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					                   RENO SPARKS
                   BICYCLE&PEDESTRIAN
                               Plan
Sustainability
Sustainability
Study
Study
                 Northern Nevada Pedestrian
                          Safety Action Plan
                                  October 2011
                                                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.  Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 1 
    Why Create a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan (PSAP) ......................................................................................... 1 
    Background .......................................................................................................................................................... 1 
    The Action Plan .................................................................................................................................................... 5 

2.  Commitment to Safety ....................................................................................................................................... 6 
    Commitment ......................................................................................................................................................... 6 
    Goals and Policies ............................................................................................................................................... 8 
    Complete Streets ............................................................................................................................................... 12 

3.  Land Use and Site Design ............................................................................................................................... 14 

4.  Public Involvement .......................................................................................................................................... 17 
    Advisory Committees ......................................................................................................................................... 17 
    Agency Collaboration ......................................................................................................................................... 18 
    Public Involvement for Projects .......................................................................................................................... 19 

5.  Data Collection, Analysis, and Prioritization................................................................................................. 21 
    Collision Data ..................................................................................................................................................... 21 
    Pedestrian Counts.............................................................................................................................................. 22 
    Sidewalk Inventories .......................................................................................................................................... 24 
    Marked Crosswalk Inventories ........................................................................................................................... 25 
    Lighting Inventory ............................................................................................................................................... 27 
    Projects Inventory .............................................................................................................................................. 28 

6.  Analysis and Prioritization .............................................................................................................................. 30 
    Project Prioritization ........................................................................................................................................... 30 

7.  Providing Funding ........................................................................................................................................... 31 
    Complete Streets Funding ................................................................................................................................. 31 
    Dedicated Funds ................................................................................................................................................ 31 

8.  Education and Enforcement ........................................................................................................................... 33 
    Public Education and Encouragement ............................................................................................................... 33 
    Partnerships ....................................................................................................................................................... 35 
    Enforcement ....................................................................................................................................................... 36 
    Enforcement Collaboration................................................................................................................................. 38 

9.  Engineering Countermeasures ....................................................................................................................... 40 
    Design Standards............................................................................................................................................... 44 
    ADA Transition Plan ........................................................................................................................................... 45 

10.  Evaluation/Accountability ............................................................................................................................... 46 
     Evaluation of Results ......................................................................................................................................... 46 
                                                         LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Washoe County Pedestrian Collision Summary January 2005 – March 2010 ............................................ 2 

Table 2 Washoe County Pedestrian Collision Summary Time of Day (January 2005 – March 2010) ..................... 2 

Table 3 Washoe County Pedestrian Collision Summary Weather Type ................................................................... 3 

Table 4 Washoe County Pedestrian Collision Summary Vehicle Action................................................................... 3 

Table 5 Washoe County Pedestrian Collision Summary Vehicle Factor .................................................................. 4 

Table 6 Washoe County Pedestrian Collision Summary Pedestrian Factor ............................................................. 5 

Table 7 Crossing Treatment Recommendations by Roadway Type and Speed .................................................... 26 

Table 8 Engineering Countermeasures ................................................................................................................... 40 
                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

1. INTRODUCTION
This Pedestrian Safety Action Plan identifies, assesses, and develops pedestrian safety policies and practices.
Recommendations in the Plan include items that were selected and prioritized based on:

    •   High Crash Reduction Factors (CRFs)

    •   Cost Effectiveness

    •   Public Support

WHY CREATE A PEDESTRIAN SAFETY ACTION PLAN (PSAP)
A Pedestrian Safety Action Plan is being included in the Reno Sparks Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan
(RSBPP) with the following objectives:

