Parent Involvement Project (PIP) Parent Questionnaire by M2H14i0

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									      Parent Involvement Project (PIP) Parent and Teacher Questionnaires: Study 2
          Kathleen V. Hoover-Dempsey, Howard M. Sandler, & Joan M.T. Walker
                           Prepared by Darlene Whetsel 9/26/02
                    Department of Psychology and Human Development
                Box 512, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, TN 37203
                         phone: 615-343-4962; fax 615-343-9494;
                             email: d.whetsel@vanderbilt.edu

The Parent Involvement Project (PIP) Parent and Teacher Questionnaires were developed to
conduct the second in a series of four OERI-funded research projects. The projects were
designed to examine the following questions: (a) Why do parents choose to become involved in
their children’s education? (b) How does their involvement, once engaged, influence children’s
educational achievement and attitudinal variables that influence achievement? Grounded in
Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler’s (1995, 1997) model of the parental involvement process, this
study examined Levels One—the contributions of hypothesized predictors (role construction,
sense of efficacy, general invitations to involvement, and child attributes that invite involvement)
to parents’ basic involvement decisions—and Level Two—influences on parents’ involvement
forms (time/resources, knowledge and skills, specific child invitations, specific teacher
invitations, parents’ enjoyment of their involvement and level of involvement. Two
questionnaires were developed to assess parent and teacher reports of the Level One and Two
predictors and outcome variable. The 13 scales (6 level one, 5 level two, 1 dependent variable
measure,) in the Parent Questionnaire and the 4 scales in the Teacher Questionnaire are
described in the following pages. The description for each scale includes its source, instructions
to participants, response scales, all items, and scale reliabilities.

Scales included in the PIP Parent Questionnaire are the following:

Level One:
1. Parent’s Perceptions of Self-Efficacy for Helping Child Succeed in School (7 items)

2. Parent’s Role Construction (24 items)
   This scale has been divided into two scales (beliefs & behaviors) for the questionnaire but it
   should be construed as one variable.
   Parent’s Role Construction (Beliefs) (11 items)
   Three Subscales:
   1. Parent-focused Role Construction (3 items)
   2. School-focused Role Construction (4 items)
   3. Partnership-focused Role Construction (4 items)
   Parent’s Role Construction (Hypothetical Behaviors) (13 items)

3. Parent’s Perceptions of General Invitations for Involvement from the School
   (6 items) 3 Subscales:
   a) School-focused School Climate (2 items)
   b) Empowerment-focused School Climate (2 items)
   c) Communication-focused School Climate (2 items)
4. Parent’s Perceptions of General Invitations for Involvement from the Child (3 items)

5. Child’s Attributes that Invite Involvement (5 items)
                                                1
Level Two:
1. Parent’s Enjoyment of Involvement Activities (6 items)

2. Parent’s Knowledge and Skills for Involvement Activities (9 items)

3. Parent’s Time, Energy, and Resources for Involvement Activities (8 items)

4. Parent’s Perception of Specific Child Demands/Invitations for Involvement (6 items)

5. Parent’s Perception of Specific Teacher/School Demands/Invitations for Involvement (6
items)

Dependent Variable (13 items)




The scales included in the (PIP) Teacher Questionnaire Study 2 are the following:
   1.      Teacher’s Self-Efficacy For Helping Children Succeed in School (7 items)
   2.      Teacher’s Perceptions of General Invitations for Involvement from the School
           (11 items)
           Three Subscales:
           a. School-focused School Climate (5 items)
           b. Empowerment-focused School Climate (3 items)
           c. Communication-focused School Climate (3 items)
   3.      Collective Teacher Efficacy (18 items)
   4.      Teacher’s Perceptions of Parents’ Involvement Level (6 items)
   5.      Teacher’s Specific Invitations for involvement (6 items)
   6.      Teacher’s Perceptions of Parent Efficacy for Helping Child Succeed in School
           (6 items)




                                               2
Scale: Parent’s Perceptions of Self-Efficacy for Helping Child Succeed in School (7 items)
reported standardized alpha = .78

Source
Adapted from Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Bassler, O.C., & Brissie, J.S. (1992). Explorations in
parent-school relations. Journal of Educational Research, 85, (5), 287-294.

Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a disagree very strongly to agree very strongly response format:
Disagree very strongly = 1, disagree = 2, disagree just a little = 3, agree just a little = 4, agree =5,
agree very strongly = 6

Instructions
Please indicate how much you AGREE or DISAGREE with each of the following statements.
Please think about the current school year as you consider each statement.

Scale scoring
Total scale scores range from 7 to 42. Higher scores indicate a stronger sense of efficacy for
helping the child succeed in school.

Scale (7 items)

I know how to help my child do well in school.                          22
I don’t know if I’m getting through to my child. (reverse scored)       18
I don’t know how to help my child make good                             32
grades in school. (reverse scored)
I feel successful about my efforts to help my child learn.              11
Other children have more influence on my child’s                        29
grades than I do. (reverse scored)
I don’t know how to help my child learn. (reverse scored)               2
I make a significant difference in my child’s school                    1
performance.




                                                   3
Scale: Parent’s Role Construction (Beliefs) (11 items) reported standardized alpha = .61

Source
Adapted from Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Walker, J.M.T., Jones, K.P., & Reed, R.P. (2002).
Teachers Involving Parents (TIP): An in-service teacher education program for enhancing
parental involvement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18 (7), 1-25.
Subscales
The scale includes three subscales: Parent-focused Role Construction (3 items), School-focused
Role Construction (4 items), Partnership-focused Role Construction (4 items).
Response format and scales
All items in the scale us a disagree very strongly to an agree very strongly format:
        Disagree very strongly = 1, disagree = 2, disagree just a little = 3, agree just a little = 4,
        agree =5, agree very strongly = 6
Instructions
The instructions associated with each response option are the following:
For response option, disagree very strongly to agree very strongly:
        Please indicate how much you AGREE or DISAGREE with each of the following
        statements. Please think about the current school year as you consider each statement.
Scale scoring
       Parent-focused Role Construction: subscale range = 3 - 18
       School-focused Role Construction: subscale range = 4 - 24
       Partnership-focused Role Construction: subscale range = 4 - 24
Subscale: Parent-focused Role Construction (3 items)                    item number
       It’s my job to explain tough assignments to my child.            21
       It’s my job to make sure my child understands his or             26
       her assignments.
       I make it my business to stay on top of things at school.        15
Subscale: School-focused Role Construction (4 items)                    item number
       I assume my child is doing all right when I don’t hear           17
       anything from the school.
       The teacher has to let me know about a problem before            3
       I can do something about it.
       I get most of my information about my child’s progress           9
       from report cards.
       My child’s learning is mainly up to the teacher and my           6
       child.
Subscale: Partnership-focused Role Construction (4 items)               item number
       I like to spend time at my child’s school when I can.            30
       It’s important that I let the teacher know about things          7
       that concern my child.
       I find it helpful to talk with the teacher.                      25
       My child’s teacher(s) know(s) me.                                8



                                                   4
Scale: Parent’s Role Construction Hypothetical Behaviors (13 items) reported standardized
alpha = .92

Source based on a scale entitled "Parents' Involvement on All Types of Activities" developed
by:
Epstein, J.L., and Salinas, K. C. (1993). School and Family Partnerships: Surveys and
summaries. Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children's Learning.


Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a very unlikely to very likely response format: Very unlikely = 1,
somewhat unlikely = 2, somewhat likely = 3, very likely = 4

Instructions
Please rate how likely you are to respond POSITIVELY to each of the following teacher
requests. Please use the following scale for your responses: 1 = Very unlikely, 2 = somewhat
unlikely, 3 = somewhat likely, 4 = very likely.

Subscale scoring
Child-Specific Decision to Become Involved reported standardized alpha = .84. Total subscale
scores range from 5 to 20. Higher scores indicate a stronger child-specific decision to become
involved.
School-General Decision to Become Involved reported standardized alpha = .84 Total subscale
scores range from 8 to 32. Higher scores indicate a stronger school-general decision to become
involved.

