               26
                                              Germany                           7                5               12
                                              Greece                            11               3               13
                                              Hungary                                            3                3
                                              Ireland                                            2                2
                                              Italy                            124               40            144
                                              Moldova                                            1                1
                                              Norway                            1                1                2
                                              Poland                            4                6                6
                                              Portugal                                           2                2
                                              Romania                          3                 18              19
                                              Russia                           11                16              25
                                              Slovakia                         1                 5                6
                                              Slovenia                         20                11              27
                                              Spain                            88                35             104
                                              Switzerland                      24                18              30
                                              Turkmenistan                                       3                3
                                              UK                                                 22              22
                                              Ukraine                           2                7                9
                                              Uzbekistan                        5                2                5
                                              Yugoslavia                        1                                 1
EUROPE AND THE NEW INDEPENDENT STATES Total                                    533              354            756
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN               Bahamas                                            1                1
                                              Belize                                             2                2
                                              Brazil                            1                12              13
                                              Cuba                                               9                9
                                              Guatemala                                          1                1
                                              Honduras                         1                                  1
                                              Mexico                           39               21               51
                                              Peru                             1                                  1
                                              Puerto Rico                                        1                1
                                              Rep Dominicaine                                    1                1
                                              Venezuela                                          3                3
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Total                                          42                51              84
NEAR EAST                                     Lebanon                          2                 1                3
                                              Syria                                              1                1
                                              Turkey                           8                 4               11
NEAR EAST Total                                                                10                6               15
NORTH AMERICA                                 Canada                           3                 7                9
                                              USA                              5                178            179
NORTH AMERICA Total                                                            8                185            188
OCEANIA                                       Australia                                          12              12
                                              New Caledonia                                      1                1
                                              New Guinea                        7                5               10
                                              New Zealand                       7               12               14
OCEANIA Total                                                                   14               30              37
Grand Total                                                                    619              671            1135

                                                             "The biggest and the longest caves of Greece 2005 " - K.ADAMOPOULOS
                                                                                                                          10 / 12
Table P 2: Extent per country in square kilometers (km2).
Country                    Land-Km2          Country                 Land-Km2           Country            Land-Km2          Country                   Land-Km2
Afghanistan                 647,500 km2      Dominica                   754 km2         Kuwait               17,820 km2      Romania                    237,500 km2
Albania                      28,748 km2      Dominican Republic        48,730 km2       Kyrgyzstan          198,500 km2      Russia                          km2
Algeria                    2,381,740 km2     East Timor                15,007 km2       Laos                236,800 km2      Rwanda                      26,338 km2
American Samoa                199 km2        Ecuador                  283,560 km2       Latvia               64,589 km2      Saint Helena                  410 km2
Andorra                       468 km2        Egypt                   1,001,450 km2      Lebanon              10,400 km2      Saint Kitts and Nevis         261 km2
Angola                     1,246,700 km2     El Salvador               21,040 km2       Lesotho              30,355 km2      Saint Lucia                   616 km2
Anguilla                      102 km2        Equatorial Guinea         28,051 km2       Liberia             111,370 km2      St. Pierre & Miquelon         242 km2
Antarctica                   14 mil km2      Eritrea                  121,320 km2       Libya              1,759,540 km2     St.Vincent Grenadines         389 km2