    •   Improve Safety: Pedestrians make up 11 percent
        of the fatalities in the United States. To reduce                4Es + Planning + Data
        the number of crashes involving pedestrians
        requires      a     Plan    that    focuses    on       This Plan focuses on an integrated solution
        countermeasures that have the greatest crash            to pedestrian safety. The 4Es: Engineering,
        reduction factors.                                      education, enforcement, and encouragement
                                                                strategies        are      presented,      with
    •   Encourage Walking: Walking saves energy, is             recommendations and action items assigned
        good for the environment and promotes public            to a broad range of pedestrian safety
        health. To encourage more walking requires a            stakeholders in the region. In addition to
        Plan with strategies for investing in pedestrian        shorter term, reactive strategies, the Plan
        facilities and programs.                                also calls for a longer range, proactive
                                                                approach to pedestrian safety. This includes
    •   Create a Great Community:       The public is           a focus on planning, data collection/analysis,
        demanding safe, walkable communities. In an             design, and policy techniques that will
        increasingly mobile society, businesses are             institutionalize pedestrian safety by fostering
        choosing to locate in the best places to live.          complete       streets   implementation    and
        Creating a great walking environment is central         equitable funding practices.
        to economic development and quality of life.

BACKGROUND
For reference, the following tables provide a summary of the pedestrian collision data collected by the Nevada
Department of Transportation (NDOT) from January 2005 to March 2010.

The majority of pedestrian related collisions (77%) were injury collisions, with 17% of collisions occurring between
4:00 PM and 6:00PM, and 46% of collisions occurring between 2:00 PM and 8:00 PM. The majority of collisions
occurred due to vehicles failing to yield the right-of-way to pedestrians (28%); however, in 14% of the collisions
pedestrians were crossing improperly.




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                          Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

                                                     TABLE 1
                                    WASHOE COUNTY PEDESTRIAN COLLISION SUMMARY
                                             JANUARY 2005 – MARCH 2010

                            Property Damage Only
            Year                                             Injury Collisions          Fatal Collisions   Total Collisions
                                 Collisions
            2005                        75                          51                           5               131
            2006                        35                         125                           7               167
            2007                        7                          146                           11              164
            2008                        9                          143                           6               158
            2009                        5                          102                           5               112
            2010
                                        3                           10                           0               13
      (January – March)
            Total                  134 (18%)                    577 (77%)                    34 (5%)             745
    Source: Nevada Department of Transportation, 2011
           Fehr & Peers, 2011




                                                       TABLE 2
                                    WASHOE COUNTY PEDESTRIAN COLLISION SUMMARY
                                       TIME OF DAY (JANUARY 2005 – MARCH 2010)

                                                Time                                Collisions
                                              0:00 - 2:00                            30 (4%)
                                              2:00 - 4:00                            4 (<1%)
                                              4:00 - 6:00                            12 (2%)
                                              6:00 - 8:00                            54 (7%)
                                             8:00 - 10:00                            44 (6%)
                                             10:00 - 12:00                           60 (8%)
                                             12:00 - 14:00                           73 (10%)
                                             14:00 - 16:00                          108 (14%)
                                             16:00 - 18:00                          127 (17%)
                                             18:00 - 20:00                          107 (14%)
                                             20:00 - 22:00                           65 (9%)
                                             22:00 - 24:00                           61 (8%)
                                                Total                                  745
                                Source: Nevada Department of Transportation, 2011
                                        Fehr & Peers, 2011

.




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Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

                       TABLE 3
      WASHOE COUNTY PEDESTRIAN COLLISION SUMMARY
                    WEATHER TYPE

           Weather Type                               Collisions
                 Clear                                554 (74%)
                Cloudy                                126 (17%)
                 Rain                                   36 (5%)
                 Snow                                   14 (2%)
          Fog/Smog/Smoke                               2 (<1%)
                 Other                                 13 (2%)
                 Total                                   745
  Source: Nevada Department of Transportation, 2011
         Fehr & Peers, 2011




                       TABLE 4
      WASHOE COUNTY PEDESTRIAN COLLISION SUMMARY
                    VEHICLE ACTION

           Vehicle Action                             Collisions
            Going straight                            386 (52%)
              Turning left                            146 (20%)
             Turning right                             86 (12%)
              Backing up                                62 (8%)
        Leaving park position                           6 (1%)
               Stopped                                  5 (1%)
        Entering park position                         3 (<1%)
            Making U-turn                              3 (<1%)
        Passing other vehicle                          3 (<1%)
         Traveling wrong way                           3 (<1%)
           Changing lanes                              2 (<1%)
             Leaving lane                              2 (<1%)
                 Other                                 38 (5%)
                 Total                                   745
  Source: Nevada Department of Transportation, 2011
         Fehr & Peers, 2011




