Exemplum is a short anecdotal story that supports a particular point in an argument or
illustrates a moral truth. The use of the term exemplum, used by medieval scribes, to define
all types of wisdom narratives. It makes a cross-cultural structural analysis of the exemplum
and identifies its tripartite structure composed of the nucleus. For example, in Arabic
tradition, Stories of Stingy by al- -minded
people by Ibn al-Jawzī are considered as an exemplum.
Fable is a fictitious narrative or statement: it comes as a legendary story of supernatural
happenings or comes as a narration intended to enforce a useful truth; especially in which
animals speak and act like human beings.
In its strict sense a fable has a moral at the end of the tale. It often, but not necessarily, makes
metaphorical use of an animal as its central character. In some cases usage the term has been
extended to include stories with mythical or legendary elements. Kalilah wa Dimnah by Ibn
al-Muqaffa¿ is example for the fable „Khurafah‟.
b. Memorate and Migratory legend:
Memorate is personal experience, and it may deal with the luck (good or bad). The story of
the girl who was sick because of Jinn and her father prepared a male to the jinn in order for
them to leave his girl improve was told by the man himself to Mr. Hasan El-Shamy (Professor
of Middle Eastern Folklore). Migratory legend is knowledge narrative and expressing the
Memorates may develop into supernatural legends if when other narrators tell a traditional
variant of the story. According to Bokhandeln the “memorates are reliable guides towards
understanding particular beliefs or traditions,”2
Memorate knowledge: the structure and ecology of individualistic culture.3
The migratory legend: A popular story - humorous, sad or horrifying and often taking the
form of an urban myth, urban belief tale, contemporary legend and moves to another area. In
comparing between legend and memorate, A legend is a short narrative of one episode that
can have a background partially based on experience and observation but that has not
emerged directly from these but instead from concepts of similar nature. Legends are created
by people's ability to fabulate, while of special importance is that they have attained a fixed
form that leaves little play for individuality. The other form of folk narrative is the memorate,
based on individual experience, though the narrative motif may be one of the legend motifs.
Legends and memorates influence each other. On the one hand, memorates often take their
material from legends or legend motifs. On the other hand, memorates are a good ground for
sprouting new legends. Frequently, memorates are polished into part of the heritage, turning
into legends in the process.
El-Shamy, Hasan. Class Notes, in the lectures that he gave during the spring semester 2004.
Bokhandeln, Lundequistska, Memorat und Sag, p.120
Honko, L. 1965 Memorates and the study of folk beliefs, Journal of the Folklore Institute 1: 19
c. Joke and Humorous anecdote:
Joke: a funny story, anecdote, or piece of wordplay that gets passed round and repeated.
Something said or done to provoke laughter. It is a brief oral narrative with a climactic
humorous twist. For example, some
Arabic tradition, but his jokes are full of wisdom. Also, each country in middle east has a
group of people, tribe, or city that they attribute their jokes to them. For example, in Egypt,
they put the
and in the center of Saudi Arabia, they lay the jokes on the people from al-
but in the south of Saudi Arabia they set the jokes on the people from Zahrān‟s tribe. The
good example for the joke is al-
ordered Ramadān to hunt them, Ramadān immediately shot them but he failed, and then
for you O sons of dog! give me the gun” He took the firearm and shot the birds but he failed
seen died birds flying before
Humorous anecdote: a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical
incident. Full of or characterized by humor, indicating or expressive of a sense of humor.
Humorous anecdote like a funny news or amusing story. In Arabic, it is close to
d. Belief and Knowledge:
Belief: a state or habit of mind in which trust or confidence is placed in some person or thing.
It is a tenet or body of tenets held by a group. Also, it has the meaning of conviction of the
truth of some statement or the reality of some being or phenomenon especially when based on
examination of evidence.
Knowledge: the fact or condition of knowing something with familiarity gained through
experience or association. Acquaintance with or understanding of a science, art, or technique.
It is the fact or condition of being aware of something or the range of one's information or
understanding. Other definition for knowledge is the circumstance or condition of
apprehending truth or fact through reasoning.