Subscale: Child-Specific Decision to Become Involved (5 items)

                                                                     Section/item number
                                                                     On PIP Parent Questionnaire

Your child’s teacher asks you to help your child study for           56
an upcoming math test.
Your child’s teacher asks you to talk with your child                57
about his/her school day.
Your child’s teacher asks you to work with your child                58
on a specific homework assignment.
Your child’s teacher asks you to look over your child’s              59
homework.
Your child’s teacher asks you to schedule a conference               60
to discuss your child’s progress.

Subscale: School-General Decision to Become Involved (8 items)
                                                                     Section/item number
                                                                     On PIP Parent Questionnaire
Your child’s teacher sends home a note asking parents                61
to send supplies for a class party.
Your child’s teacher asks you to send supplies for an                62
educational activity in the classroom.
                                                5
Your child’s teacher asks you to attend a student program    63
at the school in the evening.
Your child’s teacher asks for parents to volunteer a few     64
hours of time to beautify the school grounds.
Your child’s teacher asks for parents to help organize       65
a field day at the school.
Your child’s teacher asks for volunteers to chaperone a      66
class trip.
Your child’s teacher asks you to come to school to talk      67
about your work or a special interest of yours.
Your child’s teacher asks you to help out in the classroom   68
(for example, listen to children read).




                                                6
Scale: Parent’s Perceptions of General Invitations for Involvement from the School (6
items) reported standardized alpha = .88

Source
Adapted from Griffith’s parent satisfaction survey: Griffith, J. (1996, February). Parent and
student satisfaction with elementary schools in Montgomery County. Montgomery County
Public Schools, MD: Department of Educational Accountability (reported alphas ranged from
.73 to .81).

Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a disagree very strongly to agree very strongly response format:
        Disagree very strongly = 1, disagree = 2, disagree just a little = 3, agree just a little = 4,
        agree =5, agree very strongly = 6

Instructions
Please indicate how much you AGREE or DISAGREE with each of the following statements.
Please think about the current school year as you consider each statement.

Subscale scoring (Total Possible Range: 6-36)
       School-focused School Climate: 2-12
       Empowerment-focused School Climate: 2-12
       Communication-focused School Climate: 2-12

Subscale: School-focused School Climate (2 items)                       item number
       Teachers at this school are interested and cooperative           24
       when they discuss my child.
       I feel welcome at this school.                                   13

Subscale: Empowerment-focused School Climate (2 items)                  item number
       Parent activities are scheduled at this school so that I         19
       can attend.
       This school lets me know about meetings and special              12
       school events.

Subscale: Communication-focused School Climate (2 items)                item number
       This school’s staff contacts me promptly about any               27
       problems involving my child.
       The teachers at this school keep me informed about               20
       my child’s progress in school.




                                                   7
Scale: Parent’s Perceptions of General Invitations for Involvement from the Child (3 items)
reported standardized alpha = .61

Source
Project developed from Walker, J. M.T., & Hoover-Dempsey, K.V. (2001, April). Age-related
patterns in student invitations to parental involvement in homework. Paper presented at the
annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, WA.

Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a disagree very strongly to agree very strongly response format:
        Disagree very strongly = 1, disagree = 2, disagree just a little = 3, agree just a little = 4,
        agree =5, agree very strongly = 6

Instructions
Please indicate how much you AGREE or DISAGREE with each of the following statements.
Please think about the current school year as you consider each statement.

Scale scoring
Total scale scores range from 3 to 18. Higher scores indicate a stronger perception of general
invitations for involvement from the child.

Scale (3 items)
        Items                                                           item number
        I get involved in my child’s education because                  28
        She or he appreciates it.
        I get involved in my child’s education because he or she        5
        really wants me to be involved.
        I get involved in my child’s education because I want           14
        him or her to do well in school.




                                                   8
Scale: Child’s Attributes that Invite Involvement (5 items) reported standardized alpha = .56

Source
HFL 2002

Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a disagree very strongly to agree very strongly response format:
        Disagree very strongly = 1, disagree = 2, disagree just a little = 3, agree just a little = 4,
        agree =5, agree very strongly = 6

Instructions
Please indicate how much you AGREE or DISAGREE with each of the following statements.
Please think about the current school year as you consider each statement.