                                                                   3
    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

                                TABLE 5
               WASHOE COUNTY PEDESTRIAN COLLISION SUMMARY
                            VEHICLE FACTOR

                        Vehicle Factor               Collisions
Failed to yield right-of-way                         211 (28%)
No improper driving                                  200 (27%)
Hit and run                                           65 (9%)
Unsafe backing                                        25 (3%)
Driving too fast for conditions                       15 (2%)
Operating vehicle in erratic, reckless, careless,
                                                      12 (2%)
negligent or aggressive manner
Failure to keep in proper lane or running off road     11 (1%)
Object avoidance                                       6 (1%)
Disregarded traffic signs, signals, road markings      4 (1%)
Driverless vehicle                                     4 (1%)
Made an improper turn                                  4 (1%)
Visibility obstructed                                  4 (1%)
Wrong side or wrong way                               3 (<1%)
Followed too closely                                  2 (<1%)
Other                                                179 (24%)
                             Total                      745
Source: Nevada Department of Transportation, 2011
        Fehr & Peers, 2011




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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

                                                  TABLE 6
                                 WASHOE COUNTY PEDESTRIAN COLLISION SUMMARY
                                            PEDESTRIAN FACTOR

                                    Pedestrian Factor                                      Collisions
                Improper crossing                                                           105 (14%)
                Darting                                                                      37 (5%)
                Not visible (dark clothing)                                                  29 (4%)
                Failure to obey traffic signs, signals, or officer                           17 (2%)
                Inattentive (talking, eating, etc.)                                          15 (2%)
                Failure to yield right of way                                                13 (2%)
                Lying and/or illegally in roadway                                             8 (1%)
                Wrong side of road                                                            4 (1%)
                Other                                                                       517 (69%)
                                               Total                                           745
                Note: Data provided by the Nevada Department of Public Safety refers to the “Pedestrian Factor” as
                       “Non-Motor Factor”
                Source: Nevada Department of Transportation, 2011
                          Fehr & Peers, 2011


THE ACTION PLAN
The following chapters present current and proposed policies, practices, and design guidelines as an action plan
for improving pedestrian safety in the Reno Sparks region.

While this Plan represents a significant advancement for the region, no plan is successful unless it is carried into
implementation. The Plan therefore includes an emphasis on who, how, and when the PSAP will be put in-place.
Equally important is the Plan’s focus on measuring success over time.




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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

2. COMMITMENT TO SAFETY
COMMITMENT
Commitment to safety for all modes of transportation including pedestrians is a top priority of local transportation
agencies in the Reno Sparks region. This commitment should translate into an allocation of funds toward
programs that help reduce all crash types, including pedestrian crashes.

Existing Conditions

The Regional Transportation Commission of Washoe County’s (RTC) Mission Statement guides their commitment
to quality transportation for all users.

    To provide leadership, vision, public policy
    development, and quality transportation
    systems through a commitment to excellence
    and pursuit of goals and objectives that meet
    the community's present and future needs.

The Reno Sparks Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan
(RSBPP), which serves as the Bicycle and
Pedestrian Element of the RTC’s Regional
Transportation Plan (RTP), has the following Vision
Statement:

    To support walking and bicycling, the Region
    will have an integrated system of safe,
    convenient       and   comfortable     bicycle,
    pedestrian and other non-motorized facilities
    that provide access to schools, jobs, shopping,
    neighborhoods, community facilities, parks and
    regional trails.

Additionally, NDOT, City of Reno, City of Sparks, Washoe County, Washoe County School District, Nevada
Highway Patrol, and other state and local agencies provide a commitment to safety for all modes of transportation
through legislation and law enforcement.