Both Belief and Knowledge are menti-factand start with cognition. Menti-fact: what you
believe in like in God. Although both have the cognition factor, belief involves applying this
cognition or matter, that the person knows about and believes in, in the actions or emotions of
the person. For instance, the person who believes in ghosts will associate any unexplained
sound or shadows or figures with ghosts and can feel scared and avoid places and experiences
that involve ghosts. On the other hand, a person that doesn‟t know of ghost but doesn't believe
in them will not display a certain emotion or action to anything usually ghost believers
associate ghosts with. Thus, the first person had a belief in ghosts but the second one just had
knowledge of them. 4
e. Märchen/Fairytale and novella:
A fairytale is a story, usually told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical
characters such as: fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants and others. These stories often involve
princes and princesses and normally have a happy ending. An interesting but highly
implausible story; often told as an excuse. Fairytale hardly explains the unprecedented
popularity of this series of children‟s books, especially among adults. Examining the series on
a deeper level reveals that they are not uncreative and predictable fairytale, but rather tales of
an ambiguous, scarred post-modern hero, totally rooted in a fairy-tale genre that recognizes
the twin connection between hero and villain. For example, the tale of Seven Doors, tale of
The Goat ..etc.
Novella: a fictional prose work that is longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. For
longer fictions, the term novel, deriving from the Italian word novella, slowly gained
predominance in the late eighteenth century over the terms romance and history. In modern
usage, a term sometimes used interchangeably with short novel or for a fiction of middle
length, between a short story and a novel. Novella tends most toward serious ideas and
metaphysical problems. For example, Men Under the Sun by Qassān Kanafānī, and The
f. Etiological narrative and Myth:
Etiological narrative: According to Brunvand myths “may be defined as 'traditional prose
narrative, which, in the society in which they are told, are considered to be truthful accounts
of what happened in the remote past.” Typically, they deal with the activities of gods and
demigods, the creation of the world and its inhabitants, and the origin of religious ritual.
“Whenever myths purport to explain such matters as origins of geographical features, animal
traits, rites, taboos, and customs, they are known as explanatory or etiological
narratives.” While many such narratives were not believed by their tellers (they were
etiological folktales), other narratives were believed to be true (they were etiological myths).
Often times the same narrative can be both a myth and a folktale. That is depending on who is
telling it. For example the Tower of Babel narrative or the Miracles of al-Saiyyd al-Badawī
are viewed as a true explanatory myth by some fundamentalist believers; on the other hand,
many others see the narrative as an explanatory folktale--a story that is perhaps a
metaphorically true, but still a story that is basically fictional.
Myth: a usually traditional story of ostensibly historical events that serves to unfold part of
the world view of a people or explain a practice, belief, or natural phenomenon. The word
myth comes from the Greek word mythos. Ordinarily, myth is a story whose author is
unknown. It has its roots in the primitive folk-beliefs of cultures and uses the supernatural to
The story of the man who brought his ill girl to the healer after she got sick. This story demonstrates the
influenced action due to a belief. However, if the man just had a knowledge of the Jinn but not a belief in them,
he would not have gone to the healer and accepted his orders to feed the jinn. On the contrary, he would search
for scientific/logical reasons for the illness.
interpret natural events and to explain a culture's view of the universe and the nature of
humanity. For example, al-Hāmah Bird, which is traced to pre-Islamic period is a myth.
People believe it emerged from the center of the man‟s head (where the hears in the center of
the head don‟t have any direction) when one of his close relative was killed. This bird keeps
flying between the sky and the earth and yelling: give me drink, give me drink.. until the man
got his revenge.
g. Dilemma tale and formula tale:
Dilemma Tale: Also called Judgment Tale, and is either open to conjecture or is morally
ambiguous, thus allowing the audience to comment or speculate upon the correct solution to
the problem posed in the tale. Typical issues raised involve conflicts of loyalty, the necessity
to choose a just response to a difficult situation. Such tales usually contain a complicated
problem that attracts the reader's attention and thoughts. Abū ¿Alī tale is an example of such
tales. He was a neighbor of a relative family. He used to help them whenever some enemies
attack them. One day, a fight broke in the tribe and a man came to this family and kidnapped a
young boy. Abū ¿Alī was not there and he came back, they told him about this. He went after
the man who took the boy, but never came back.5
Formula tale is term for numerous varieties of traditional narrative. The telling of stories
appears to be a cultural universal, common to primitive and complex societies alike. Even the
forms take are demonstrably similar from culture to culture, and comparative studies of
themes and narrative techniques have been successful in showing these relationships.