Scale scoring
Total scale scores range from 5 to 30. Higher scores indicate a stronger perception of child
attributes that invite involvement (i.e. child needs from the parent).

Scale (3 items)
        Items                                                           item number
My child needs help organizing his or her homework.                     4
My child has trouble staying focused on his or her work.                10
My child is independent when it comes to homework. (reversed)           16
My child needs help getting started with his or her homework.           23
My child needs help understanding his or her homework.                  31




                                                   9
Scale: Parent’s Enjoyment of Involvement Activities (6 items) reported standardized alpha =
.77

Source
HFL 2002

Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a disagree very strongly to agree very strongly response format:
Disagree very strongly = 1, disagree = 2, disagree just a little = 3, agree just a little = 4, agree =5,
agree very strongly = 6

Instructions
Please indicate how much you AGREE or DISAGREE with each of the following statements.
Please think about the current school year as you consider each statement.

Scale scoring
Total scale scores range from 6 to 36. Higher scores indicate a stronger sense of enjoyment of
involvement activities.

Scale (6 items)
        Items                                                           item number
I enjoy communicating with my child’s teacher.                          37
I enjoy helping my child with homework                                  39
I enjoy helping out at my child’s school.                               42
I enjoy communicating with my child about the school day.               43
I enjoy supervising my child’s homework.                                48
I enjoy attending special events at school.                             49




                                                  10
Scale: Parent’s Knowledge and Skills for Involvement Activities (9 items)
reported standardized alpha = .83

Source
HFL 2002

Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a disagree very strongly to agree very strongly response format:
Disagree very strongly = 1, disagree = 2, disagree just a little = 3, agree just a little = 4, agree =5,
agree very strongly = 6

Instructions
Please indicate how much you AGREE or DISAGREE with each of the following statements.
Please think about the current school year as you consider each statement.

Scale scoring
Total scale scores range from 9 to 54. Higher scores indicate a stronger sense knowledge and
skill for the involvement activities.

Scale (9 items)
        Items                                                           item number
I know about volunteering opportunities at my child’s school.           34
I know how to communicate effectively with my                           35
        child about the school day.
I know how to explain things to my child about                          36
        his or her homework.
I know about special events at school.                                  40
I know enough about the subjects of my child’s homework                 45
        to help him or her.
I know how to communicate effectively with my child’s teacher.          50
I know how to supervise my child’s homework.                            51
I have the skills to help out at my child’s school.                     53
I know effective ways to contact my child’s teacher.                    55




                                                  11
Scale: Parent’s Time, Energy and Resources for Involvement Activities (8 items) reported
standardized alpha = .84

Source
HFL 2002

Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a disagree very strongly to agree very strongly response format:
Disagree very strongly = 1, disagree = 2, disagree just a little = 3, agree just a little = 4, agree =5,
agree very strongly = 6

Instructions
Please indicate how much you AGREE or DISAGREE with each of the following statements.
Please think about the current school year as you consider each statement.

Subscale scoring (Total Possible Range: 8-48)
Higher scores indicate a stronger sense of time, energy and resources for being involved.
       Resources: 2-12
       Time and Energy: 6-36

Subscale: Resources (2 items)
        Items                                                      item number
I have what I need (for example, telephone, answering machine, 46
        email) to communicate effectively with my child’s teacher.
I have the materials I need to help my child with homework.        41

Subscale: Time and Energy (6 items)                                     item number
I have enough time and energy to communicate effectively                33
        with my child about the school day.
I have enough time and energy to help out at my child’s school.         44
I have enough time and energy to communicate effectively                38
        with my child’s teacher.
I have enough time and energy to attend special events at school.       47
I have enough time and energy to help my child with homework.           52
I have enough time and energy to supervise my child’s homework.         54




                                                  12
Scale: Parent’s Perception of Child Demands/Invitations for Involvement (6 items) reported
standardized alpha = .70

Source
HFL 2002

Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a 6 point frequency response format: 1 = never; 2 = 1 or 2 times; 3 = 4
or 5 times; 4 = once a week; 5 = a few times a week; 6 = daily


Instructions
Dear Parent, please indicate HOW OFTEN the following have happened SINCE THE
BEGINNING OF THIS SCHOOL YEAR?