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                   Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


        Recommendation                          Implemented By                     Measured By


2.1 Commit to funding levels for      •   RTC                           •   Percentage of CIP project that
    pedestrian projects that are                                            are pedestrian projects or
    proportional to or exceed the     •   NDOT                              include pedestrian components
    pedestrian share of collisions.                                         meets or exceeds the
                                      •   City of Reno                      pedestrian mode share

                                      •   City of Sparks                •   Funding is dedicated for
                                                                            improvements at high collision
                                      •   Washoe County                     locations


2.2 Achieve concurrency between       •   RTC as the lead, with         •   Pedestrian safety funding is
    state and local agencies with         coordination with other           achieved through “one stop
    coordinated funding requests.         agencies                          shopping”

                                      •   NDOT as the lead on federal   •   RTC acts as a technical
                                          funding                           resource with focus on
                                                                            coordination


2.3 Sustain engagement from a         •   RTC                           Task force, consisting of the RTC,
    regional task force.                                                City of Reno, City of Sparks,
                                                                        Washoe County, NDOT, Washoe
                                                                        County School District Safe Routes
                                                                        to School (SR2S), REMSA, and the
                                                                        Health Department, meets at least
                                                                        quarterly and has clear action items
                                                                        which it meets consistently


2.4 Include analysis of pedestrian    •   RTC                           All transportation studies and
    safety in scope of work for all                                     construction projects include an
    studies.                                                            analysis of pedestrian conditions
                                                                        and safety


2.5 Aesthetic enhancements to         •   City of Reno                  Percentage of CIP projects that are
    the pedestrian realm are                                            aesthetic enhancements is at least
    funded through a dedicated        •   City of Sparks                two percent
    set aside.
                                      •   Washoe County

                                      •   Urban Forestry Department




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                          Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

GOALS AND POLICIES
Clear goals are needed for a Pedestrian Safety Action
Plan to be successful in reducing pedestrian crashes and
increasing the number of pedestrian trips. They allow for
the development of practical and achievable strategies;
they also provide a way to measure progress over time.

This Plan also includes specific and measurable
objectives designed to reduce the risk factors that lead to
crashes, as well as to encourage walking.              The
objectives provide the rationale for allocating resources
to implement necessary countermeasures.

Existing Conditions

The RTC’s RSBPP provides goals and policies related to
pedestrian planning and safety (Chapter 3). The pedestrian related goals and policies are:

Goal 1: Support walking and bicycling and the development of a comprehensive bicycle and pedestrian
        transportation network that connects to other transportation modes, meets the needs of all
        users, and creates a viable alternative to the automobile in order to increase the number of
                                                          1
        people bicycling and walking to work to 10 percent by 2040.

Policies:

1.1          Report bicycle and pedestrian commute mode split using US Census Bureau American Community
             Survey 3-year Estimates annually.2

1.2          Increase pedestrian facility miles by at least 5 miles per year.

1.4          Update the Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan every five years along with project priorities and cost
             estimates.

1.6          Conduct bicycle and pedestrian counts and surveys whenever vehicle counts are conducted as part of
             public agency projects to gauge the effectiveness of improvements and programs.

1.7          Collaborate with other jurisdictions within the Region to create inter-jurisdictional facilities by utilizing
             regional bicycle/pedestrian design guidelines.

1.10         Provide sidewalks on both sides of regional roadways where feasible.




 1
     Based on 2009 US Census data, the current percentage of people bicycling and walking to work is 3.4 percent.
 2
     The US Census Bureau’s American Community Survey collects population and housing information every year for a cross-section of the
          population. The American Community Survey data is provided annually as a single year estimate, 3-year estimate, or 5-year
          estimate. For example the current 3-year estimate includes survey data collected in 2009, 2008, and 2007. The information is
          provided at www.factfinder.census.gov at the American Community Survey link. Bicycle and pedestrian commute mode split should
          be reported for the designated Reno-Sparks, NV Metro Area and can be found using American Community Survey Table
          B08301.Means of Transportation to Work.


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                       Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

1.11        Insure mobility for the transportation disadvantaged by providing accessible, universal design and
            ensuring that all transportation investments are socially equitable and take into account the needs of all
            users.