Formula tales have plots that follow a definite pattern. “On the structure and delivery of
formula tales, including the chain, the cumulative, the circle, the endless, the catch, the
compound, the question, "air castles," and "good/bad." Also, includes hints for learning
formula tales, with sample stories.”6
a. Volkskunde and Folklife studies
Volkskunde is the tradition of Balkan ethnology going back to the 1960s and to scholars like
Alois Schmaus and Leopold Kretzenbacher. The tradition is being continued by the editor-in-
chief of this journal. The main language of publication of Ethnologia Balkanica is English,
but in view of the rich schalarly traditions of Balkan ethnology, both German and French are
the term “folklife” refers to the complete way of life of a community, a region, or other types
of folk groups. The term “folk group” refers to any group of people who share at least one
common factor such as nationality, ethnicity, community, family, age group, gender, religion
Folklife can be put within the context of culture. In folklife studies, culture is defined as a
whole way of life, and the totality of human expressions of individuals or groups in a
A tale told by my grandmother and later, I learned it is known among some old women in Hail, too.
Dailey, Sheila. Putting the World in a Nutshell: The Art of the Formula Tale, (H.W. Wilson, NY:,1994, p. 134
particular society. Those aspects of society that are learned and acquired by its members. For
example, when we talk of Newfoundland culture, we mean everything that make up the
Newfoundlanders‟ ways of life, and the way they express those ways of life. These human
expressions include folk customs (things they do), material culture (things they make), folk
literature (things they say). These three are main forms of artistic communication in everyday
Folklife studies is the study of those human expressions, often referred to as artistic
communications (folk customs, material culture, folk literature, etc.), which are associated
with individuals or groups in all levels of a particular society (peasants and urban dwellers;
upper class, middle class and lower class, males and females; children, adults and old people).
Folklife studies is not limited to rural communities. It includes the study of modern city life
such as the houses of the rich and the poor, the markets, the malls, the hotels and restaurants
the workplaces, and many traditions we may previously have thought of as surviving only in
isolated or rural areas beyond the modernizing influence of our cities. Old traditions do indeed
and perhaps in new or variant forms exist in rural areas and in the heart of our cities, in
industrialized societies and in not-so-industrialized societies.
Folklife is a new approach to the investigation and understanding of human social
organizations. It aims to coordinate the information resulting from other disciplines (folklore,
anthropology, literature, sociology, ethnomusicology, archaeology, religious studies, etc.).
But there is also the added task of investigating and recording aspect of human society that
previously have been beyond the scope of those individual disciplines.
Folklife studies is therefore a holistic approach to the study of a society. We are concerned
with the study of people as cultural human beings, with their mental, spiritual and material
struggle towards survival and development.
b. Resocialization and Acculturation
Resocialization, which is defined as the process of learning a new set of attitudes, values and
behaviours different from those in one‟s previous background and experiences.
It certainly is the case that the beliefs, values, and even behaviour of individuals change when
they are converted to a new religion, but such changes are part of a wider phenomenon which
Wilson (1982:119) and others (Berger & Luckmann 1967) call resocialization. In the process
of resocialization according to Wilson, "the convert learns a language and a life-style which
become a part of himself as he takes on a new definition of his own individuality and
personality and of the social collectives in which he participates."
The term acculturation was introduced by American anthropologists, as early as in 1880, to
describe the process of culture change between two different cultural groups who come in
contact with each other (Sayegh & Lasry, 1993). Within anthropology, the first major studies
on acculturation were carried out, however, only in the 1930s, and the first classical definition
of acculturation was presented by Redfield, Linton, & Herskovits in 1936 (pp. 149–152):
Acculturation comprehends those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having
different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the
original culture patterns of either or both groups... under this definition acculturation is to be
distinguished from culture change, of which it is but one aspect, and assimilation, which is at
times a phase of acculturation. It is also to be differentiated from diffusion, which while
occurring in all instances of acculturation, is not only a phenomenon which frequently takes
place without the occurrence of the types of contact between peoples specified in the
definition above, but also constitutes only one aspect of the process of acculturation.