Scale scoring
Total scale scores range from 6 to 36. Higher scores indicate more specific invitations from the
child for involvement.

Scale (6 items)
                                                                    item number
My child asked me to help explain                                   78
something about his or her homework.
My child asked me to supervise                                      80
his or her homework.
My child talked with me about the school day.                       82
My child asked you to attend a special                              83
event at school.
My child asked me to help out at the school.                        85
My child asked me talk with his or her teacher.                     87




                                                  13
Scale: Parent’s Perception of Specific Teacher/School Demands/Invitations for
Involvement (6 items) reported standardized alpha = .81

Source
HFL 2002

Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a 6 point frequency response format: 1 = never; 2 = 1 or 2 times; 3 = 4
or 5 times; 4 = once a week; 5 = a few times a week; 6 = daily


Instructions
Dear Parent, please indicate HOW OFTEN the following have happened SINCE THE
BEGINNING OF THIS SCHOOL YEAR?

Scale scoring
Total scale scores range from 6 to 36. Higher scores indicate more specific invitations from the
teacher/school for involvement.

Scale (6 items)
        Items                                                       item number
My child’s teacher asked me or expected me to                       84
help my child with homework.
My child’s teacher asked me or expected me to supervise             88
my child’s homework.
My child’s teacher asked me to talk                                 79
with my child about the school day.
My child’s teacher asked me to                                      76
attend a special event at school.
My child’s teacher asked me to                                      81
help out at the school.
My child’s teacher contacted me                                     86
(for example, sent a note, phoned, e-mailed).




                                                14
Scale: Dependent Variable: Types of Involvement (10 items) reported standardized alpha =
.78

Source
Adapted from a scale entitled "Parents' Involvement on All Types of Activities" developed by:
Epstein, J.L., and Salinas, K. C. (1993). School and Family Partnerships: Surveys and
summaries. Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children's Learning and
from Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Walker, J.M.T., Jones, K.P., & Reed, R.P. (2002).
Teachers Involving Parents (TIP): An in-service teacher education program for enhancing
parental involvement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18 (7), 1-25.

Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a 6 point frequency response format: 1 = never; 2 = 1 or 2 times; 3 = 4
or 5 times; 4 = once a week; 5 = a few times a week; 6 = daily


Instructions
Dear Parent, please indicate HOW OFTEN the following have happened SINCE THE
BEGINNING OF THIS SCHOOL YEAR?



I kept an eye on my child’s progress.                                       75
I got advice from the teacher.                                              77
I contacted the teacher with questions about schoolwork.                    70
I helped my child with homework.                                            89
I communicated with my child’s teacher.                                     90
I talked with my child about the school day.                                91
I supervised my child’s homework.                                           92
I helped out at my child’s school.                                          93
I attended special events at school.                                        94
I spent time at my child’s school.                                          74




                                                15
              Parent Involvement Project (PIP) Teacher Questionnaire, Level 2

Scale: (PIP) Teacher’s Self-Efficacy For Helping Children Succeed in School (7 items)
reported standardized alpha = .72
Source
Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Bassler, O. C., & Brissie, J. S. (1992). Explorations in parent-school
relations. Journal of Educational Research, 85, (5), 287-294.

Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a disagree very strongly to agree very strongly response format:
Disagree very strongly = 1, disagree = 2, disagree just a little = 3, agree just a little = 4, agree =5,
agree very strongly = 6

Instructions
Please indicate how much you AGREE or DISAGREE with each of the following statements.
Please think about the current school year as you consider each statement.

Scale scoring
Total scale scores range from 11to 66. Higher scores indicate a stronger sense of efficacy for
helping the child succeed in school.