Goal   2: Maintain the aesthetic appeal, cleanliness, and
        functionality of the existing infrastructure with regular
        ongoing maintenance, as well as major rehabilitation
        efforts.

Policies:

2.1         Include bicycle and pedestrian upgrades in maintenance
            projects where appropriate.

2.3         Encourage partner agencies to remove snow from sidewalks
            within ¼ mile of a transit stop within 24-hours of a major
            snow event (6 inches of snow or more).

2.5         Maintain crosswalk       markings     on   regional   roadways
            biannually.

2.6         Remove sidewalk barriers         as    appropriate    with   major
            rehabilitation efforts.

Goal 3: Develop and implement an education and enforcement program that will reduce the number of
         bicycle and pedestrian collisions each year with the ultimate goal of zero collisions.

Policies:

3.1     Implement goals, policies, and programs outlined in the Strategic Highway Safety Plan.

3.2     Monitor and record bicycle and pedestrian related collisions. Conduct counts at crash locations and
        identify safety countermeasures. Recommend and implement safety improvements on an annual basis.

Goal 4: Maximize the amount of State and Federal funding for bicycle and pedestrian transportation
        improvements for which Reno, Sparks, and Washoe County are eligible by identifying and
        aggressively pursuing grants each year, and by including bicycle and pedestrian improvements
        in all transportation projects.

Policies:

4.1         Identify State and Federal funding programs along with specific funding requirements.         Review the
            programs, requirements, and deadlines on an annual basis.

4.2         Prepare joint funding applications where appropriate to maximize funding opportunities.

Goal 5: Develop a well connected bicycle and pedestrian network that integrates with public
       transportation.

Policies:

5.1         Prioritize complete, ADA compliant sidewalks on streets within ¼ mile of transit stops.


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                      Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Goal 6: Encourage project sponsors to consider the needs of bicyclists and pedestrians when designing,
        reviewing, and approving all development and transportation projects and accommodate those
        needs, whenever possible.

Policies:

6.1         Require traffic impact studies to include a discussion of existing bicycle and pedestrian facilities, bicycle
            and pedestrian counts, potential impacts to the system, and facilities needed to serve the proposed
            project. The discussion should include information about the project’s proximity to transit and
            demonstrate an appropriate pedestrian facility connecting the land use to the transit stop.

Appendix A of the RSBPP provides the goals, policies, and objectives related to bicycle and pedestrian planning
from the following sources:

      •   Nevada Strategic Highway Safety Plan (Nevada Department of Transportation)

      •   Washoe County Master Plan

      •   City of Reno Master Plan

      •   City of Sparks Master Plan

      •   Truckee Meadows Regional Plan




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                  Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


        Recommendation                          Implemented By                       Measured By


2.6 Eliminate pedestrian collisions   •   NDOT                            Annual collision analysis report
    and fatalities in the region by                                       summarizes trends and identifies
    2030 (consistent with the                                             hot spots
    Strategic Highway Safety
    Plan).


2.7 Include pedestrian safety as      •   RTC                             Projects are implemented based on
    part of a regionally                                                  a regional prioritization scheme
    coordinated congestion
    management plan.


2.8 Double the walk mode share        •   Task Force                      •   Baseline and midpoint surveys
    for commute trips under ½                                                 suggest progress is being made
    mile in the region by 2020.       •   BPAC                                toward this goal

                                      •   Washoe County School District   •   Suggested action items:

                                      •   SR2S                                   o   Near-term: Analyze
                                                                                     American Community
                                                                                     Survey or other Census
                                                                                     data.

                                                                                 o   Long-term: Conduct
                                                                                     baseline and routine
                                                                                     counts thereafter to
                                                                                     measure activity levels.

                                                                                 o   Analyze data from in-
                                                                                     school Safe Routes to
                                                                                     School surveys.

                                                                                 o   Consider co-sponsoring
                                                                                     surveys with the Air
                                                                                     Quality Management
                                                                                     District.