According to this definition, acculturation involves a contact, a process and a state, i.e., there
needs to be dynamic activity during and after continuous and first-hand contact or interaction
between the cultures, and there is a result of the process that may be relatively stable, but
which may also continue to change in an ongoing process (Berry, 1990). Thus, from the
beginning, acculturation has theoretically been understood as a bi-directional process with the
changes occurring within both groups in contact.
c. Culture specialty and Counter culture
counterculture: culture and lifestyle of people who oppose the dominant values of society,
such as the Hippies in the 60s.
Terry Anderson describes the early 1970s high point of the utopia of counterculture in his
book The Movement and The Sixties. the term counterculture refers to any subculture or
group whose values and norms are in opposition to those of the main culture. In this sense, the
Mafia, street gangs, and the Amish, as well as hippies are all countercultures in the United
One of the cultural components/elements is the cultural specialty which is a trait characterizes
only one segment of society. An example of this is red head coverings worn by Saudi men. In
the Saudi society, these coverings are only worn by men not women. It has a special pursuit,
occupation, aptitude, or skill. An item or a product of a distinctive kind or of particular
superiority. Also, it is socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all
other products of human work and thought. Specialty is a trait characterizes only one segment
of society (e.g. only females wear bikini or only females wear head scarf in Islamic
For example, a tale from Saudi Arabia talking about a young woman who did not cover her
face and went to the market where men are present. Religious men advised her to fear God
and not be a reason for a young person to do the immoral deed, but she did not listen. After
that, she walked a few steps and dropped dead! (A story form Central Saudi religion). This
tale talks about the face cover which is only special for women not men. The story is clearly
religious and sends the message that God punishes those who do not listen.
The contextual turn begins with the observation that all of human inquiry occurs within
contexts. By itself this observation is perfectly innocuous. It is patently obvious that each of
us thinks and moves within certain social, linguistic, and epistemic contexts. We are not
disembodied spirits living in a Platonic heaven, but flesh and blood people living at certain
concrete times and places.
Epistemological Contextualism has been one of the dominant research programmes in
contemporary epistemology, with the classic papers on this topic by Keith DeRose, Stewart
Cohen, David Lewis and others amongst some of the most discussed work in this area of the
last thirty years. Primarily, contextualism has attracted philosophers because of the
straightforward response that it offers to one very influential formulation of the sceptical
paradox. In recent years, however, this thesis has been applied to a number of problems that
are outwith the sceptical paradox, such as the Gettier Problem and the Lottery Puzzle
The basics of contextualism
According to contextualism, the epistemic status of a given claim p (i.e., whether some person
S is justified in believing that p) varies according to features of the context. A claim (or token
of the same kind of belief, e.g., perceptual beliefs) that functions as a regress stopper in one
context might require justification in another context.
An important task for contextualists, then, is to explain how an unjustified belief--but not just
any unjustified belief--can provide justification for other beliefs. Contextualists have not
agreed on what features of the context determine this, but we can look at one of the better
attempts. According to David Annis, standards for justification are relative to an issue-
context: the specific issue being raised and the particular situation in which the claim is
considered. The issue-context determines an appropriate objector-group: a community of
people whose standards (goals, social practices, and norms of justification) S is expected to
satisfy in order to be justified.
A belief is thus contextually basic if, given an issue-context, the appropriate objector-group
does not require the person to defend it.
2. Tale-type: Recurring pattern of narrative plot elements or the broad framework of a story.
A tale type may be found in several different versions in more than one culture, but although
no two such tales are exactly alike (because they have been passed on orally) the broad tale
outline can still be discerned and identified. For example, Toelken, who uses a biologic model
for tale types, asserting that no single cat or dog is "the" cat or dog, but all are the same type
A Motif is the smaller unit that has power to exist in folk literature; it is usually identified
specifically to describe the details of which the story is formed. A Motif is simple device that
serves as a basis for an expanded narrative. The motif is a recurring feature in the word. It is
the smallest group of atoms in a polymer that, when under the influence of a rotation-
translation operator, will assemble the rest of the atoms in the chain.
5. Manifest functions are those that are obvious and easily discovered even by strangers. In
contrast, the latent functions are those that are less apparent and more difficult to uncover.