Antigua and Barbuda           443 km2        Estonia                   45,226 km2       Liechtenstein          160 km2       Samoa                        2,944 km2
Arctic Ocean               14.056 mil km2    Ethiopia                1,127,127 km2      Lithuania            65,200 km2      San Marino                    61.2 km2
Argentina                  2,766,890 km2     Europa Island                28 km2        Luxembourg            2,586 km2      Sao Tome Principe            1,001 km2
Armenia                      29,800 km2      Falkland Islands          12,173 km2       Macau                 25.4 km2       Saudi Arabia              1,960,582 km2
Aruba                         193 km2        Faroe Islands              1,399 km2       Madagascar          587,040 km2      Senegal                    196,190 km2
Ashmore and Cartier
Islands                         5 km2        Fiji                     18,270 km2        Malawi              118,480 km2      Serbia/Montenegro           102,350 km2
Atlantic Ocean             76.762 mil km2    Finland                  337,030 km2       Malaysia            329,750 km2      Seychelles                     455 km2
Australia                  7,686,850 km2     France                   547,030 km2       Maldives               300 km2       Sierra Leone                 71,740 km2
Austria                      83,858 km2      French Guiana             91,000 km2       Mali                1.24 mil km2     Singapore                     692.7 km2
Azerbaijan                   86,600 km2      French Polynesia           4,167 km2       Malta                  316 km2       Slovakia                     48,845 km2
Bahamas, The                 13,940 km2      French Antarctic s         7,829 km2       Man, Isle of           572 km2       Slovenia                     20,273 km2
Bahrain                       665 km2        FYROM                     25,333 km2       Marshall Islands      181.3 km2      Solomon Islands              28,450 km2
Baker Island                   1.4 km2       Gabon                    267,667 km2       Martinique            1,100 km2      Somalia                     637,657 km2
Bangladesh                  144,000 km2      Gambia, The               11,300 km2       Mauritania         1,030,700 km2     South Africa               1,219,912 km2
Barbados                      431 km2        Gaza Strip                  360 km2        Mauritius             2,040 km2      S.Georgia-S.Sandwich          3,903 km2
Bassas da India                0.2 km2       Georgia                   69,700 km2       Mayotte                374 km2       Southern Ocean            20.327 mil km2
Belarus                     207,600 km2      Germany                  357,021 km2       Mexico             1,972,550 km2     Spain                       504,782 km2
Belgium                      30,510 km2      Ghana                    239,460 km2       Micronesia             702 km2       Spratly Islands           less than 5 km2
Belize                       22,966 km2      Gibraltar                   6.5 km2        Midway Islands          6.2 km2      Sri Lanka                    65,610 km2
Benin                       112,620 km2      Glorioso Islands              5 km2        Moldova              33,843 km2      Sudan                      2,505,810 km2
Bermuda                       53.3 km2       Greece                   131,940 km2       Monaco                 1.95 km2      Suriname                    163,270 km2
Bhutan                       47,000 km2      Greenland               2,166,086 km2      Mongolia           1.565 mil km2     Svalbard                     62,049 km2
Bolivia                    1,098,580 km2     Grenada                     344 km2        Montserrat             102 km2       Swaziland                    17,363 km2
Bosnia and Herzegovina       51,129 km2      Guadeloupe                 1,780 km2       Morocco             446,550 km2      Sweden                      449,964 km2
Botswana                    600,370 km2      Guam                        549 km2        Mozambique          801,590 km2      Switzerland                  41,290 km2
Bouvet Island                 58.5 km2       Guatemala                108,890 km2       Namibia             825,418 km2      Syria                       185,180 km2
Brazil                     8,511,965 km2     Guernsey                     78 km2        Nauru                   21 km2       Taiwan                       35,980 km2
British Indian Ocean Ter       60 km2        Guinea                   245,857 km2       Navassa Island          5.2 km2      Tajikistan                  143,100 km2
British Virgin Islands        153 km2        Guinea-Bissau             36,120 km2       Nepal               140,800 km2      Tanzania                    945,087 km2
Brunei                       5,770 km2       Guyana                   214,970 km2       Netherlands          41,526 km2      Thailand                    514,000 km2
Bulgaria                    110,910 km2      Haiti                     27,750 km2       NL Antilles            960 km2       Tokelau                        10 km2
Burkina Faso                274,200 km2      Heard & McDonald Isl.       412 km2        New Caledonia        19,060 km2      Tonga                          748 km2
                                             Holy See (Vatican
Burma                        678,500 km2     City)                      0.44 km2        New Zealand          268,680 km2     Trinidad and Tobago          5,128 km2
Burundi                       27,830 km2     Honduras                 112,090 km2       Nicaragua            129,494 km2     Tromelin Island                 1 km2
Cambodia                     181,040 km2     Hong Kong                  1,092 km2       Niger               1.267 mil km2    Tunisia                    163,610 km2
Cameroon                     475,440 km2     Howland Island              1.6 km2        Nigeria              923,768 km2     Turkey                     780,580 km2
Canada                      9,976,140 km2    Hungary                   93,030 km2       Niue                    260 km2      Turkmenistan               488,100 km2
Cape Verde                    4,033 km2      Iceland                  103,000 km2       Norfolk Island          34.6 km2     Turks & Caicos Isl.           430 km2
Cayman Islands                 262 km2       India                   3,287,590 km2      N.Mariana Isl.          477 km2      Tuvalu                         26 km2
Central African Republic     622,984 km2     Indian Ocean            68.556 mil km2     Norway               324,220 km2     Uganda                     236,040 km2
Chad                        1.284 mil km2    Indonesia               1,919,440 km2      Oman                 212,460 km2     Ukraine                    603,700 km2
Chile                        756,950 km2     Iran                     1.648 mil km2     Pacific Ocean      155.557 mil km2   United Arab Emirates        82,880 km2
China                       9,596,960 km2    Iraq                     437,072 km2       Pakistan             803,940 km2     United Kingdom             244,820 km2
Christmas Island               135 km2       Ireland                   70,280 km2       Palau                   458 km2      United States             9,629,091 km2