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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

COMPLETE STREETS
Complete Streets (also called routine accommodation) is the most cost-effective funding strategy for reducing
pedestrian crashes and encouraging more walking by including pedestrian improvements in all projects,
programs, and maintenance activities. The majority of pedestrian infrastructure (including accessibility
improvements) is built in conjunction with other projects. This approach allows for significant improvements over
time, even no special funding is available for pedestrian safety improvements.

Complete Streets is an essential “umbrella policy” for the action items that follow in subsequent chapters.

Existing Conditions

The City of Reno and City of Sparks are working toward creating a complete streets ordinance for their
jurisdictions. Washoe County is currently modifying their development code to incorporate the complete streets
concept as an important component.




                   Before




                    After




                                                                                                              12
                   Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


        Recommendation                         Implemented By              Measured By


2.9 Establish a “Complete            •   RTC                    Every transportation project funded
    Streets” requirement and                                    in the region includes a complete
    develop a complete streets       •   Task Force             streets component or has a
    checklist for project funding                               documented exception for this
    eligibility.


2.10 Create a layered network        •   RTC                    All collector and arterial roads in the
     typology to identify primary                               region are designated as primary
     pedestrian, bicycle, transit,   •   Task Force             pedestrian, primary bicycle, primary
     and auto routes. Prioritize                                transit, or primary vehicle routes
     operations for the primary
     mode while maintaining safety
     and access for all modes.


2.11 Develop a regional policy for   •   RTC                    •   Multi-lanes roads with daily
     road conversions (also known                                   traffic volumes less than 20,000
     as “road diets”).               •   Task Force                 are routinely evaluated for road
                                                                    diet feasibility

                                                                •   At least two road diets are
                                                                    implemented per year


2.12 Require sidewalks for all new   •   RTC                    All new urban roads include
     roads in urban areas.                                      sidewalks
                                     •   Task Force


2.13 Develop a regional policy for   •   RTC                    Roundabouts are routinely installed
     roundabouts.                                               in lieu of or as replacements for
                                     •   Task Force             traffic signals




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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

3. LAND USE AND SITE DESIGN
Land use development patterns can impact pedestrian safety. Pedestrian crash severity is typically higher in
suburban, auto-oriented locations where vehicle speeds are higher and drivers are not conditioned to look for
pedestrians. Pedestrian crashes are usually less severe in well established, traditional urban areas where drivers
expect pedestrians on adjacent sidewalks and in crosswalks. Land use and site design techniques that
encourage walking, help manage vehicle speed, and therefore effectively reduce crash rates include:

    1. Buildings that define roadways – Buildings located at the back of the sidewalk give drivers a sense of
       enclosure, effectively reducing vehicle speeds and increasing driver awareness. Buildings set back with
       large parking lots in front give the impression of wide, high-speed roadways.
    2. Mixed-use development – Buildings with retail on the bottom and housing on the top encourage
       pedestrian activity.
    3. Roadway connectivity – A well connected roadway network encourages walking by reducing travel
       distances between destinations. Cul-de-sacs without connector paths create a disconnected network that
       typically reduces pedestrian activity.
    4. Parking – Off-street parking between the sidewalk and building front does not create an ideal pedestrian
       environment; on-street parking is an effective way to slow vehicle traffic and encourage pedestrian-
       oriented development.
    5. Access management principles – Parking lots should be designed according to access management
       standards: single parking lots serving multiple businesses are preferred over individual parking lots for
       each building. Driveways should be limited in number and width.
    6. Schools – Schools should be located among neighborhoods with well designed pedestrian access, and
       allow for shared facilities with parks and community centers.




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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Existing Conditions

The RTP provides six overarching goals related to transportation planning throughout Washoe County, including
Goal 3 which states:

    Develop a balanced land-use and transportation system that minimizes the need for automobile travel and
    maximizes the opportunity for transportation alternatives such as public transportation and non-motorized
    travel modes.