Manifest functions refer to functions that are obvious. For example, the manifest function of
schools is to teach reading, writing, and arithmetic. The manifest function of the military is
defending the nation. The manifest function of criminal justice is to keep the streets safe for a
Latent functions are functions that are unrecognized or unintended. For example, students in
the course of pursuing their education, may make good friends. A distinction made within the
structural-functional school of sociology referring to at least three kinds of dimensions of
7. Acculturation: the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture; "the
socialization of children to the norms of their culture".7 the process of assimilating new ideas
into an existing cognitive structure . all the knowledge and values shared by a society
Socialization: a lifelong, social process during which we learn norms, values, attitudes,
beliefs and knowledge and develop a sense of self.
Re-socialization: a situation where people learn a very different set of norms, values, beliefs
and behaviors from the ones that they had held.
The learning of folklore: Learning folklore is part of people's lives as they live in their
society and learn to socially respond according to the culture. This knowledge accumulates
with years of interaction with parents, friends, family, strangers, etc..
8. Cante fable: a folktale that has a song or songs imbedded in it, helping to illustrate points
of the story.
Fable: Simple folktale that illustrates a moral or ethical point and often features animals.
Some fables are like "animal tales" but transmit a stated moral as their conclusion or function.
9. Traditionality: strict adherence to traditional methods or teachings.
Tradition: The process of honoring and verifying old ways and means of doing things in a
society. In a modern society, traditional practices are often those regarded as old, are
sometimes thought of as superior, and are thought to oppose new forces of integration.
Traditions exhibit continuity over time and space.
Traditionalism: adherence to tradition (especially in cultural or religious matters). strict
adherence to traditional methods or teachings. the doctrine that all knowledge was originally
derived by divine revelation and that it is transmitted by traditions.
4. The Oral Formulaic Improvisation Theory
Common place memorization; just the frame of the story/ plot is learned; the rest improvised
using formulae. The oral culture in the Middle East appears in many aspects of live.
The three major factors involved in typological and genre studies are tale-type, motif and
Tale-type is a full narrative that recurs cross-culturally. Motif is the smaller unit that has
power to exist in oral tradition or in folk literature; it is usually identified specifically to
describe the details of which the story is formed. Subtype is a derivative concept used to refer
to a recurrent variation on a tale-type. It may characterize the traditions of a certain social
group on basis of age, gender, ethnicity, location, social status, or occupation.
I chose the epic of The story of El- - int-Birry to
apply these factors on. This story is in my opinion a remarkable telling of a supernatural
encounters as El-Badawī and Bin-Berry meet to fight and test each other's stamina. The
"strongest" motif in this story is " D. supernatural occurrences" while the tale-type which
should tell a complete narrative that can be cross culturally transferred is the tale of a religious
man/religious power; as for the subtype which is a variation of the tale type and is employed
to specify the unique of the tale can be a conflict between a supernatural entity empowered by
religion and another supernatural opponent –conflict between male and female supernatural
Enculturation: It is the process by which an individual learns culture; it is also known as
socialization. People learn about their cultures through interaction with society. Fairy tales
also help people to know more about their own culture. Children learn the culture they belong
to as they grow up in the society and socialize more with the people.
Resocialization: Learning a culture other than that in which one was raised. This happens
when a person lives and/or studies another culture of another society. Immigrants to the states
leave their original countries and cultures and are implanted in a new society in which they
learn a new culture ( i.e. the American culture).
Degrees of traditonality: Degrees of traditionality are important parts of the composition and
structure of culture. It involves content, form, value, medium of communication. Etc. An item
may be traditional in all its aspects, or in only some of its aspects. For example, old poems
and ballads can discuss a traditional topic, use traditional words, communicate traditional
ideas and values, and circle among people orally. In this case, these poems and ballads can be
described as being traditional in all degrees whereas another ballad can have a traditional
words but discuss modern and/ir new ideas not known in traditional culture. Thus, this ballad
has a fewer degrees of traditonality than the previous one.
Diffusion: It is the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to
another. It is generally used to describe how fairy tales spread from India to the Arabian
Peninsula then Africa and North Africa then Europe and then further. Hence, the spread of
fairy tales is a folkloric example of diffusion (e.g. the story of the brothers).