Clipperton Island                6 km2       Israel                    20,770 km2       Palmyra Atoll           11.9 km2     Uruguay                    176,220 km2
Cocos (Keeling) Islands         14 km2       Italy                    301,230 km2       Panama                78,200 km2     Uzbekistan                 447,400 km2
Colombia                    1,138,910 km2    Jamaica                   10,991 km2       Papua N. Guinea      462,840 km2     Vanuatu                     12,200 km2
Comoros                       2,170 km2      Jan Mayen                   373 km2        Paracel Islands          NA km2      Venezuela                  912,050 km2
Congo                       2,345,410 km2    Japan                    377,835 km2       Paraguay             406,750 km2     Vietnam                    329,560 km2
Congo, Republic of the       342,000 km2     Jarvis Island               4.5 km2        Peru                1,285,220 km2    Virgin Islands                352 km2
Cook Islands                   240 km2       Jersey                      116 km2        Philippines          300,000 km2     Wake Island                   6.5 km2
Coral Sea Islands          less than 3 km2   Johnston Atoll              2.8 km2        Pitcairn Islands         47 km2      Wallis and Futuna             274 km2
Costa Rica                    51,100 km2     Jordan                    92,300 km2       Poland               312,685 km2     West Bank                    5,860 km2
Cote d'Ivoire                322,460 km2     Juan de Nova                4.4 km2        Portugal              92,391 km2     Western Sahara             266,000 km2
Croatia                       56,542 km2     Kazakhstan              2,717,300 km2      Puerto Rico            9,104 km2     Yemen                      527,970 km2
Cuba                         110,860 km2     Kenya                    582,650 km2       Qatar                 11,437 km2     Zambia                     752,614 km2
Cyprus                        9,250 km2      Kingman Reef                 1 km2         Reunion                2,517 km2     Zimbabwe                   390,580 km2
Czech Republic                78,866 km2     Kiribati                    811 km2
Denmark                       43,094 km2     Korea, North             120,540 km2
Djibouti                      23,000 km2     Korea, South              98,480 km2

                                                                                  "The biggest and the longest caves of Greece 2005 " - K.ADAMOPOULOS
                                                                                                                                                     11 / 12
Table P 3: Elements of population per continent and per country (in
thousands habitants) –1998.

Region       Country                Total     Region          Country                  Total    Region        Country                       Total
AFRICA       Algeria                 30,481   OCEANIA         American Samoa               62   LATIN         Anguilla                           11
             Egypt                   66,050                   Australia                18,613   AMERICA       Antigua and Barbuda                64
             Libya                    5,691                   Fiji                        803   AND THE       Argentina                      36,265
             Morocco                 29,114                   French Polynesia            238                 Aruba                              68
             Tunisia                  9,380                   Guam                        148                 Bahamas, The                      280
             Angola                  10,865                   Marshall Islands             63                 Barbados                          259
             Benin                    6,101                   New Caledonia               194                 Belize                            230
             Botswana                 1,448                   New Zealand               3,625                 Bolivia                         7,826
             Burkina Faso            11,266                   Northern Mariana             67                 Brazil                        169,807
             Burundi                  5,537                   IslandsNew Guinea
                                                              Papua                     4,600                 Chile                          14,677
             Cameroon                15,029                   Samoa                       225                 Colombia                       38,581
             Cape Verde                 400                   Solomon Islands             441                 Costa Rica                      3,605
             Central African          3,376                   Tuvalu                       10                 Cuba                           11,045
             Chad                     7,360                   Vanuatu                     185                 Dominica                           66
             Comoros                    546   OCEANIA Total                            29,274                 Dominican Republic              7,999
             Congo (Brazzaville)      2,658   EUROPE AND      Albania                   3,331                 Ecuador                        12,337
             Congo (Kinshasa)        49,001   THE NEW         Bosnia and                3,366                 El Salvador                     5,752
             Cote d'Ivoire           15,446   INDEPENDENT     Herzegovina
                                                              Bulgaria                  8,240                 French Guiana                     163
             Djibouti                   441                   Croatia                   4,672                 Grenada                            96
             Equatorial Guinea          454                   Czech Republic           10,286                 Guadeloupe                        416
             Eritrea                  3,842                   Hungary                  10,208                 Guatemala                      12,008
             Ethiopia                58,390                   FYROM                     2,009                 Guyana                            708
             Gabon                    1,208                   Montenegro                  680                 Haiti                           6,781
             Gambia, The              1,292                   Poland                   38,607                 Honduras                        5,862
             Ghana                   18,497                   Romania                  22,396                 Jamaica                         2,635
             Guinea                   7,477                   Serbia                   10,526                 Martinique                        407
             Guinea-Bissau            1,206                   Slovakia                  5,393                 Mexico                         98,553
             Kenya                   28,337                   Slovenia                  1,972                 Netherlands Antilles              213