Scale (7 items)
                                                                        Section/item number
                                                                        On PIP Questionnaire
There is a limited amount I can do to raise the                         C5
performance level of my students. (reverse scored)
Children are so private and complex, I never know if                    C7
I am getting through to them. (reverse scored)
Most of student’s school motivation depends on the                      C14
home environment, so I have limited influence. (reverse scored)

I feel that I am making a significant educational difference            C16
in the lives of my students.
My students’ peers influence their academic performance                 C25
more than I do. (reverse scored)
If I try really hard, I can get through to the most                     C26
difficult and unmotivated students.
I am uncertain how to teach some of my students. (reverse scored)       C37




                                                  16
Scale: Teacher’s Perceptions of General Invitations for Involvement from the School (11
items)
reported standardized alpha = .82
Source
Adapted from Griffith’s parent satisfaction survey: Griffith, J. (1996, February). Parent &
student satisfaction with elementary schools in Montgomery County. Montgomery County
Public Schools, MD: Department of Educational Accountability.

Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a disagree very strongly to agree very strongly response format:
        Disagree very strongly = 1, disagree = 2, disagree just a little = 3, agree just a little = 4,
        agree =5, agree very strongly = 6

Instructions
Please indicate how much you AGREE or DISAGREE with each of the following statements.
Please think about the current school year as you consider each statement.

Subscale scoring
School-focused Invitations: total subscale scores range from 5 to 30. Higher scores indicate
stronger perceptions of school-focused invitations.
Empowerment-focused Invitations: total subscale scores range from 3 to 18. Higher scores
indicate stronger perceptions of school-focused invitations.
Communication-focused Invitations: total subscale scores range from 3 to 18. Higher scores
indicate stronger perceptions of school-focused invitations.




Subscale: School-focused School Climate (5 items)
       reported alpha = .85
                                                                        On PIP Questionnaire
When children are enrolled in this school, parents are                  C3
made to feel welcome.
I am interested and cooperative                                         C22
When I discuss a child’s progress with his or her parents.
This school’s office staff treats parents courteously                   C29
and promptly.
The principal at this school is interested and                          C31
cooperative when talking to a parent about his or her child.
Parents feel welcome in this school.                                    C35


Subscale: Empowerment-focused School Climate (3 items)
             reported alpha = .84                                       Section/item number
                                                                        On PIP Questionnaire
This school does a good job of letting parents know                     C11
about ways they can help out in school.
This school lets parents know about meetings and special                C21
school events.
                                                17
Parent activities are scheduled at so that parents          C33
can attend.


Subscale: Communication-focused School Climate (3 items)
             reported alpha = .78                           Section/item number
                                                            On PIP Questionnaire
I keep parents informed about                               C8
their children’s progress in school.
This school’s staff contacts parents promptly about any     C24
problems involving their child.
This school does a good job of letting parents know about   C34
school rules and policies.




                                                 18
Scale (PIP) Collective Teacher Efficacy (18 items) reported standardized alpha = .88
Source Adapted from Revised Collective Teacher Efficacy Instrument,
 Goddard, R.D., Hoy, W. K., and Hoy, A. W. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: It’s meaning,
measure, and impact on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 37, (2),
479-507.
Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a disagree very strongly to agree very strongly response format:
        Disagree very strongly = 1, disagree = 2, disagree just a little = 3, agree just a little = 4,
        agree =5, agree very strongly = 6 Scores ranged from 6 to 126 with higher scores
        suggesting a higher sense of collective teacher efficacy.