The RTC also provides recommendations for school locations, access management, connectivity, and trip
reduction for businesses with 100 or more employees. The City of Reno, City of Sparks, and Washoe County are
working to identify development standards for regional centers, transit oriented development (TOD) corridors, and
secondary roads. Local jurisdictions have mixed use development codes. The City of Reno, City of Sparks, and
Washoe County have standards related to shared-use and minimized parking to help facilitate use of alternate
modes in TOD corridors and urban areas. In addition, the region’s development code requires new projects install
transit stops and enhanced amenities adjacent to the project site.

The RTC recently changed their level of service policy in pedestrian oriented areas to allow more vehicle
congestion. This is a positive practice as vehicle level or service requirements (for minimum vehicle delay) often
lead to street designs that less than ideal for pedestrians (wide crossings and high speeds).

Proposed Recommendations


         Recommendation                         Implemented By                          Measured By


 3.1 Update Transportation Impact     •   City of Reno                       All TIAs address the potential
     Analysis (TIA) guidelines to                                            pedestrian impacts associated with
     include pedestrian impact        •   City of Sparks                     proposed development
     analysis.
                                      •   Washoe County


 3.2 Develop a Development            •   City of Reno                       •   All new developments are
     Review Checklist and Best                                                   reviewed with the checklist
     Practice Toolbox for             •   City of Sparks
     pedestrian-oriented land uses.                                          •   The Best Practice Toolbox is
                                      •   Washoe County                          available online and via
                                                                                 brochure to developers


 3.3 Update Comprehensive Plan        •   City of Sparks                     All new transportation projects
     and implement the Sparks                                                comply with the revised Design
     and Reno TOD Plans as well       •   City of Reno                       Standard Manual
     as the revised Design
     Standard Manual.




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                  Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

       Recommendation                         Implemented By              Measured By


3.4 Further revise RTC’s Level of   •   RTC                    •   Additional pedestrian-oriented
    Service (LOS) policy with the                                  areas have relaxed or removed
    next RTP.                                                      LOS standards

                                                               •   Multi-modal LOS is considered
                                                                   for complete streets projects

                                                               •   LOS is no longer seen as a
                                                                   major barrier to improving
                                                                   pedestrian safety


3.5 Develop a sidewalk zone         •   RTC                    •   Minimal complaints received
    system to illustrate where                                     regarding landscaping intruding
    landscaping can be located      •   City of Reno               onto sidewalks
    and where clear zones must
    be maintained. Codify           •   City of Sparks         •   Landscape buffers routinely
    landscape maintenance                                          provided on arterials and higher
    requirements.                   •   Washoe County              speed/volume collectors


3.6 Enhance requirements for        •   RTC                    All new development includes
    sidewalk installation and                                  sidewalks and transit improvements
    transit improvements with       •   Task Force             (where applicable)
    development.



3.7 Require pedestrian              •   City of Reno           All new cul-de-sacs have
    connections with all new cu-                               pedestrian “cut throughs” provided
    de-sacs.                        •   City of Sparks

                                    •   Washoe County


3.8 Consider implementing form-     •   City of Reno           At least one community has
    based development codes to                                 implemented a form-based code in
    encourage pedestrian use via    •   City of Sparks         the region
    building form guidance rather
    than development codes
    governing land use type
    alone.




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                   Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

4. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT
Public involvement is an excellent way to build public support for programs and policies to reduce pedestrian
crashes. To be effective, stakeholders must feel listened to and heard.

ADVISORY COMMITTEES
Advisory committees are an effective source of input from stakeholders and members of the public. Advisory
committees often provide input on policy issues and community concerns.

Existing Conditions

The RTC’s Citizens Advisory Committee (CAC) and Public Transportation Advisory Committee (PTAC) merged
into one group in November 2010. The committee provides input to the RTC on policy issues relative to public
transportation, the regional street and highway system, and multimodal transportation planning. Meetings are
open to the public.

The RTC’s Bicycle/Pedestrian Advisory Committee (BPAC) meets monthly and provides input on bicycle and
pedestrian issues in Washoe County. BPAC meetings provide an opportunity for members of the public to
expand their knowledge and discuss issues related to bicycle and pedestrian planning and safety. The group’s
main focus tends to encompass bicycling issues more than walking issues. The committee is making a conscious
effort to balance the focus of the group to both bicyclists and pedestrians.