Subculture: It is a smaller group within a larger group, characterized by specific cultural
practices not shared by the larger group. It is important to say that subculture is not restricted
to a geographical area. For example, each tribe in Saudi Arabia has its own culture which is
shared by its all members regardless of their location. The Tribe of Wa'il never performs
celebrations in the bride's house and regards this as a shame and disgrace. This thought is not
shared by the other members of the Saudi society and thus Wa'il tribe with this practice and
much more distinctive practice surely has its own subculture.
Olikotype: A variation on a narration that is studied objectively and is associated with natural
habitat. Olikotype is a very crucial part of Folk analysis and work. For example, if Olikotypes
are miss-presented in fairy tales, they have the power to color the whole tale and mislead the
audience. For example, camels are the Olikotype of the desert and the desert people (i.e.
Culture Specialty: one of the cultural components/elements is the cultural specialty which is a
trait characterizes only a segment of society. For example, in Saudi Arabia, only women wear
black overall body coverings (i.e. Abayah).
Mores - (sociology) the conventions that embody the fundamental values of a group; it is
traditional, prescriptive standards of thought and behavior, which maintain the cohesion of a
social group. It is the values, which are important to the group's self perception. These internal
laws and values may or may not agree with formal laws. For example, in some Middle
Eastern/Arabic and eastern countries in general, honor killing is known to be either accepted,
known, or practiced. This belief does not agree with the formal law of the state and yet
people, usually traditional people, believe in it and/or practice it. Another example, some
members of the tribe of Otaibah in Saudi Arabia used to (some still) glorify stealing and find
it something to be proud of as it indicates the man's intelligence. This is a practice that is
accepted and in some day used to unify some of this tribe's members despite that it oppesses
formal laws and values8.
Anomie : living with no direct or strong attachment to cultural and traditional codes and
values; it can be used to describe the normless life as used by Emile Durkheim who believes
that anomic societies have a higher suicide rate than traditional ones. Therefore, Anomie is
social instability, alienation and a sense of purposelessness cause by a steady erosion of
standards and values. For example, religious people harshly judge gay individuals, as they
believe they lead a sinful life style. Usually, conservative and/or religious people see the gay
society deviating from societal norms and values and thus believe that their presence in the
society causes social instability. As a result of these kind of social pressures and alienation
from society, it has been reported that gay people indeed have a higher rate of suicide
attempts and incidents compared to the other members and groups of society.
The concept of the horde was mainly studied by anthropologists who have mainly focused on
tribes both primitive and modern;. The concept of horde tends to be reified as "things" that
This information is from my own knowledge and experience since I am a Saudi female who has lived,
interacted with , and learned the Saudi culture and people.
shared the defining characteristic of being fixed and solidary in personnel and in owned,
circumscribed, and defended territory.
In the last third of the nineteenth century, the horde in anthropological literature was
conceived, not as a vast nomadic swarm as in the Golden Horde, but as a small crew of
foraging "savages." Theorizing about the horde took two avenues, both of them in the service
of schema of the universal cultural evolution of humankind from a primordial state. One
approach one may term once-upon-a-time constructs of primal man. The other approach
viewed extant foragers as exemplars or living fossils of the earliest stages of human society.