Instructions
Please think about the current school year as you consider each statement.
                                                              Section/item number
                                                              On PIP Questionnaire
Teachers in this school believe every child                          C1
can learn.
The opportunities in this community help ensure that these           C2
students will learn.
Teachers in this school have what it takes to get                    C4
children to learn.
If a child doesn't want to learn, teachers here give up.             C6
(reverse scored)
Teachers here fail to reach some students because of poor            C9
 teaching methods. (reverse scored)
The lack of instructional materials and supplies at this school      C10
 makes teaching difficult. (reverse scored)
Teachers in this school do not have the skills to deal with          C12
student disciplinary problems. (reverse scored)
Teachers in this school are able to get through to                   C13
 difficult students.
Teachers here don't have the skills needed to produce                C15
 meaningful student learning. (reverse scored)
Teachers here are confident they will be able to                     C18
motivate their students.
Learning is difficult at this school because students are            C19
 worried about their safety. (reverse scored)
Teachers in this school think there are some students that           C20
 no teacher can reach. (reverse scored)
Students here just aren't motivated to learn. (reverse scored)       C23
Teachers in this school are skilled in various methods               C27
of teaching.
Drug and alcohol abuse in this community make learning               C28
difficult for students here. (reverse scored)
The students at this school come ready to learn.                     C30




                                                  19
                                                                Section/item number
                                                                On PIP Questionnaire


Teachers here are well-prepared to teach the subjects they            C36
are assigned.
The quality of this school's facilities supports the teaching         C38
and learning process.




                                                 20
Scale: (PIP) Teacher’s Perceptions of Parents’ Involvement Level (6 items) reported
standardized alpha = .84

Source Lab created based on recent literature.
Response format and scales
All items in the scale use a never to daily format:
        Never = 1, 1 or times this year = 2, 4 or 5 times this year = 3, once a week = 4, a few
        times a week = 5, daily = 6. Scores range from 6 to 36 with higher scores indicating
        higher perceptions of parent’s involvement level.

Instructions
Please indicate think of a TYPICAL parent in your class and write that parent’s first initial here
_____. Now, please answer the following questions, keeping this parent in mind. Please think
about the current school year as you consider each statement.

                                                               Section/item number
                                                               On PIP Questionnaire


This parent monitored his or her child's homework.             A3
This parent talked to his or her child about the school day.   A5
This parent attended special school events.                    A8
This parent helped at the school.                              A9
This parent helped his or her child with homework.             A10
This parent communicated with me.                              A12




                                                 21
Scale: (PIP) Teacher’s Specific Invitations for Involvement (6 items) reported standardized
alpha = .77

Source: Lab created based on recent literature

Response format and scales
All items in the scale use a never to daily format:
        Never = 1, 1 or times this year = 2, 4 or 5 times this year = 3, once a week = 4, a few
        times a week = 5, daily = 6. Scores ranged from 6 to 36 with higher total scores
        indicating increased teacher invitations.

Instructions
Please indicate think of a TYPICAL parent in your class and write that parent’s first initial here
_____. Now, please answer the following questions, keeping this parent in mind. Please think
about the current school year as you consider each statement.

                                                               Section/item number
                                                               On PIP Questionnaire

I asked this parent to help in the classroom.                        A1
I asked this parent to help his or her child with homework.          A2
I communicated with this parent.                                     A4
I asked this parent to talk about the school day with his or         A6
 her child.
I asked this parent to monitor his or her child's homework.          A7
I asked this parent to attend special school events.                 A11




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Scale: (PIP) Teacher’s Perceptions of Parent Efficacy for Helping Child Succeed in School
(6 items) reported standardized alpha = .91

Source Adapted from Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Bassler, O. C., & Brissie, J. S. (1992).
Explorations in parent-school relations. Journal of Educational Research, 85, (5), 287-294.


Response format and scale
All items in the scale use a disagree very strongly to agree very strongly response format:
        Disagree very strongly = 1, disagree = 2, disagree just a little = 3, agree just a little = 4,
        agree =5, agree very strongly = 6. Scores ranged from 6 to 36 with higher scores
        indicating higher perceptions of parent efficacy.

Instructions
Keeping this parent in mind, please think about the current school year as you consider each
statement.
                                                            Section/item number
                                                            On PIP Questionnaire
This parent helps his or her child learn.                           B1
This parent has little influence on his or her child's              B2
 motivation to do well in school. (reverse scored)
This parent feels successful about helping his                      B3
or her child learn.
This parent does know how to help his or her child                  B4
 make educational progress.
This parent helps his or her child with schoolwork at               B5
 home.
This parent makes a significant, positive educational               B6
difference in the life of his or her child.




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