Teaching Methods by KUn8X34

VIEWS: 23 PAGES: 27

									Teaching Methods

    Chapters 7 and 8
Instructors and Their Jobs
 and additional resources
         Communication Skills
   Elements of communication
    – Communicator
       Ability to select and use meaningful symbols
       Attitudes toward self, subject, and receivers
       Wealth of current, accurate, and stimulating info
    – Symbols
    – Receiver
     Communication Techniques
 Language
 Voice control
    – Pitch
    – Rate
    – Volume
    – Clarity
 Bodily actions
 Eye contact
             Questioning
 Enhance learning process
 Requires practice
 Most demand mere fact recall
 Two-way communication
     Purposes of Questioning
 Get and maintain interest
 Stimulate critical thinking
 Check for understanding and mastery
 Evaluate and summarize teaching
 Distribute opportunity for participation
 Stimulate interaction
 Determine student attitudes
 Develop subject
           Characteristics of
         Effective Questioning
 Purposeful
 Clear and concise
 Related to objectives
 Challenging – beyond knowledge level
 Limited to one idea
 Appropriate timing
 Changes students’ roles from passive to
  active
        Types of Questions
 Direct            Knowledge
 Overhead          Comprehension
 Reverse           Application
 Relay             Analysis
                    Synthesis
                    Evaluation
      Technique for Questioning
 Ask aloud to entire class
 Pause and look around (wait time)
 Call on one student
 Listen carefully and attentively
 Respond to response
    – If correct, emphasize it
    – If incorrect, call on other or ask question
                 We Learn . . .
 10%   of   what    we read
 20%   of   what    we hear
 30%   of   what    we see
 50%   of   what    we both see and hear
 70%   of   what    is discussed with others
 80%   of   what    we experience personally
 95%   of   what    we TEACH to someone else
              William Glasser
          Lecture/Presentation
Advantages                    Techniques
  – Time                       Use outline
  – Person power               Use visual aids
  – Supplement
                               Emphasize key points
Disadvantages
                               Utilize stories to
  – Limited participation
                                support
  – Not suitable for skills
                               Encourage student
  – Difficult to assess
    progress                    interaction
  – Difficult to keep          Use communication
    attention                   techniques
              Guided Discussion
Advantages                   Techniques
  –   Active participation    Preparation
  –   Effective thinking      Topic
  –   Reinforce learning
                              Objective
  –   Better solutions
                              Homework
Disadvantages
                              Lead-off questions
  –   Time
  –   Stay on track           Three parts
  –   Participation           Atmosphere
  –   Background
          Discussion Guidelines
   Consider goals
   Consider experience and development of
    students
   Study issues
   Orient students to objective
   Provide supportive environment
   Provide information when necessary
   Review, summarize, or weave opinions and facts
     Small-Group Suggestions
 Monitor activity
 Ensure background knowledge is sufficient
 Plan for relatively short discussions
 Give precise directions
                Performance
Advantages                   Techniques
  – Individual guidance       –   Simple to complex
  – Apply principles          –   Procedure sheets
  – Reinforce learning        –   Realistic
Disadvantages                 –   Questioning
  – Time consuming            –   Evaluation
  – Storage
  – Expensive equipment
Inquiry/Problem-Based Learning
 Discovery through data collection and
  hypotheses testing
 Common steps:
    – Identify and clarify problem
    – Form hypotheses
    – Collect data
    – Analyze and interpret data to test hypotheses
    – Draw conclusions
           Practice and Drills
Practice                  Drills
 Going over material      Repeating information
  just learned             Useful for learning
 Clarify and emphasize     that needs to be
 Spread out over time      retained long-term
 Conduct in context
                Reviews
 Look at topic another time
 Involves re-teaching
 Reinforces previously learned material
               Guided Practice
   Seatwork
    – Circulate
    – Have short contact with individuals
   Teacher-led practice
    – Drill
    – Question and answer sessions
   Student cooperative practice
    – Help one another during seatwork
Projects, Reports and Problems
   Activities:             Reporting:
    – Research reports       – Display
    – Case studies           – Act out
    – Problem-based          – Computer-generated
      learning                 report
                             – Panel discussions
                             – Written materials
        Cooperative Learning
 Teacher presents problem or task
 Students work among themselves
 Students help one another
 Students praise or criticize one another
 Receive group performance score
 Cooperative Learning Elements
 Positive interdependence
 Face-to-face interaction
 Individual accountability
 Interpersonal and small-group skills
 Group processing
           Informal Groups
 Short-term
 Usually take place after lectures


 Think-Pair-Share
 Round Robin
              Formal Groups
   Carefully designed

 Student Teams—Achievement Divisions
 Teams—Games—Tournament
 Team Accelerated Instruction
 Jigsaw
 Learning Together
        Panels and Debates
 Group becomes informed on topic
 Present information to class
 Interact in discussion


 Panel
 Symposium
 Task force
 Debate
               Role Playing
 Students act our situation or idea
 Teacher facilitates follow-up discussion
 Helps understanding of perspectives
 Used to clarify attitudes and concepts
 Usually done spontaneously
 Can be time consuming
 Students may not be serious
              Simulations
 Model real-life environment
 Assume roles, make decisions, face
  consequences
 Benefit from seeing others’ behavior
                 Games
 Competition to achieve learning goal
 Teach problem solving and decision
  making

								
To top