             Lesotho                  2,090                   Armenia                   3,422                 Nicaragua                       4,583
             Liberia                  2,772                   Azerbaijan                7,856                 Panama                          2,736
             Madagascar              14,463                   Belarus                  10,409                 Paraguay                        5,291
             Malawi                   9,840                   Estonia                   1,421                 Peru                           26,111
             Mali                    10,109                   Georgia                   5,109                 Puerto Rico                     3,857
             Mauritania               2,511                   Kazakhstan               16,847                 Saint Kitts and Nevis              42
             Mauritius                1,168                   Kyrgyzstan                4,522                 Saint Lucia                       152
             Mayotte                    109                   Latvia                    2,385                 Saint Vincent and the             120
             Mozambique              18,641                   Lithuania                 3,600                 Grenadines
                                                                                                              Suriname                          428
             Namibia                  1,622                   Moldova                   4,458                 Trinidad and Tobago             1,117
             Niger                    9,672                   Russia                  146,861                 Uruguay                         3,285
             Nigeria                110,532                   Tajikistan                6,020                 Venezuela                      22,803
             Reunion                    705                   Turkmenistan              4,298                 Virgin Islands                    118
             Rwanda                   7,956                   Ukraine                  50,125   Total                                       507,357
             Saint Helena                 7                   Uzbekistan               23,784   ASIA          Afghanistan                    24,792
             Sao Tome and               150                   Andorra                      65                 Bangladesh                    127,609
             Senegal                  9,723                   Austria                   8,134                 Bhutan                          1,908
             Seychelles                  79                   Belgium                  10,175                 Brunei                            315
             Sierra Leone             5,080                   Denmark                   5,334                 Burma                          47,305
             Somalia                  6,842                   Faroe Islands                42                 Cambodia                       11,340
             South Africa            42,835                   Finland                   5,149                 China                       1,236,915
             Sudan                   33,551                   France                   58,805                 Hong Kong S.A.R.                6,707
             Swaziland                  966                   Germany                  82,079                 India                         983,377
             Tanzania                30,609                   Gibraltar                    29                 Indonesia                     212,942
             Togo                     4,906                   Greece                   10,662                 Iran                           68,960
             Uganda                  22,167                   Guernsey                     65                 Japan                         125,932
             Zambia                   9,461                   Iceland                     271                 Laos                            5,261
             Zimbabwe                11,044                   Ireland                   3,619                 Macau                             507
AFRICA Total                        760,503                   Italy                    56,783                 Malaysia                       20,933
NEAR         Bahrain                    616                   Jersey                       89                 Maldives                          290
EAST         Cyprus                     761                   Liechtenstein                32                 Mongolia                        2,579
             Gaza Strip               1,054                   Luxembourg                  425                 Nepal                          23,698
             Iraq                    23,034                   Malta                       380                 North Korea                    22,178
             Israel                   5,644                   Man, Isle of                 75                 Pakistan                      135,135
             Jordan                   4,435                   Monaco                       32                 Philippines                    77,726
             Kuwait                   1,913                   Netherlands              15,731                 Singapore                       3,490
             Lebanon                  3,506                   Norway                    4,420                 South Korea                    46,417
             Oman                     2,364                   Portugal                  9,928                 Sri Lanka                      18,934
             Qatar                      697                   San Marino                   25                 Taiwan                         21,908
             Saudi Arabia            20,786                   Spain                    39,134                 Thailand                       60,037
             Syria                   16,673                   Sweden                    8,887                 Vietnam                        76,236
             Turkey                  64,567                   Switzerland               7,260   ASIA Total                                3,363,431
             United Arab Emirates     2,303                   United Kingdom           57,721   NORTH         Canada                         30,675
             West Bank                1,557   Total                                   798,154   AMERICA       Greenland                          59
             Yemen                   16,388                                                                   United States                 270,312
Total                               166,298                                                     Total                                       301,046

                                                                                  "The biggest and the longest caves of Greece 2005 " - K.ADAMOPOULOS
                                                                                                                                              12 / 12

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