The once-upon-a-time constructs of the primordial horde served as the base for theories, in
various combinations, of the origin of "group marriage," of "wife capture," of the incest taboo
and exogamy, of totemism, and of the Oedipus complex and the patrilineal clan (Freud's
brother clan). One theorist, the Edinburgh lawyer J. S. McLennan, emphasized a primordial
state of chronic warfare and territorial defense among hordes9. Primordial - having existed
from the beginning; in an earliest or original stage or state. When speaking of the primordial
horde, one can think of the pyramid of social evolution. Which is divided into three major
parts: the lower is savagery (the primary stage) then barbarism and the tip of the pyramid is
civilization. Barbarism is further divided into lower, middle, and upper. Anthropologists used
to go to tribes of other societies (e.g. Africa) and study some primitive tribes that they later
#2. Ideological School in Folklore:
The ideological school is a product of the romantic nationalism that emphasizes the
group‟s values and culture. This thought (i.e. the romanticism) is based on six tenants:
individualism in which the individual is more important than the government, emotionalism
where feelings and emotions are more important than logic, worship of nature which sees
civilization as corrupted medium, and exotism where studies of strange lands and
“interesting” cultures and cultural artifact are conducted. However, the romanticism thought is
a contrast of the classical world thought which values logic (mind above all). Nonetheless, in
1750. Jacques Rosseu explained that science can lead to man‟s unhappiness. That is so
because man was happy in the primitive state as everyone was equal to everyone else in
everything. In 1755, he said that “noble savage” in a state of nature was ignorant but satisfied
and perfectly free. Thus, he believed that private property corrupted man‟s goodness and that
the government is basically discovered to protect those who own more from those who own
less or not at all. In 1762, he presented “the social contract”: the ideal government is that
which functions as a servant of the people and derives its authority from the governed; this
later became the essence of the French revolution. So, Rossue‟s refusal to the classical
approach laid the foundations of Romanticism which later produced the ideological school.
The ideological approach uses folklore for real politic. Some of the Folklorists whi have
adopted this school are: Grim brothers in Germany, Asbjorgen and Moe in Norway, Ionrot
and K. Krohm in Finlan, and Hyde in Ireland. The ideological school deals with the political
ideology between ethnic groups, racial groups, political groups or the use of folklore to see if
there are ethnic differences or national differences without indicating that one group is better
than the other. Richrd Dorson believes that there are two major Folklore ideologies: the Nazi
ideology which believes that Germany‟s highly and low class people are better than any other
race. The other ideology is that of the Soviet Union where the peasants despise the high class.
However Dorson‟s assessment is erroneous in combing the racist ideology of Germany with
the class struggle in the Soviet Union which promotes that any peasant in the world (Russian
or not) has a struggle with the high class. It is important to say in the ideology‟s school
emphasis on the importance of the individual/a certain group may not meet the objectivity and
accuracy factors in social science research. That being said, this school also studies groups
without emphasizing who is high and who is low though it is making up for the “emotional”
bearing for its development.
Professor Hasan M. El-Shamy presents a rich informative background of behaviorism
in Folklore, its development, its flaws, and solution to ensure continuous development. 10 The
article beings by presenting the contextual school as an approach that first concern itself with
the behavior element in the text declaring not only the narrator‟s words, but his/her attitude,
context, and conditions. The “young Turks” as Richard Dorson calls those young Folklorists
who have began this approach are concerned with the “action, performance, process” as D.K.
Wilgus explains. El-Shamy explains that Folklore though have sued psychological terms, it
loosely applies and uses them unlike the strict field of Psychology. He concludes that it is
because of this application that Folklore “new” approaches are different than the “old” ones.
The article progress to talk about psychoanalysis as an influential thought in Folklore that
yielded behaviorism. This approach acknowledges three psychological theories that explain
man‟s behavior and contributation to culture/society: homo volens, in which man is a creature
of striving motivated by unconscious inner urges; and the homo mechanicus which views man
as a machine that can be programmed to produce certain responses to specific stimuli; and
finally, there is the homo sapiens which regards man as a cognitive creature capable of
guiding his own behavior. Then, El-Shamy attempts to explain the different developmental
stages of this approach explaining that the psychoanalysis has certainly dominated Folklore
for its systemic approach that emphasized important on the verbal recall of the text or event.
However, he explains that this why psychoanalysis is different than behaviorism since
experiencing the event which produces the behavior is not the same thing as recalling it. He
indicates that behaviorism school when applying the S-R system of stimulus and response, it
should differentiates between the initial response being the act itself and its measurement.
After that, he presents the different progression stages of this school and the debates of its
Folklorists. However, he explains that this school is being criticized for its belief in the homo
mechanicus theory because it omits the person‟s cognitive abilities. Thus, El-Shamy
concludes by explaining that it is better for the Folklore fields not to be condensed in one
arena, but adopt all three psychological theories because the person is “ synthesis of all three”.
El-Shamy, Hasan M. “Folkloric Behavior: A Theory for the Study of the Dynamics of Traditional Culture,”
(part of Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1976).
This article gracefully explains the underlying fabric of behaviorism in Folklore not only by
its ideas, but also its history, trail of development, and defects.