The City of Reno has eight Neighborhood Advisory Boards (NABs) that meet on a monthly basis. The meetings
provide an arena for residents and businesses to voice their concerns related to issues such as new development
projects, police protection, code enforcement, neighborhood planning, and other neighborhood concerns. The
NABs advise the City Council on policy that affects neighborhoods throughout the community.

Washoe County has 14 Citizen Advisory Boards (CAB) that meet regularly to communicate the ideas and
concerns of local citizens to the County Commissioners.




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                   Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


         Recommendation                         Implemented By                         Measured By


 4.1 Include a policy on advisory     •   RTC                               •   Advisory committees, such as
     committee membership and                                                   CAC, BPAC, and PTAC,
     purview in the RTP update.                                                 focused on pedestrian issues
                                                                                include pedestrian advocates,
                                                                                as well as seniors and
                                                                                representatives from the
                                                                                disabled community

                                                                            •   The BPAC has a standing
                                                                                agenda item for pedestrian
                                                                                issues to ensure it is not
                                                                                bicycle-dominated

                                                                            •   A new committee focusing on
                                                                                complete streets is formed or
                                                                                an existing committee is
                                                                                assigned this focus area


 4.2 Engage advisory committees       •   RTC                               Advisory committee members
     in proactive tasks.                                                    contribute to pedestrian planning or
                                                                            data collection efforts, becoming
                                                                            partners with local agencies


AGENCY COLLABORATION
Other governmental agencies are also stakeholders. Building positive, working relationships is essential for
coordination on regional planning issues; it also provides a way to coordinate on solving specific problems such
as identifying high crash locations where additional enforcement may be needed, and coordinating transit stops
with crossing locations.

Existing Conditions

Agency collaboration is already occurring frequently in the region. The following agencies collaborate on
pedestrian issues within the region:

   •   RTC                                                     •   Washoe County
   •   NDOT                                                    •   Office of Traffic Safety
   •   City of Reno                                            •   Washoe County School District
   •   City of Sparks                                          •   Public health advocates and educators




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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


         Recommendation                            Implemented By                      Measured By


 4.3 Develop a user-friendly             •   NDOT                           Collision data is reviewed on a
     database for accessing                                                 regular basis because of the ease
     collision data region-wide.                                            of access
     Expand information available
     on Web CARE’s online
     database to improve
     communication between
     agencies regarding collision
     statistics, counts, etc.


 4.4 Organize a region-wide GIS          •   RTC                            All regional GIS data is located in a
     user group and consolidate                                             single GIS library and is available to
     data.                               •   NDOT                           all jurisdictions


PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT FOR PROJECTS
Special interest groups are important stakeholders in the
region. These include business, advocacy, and neighborhood
groups as well as more broadly representative community
leaders. Building positive, working relationships is essential
for building support for solving pedestrian safety issues at the
neighborhood level.

Existing Conditions

Individual stakeholder involvement is an excellent way to get
a better product. Public stakeholders should be viewed as
partners who are the on-the-ground scouts to identify
problems, needs, and opportunities. To be effective,
stakeholders must be involved in a regular, ongoing, and
systematic way. Additionally, they must be listened to and
responded to when they provide input or raise questions.

Existing individual outreach includes:

    •   The RTC and NDOT hold public meetings for all major planning projects to give members of the public an
        opportunity to provide feedback.

    •   The City of Reno and City of Sparks provide policies for traffic calming that allow residents to submit a
        petition for traffic calming (e.g., speed humps) in their neighborhood.




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                  Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

   •   Washoe County School District Safe Routes to School committees provide an opportunity for concerned
       parents, teachers, public works officials, law enforcement officers, health officers, and other interested
       stakeholders to be involved with planning safe walking and bicycling routes for children to get to school.

   •   The Washoe County Housing Authority works with seniors on using transit and gaining access to
       affordable housing.

   •   The RTC Smart Trips program provides a trip matching service for people looking for a Bike Buddy or
       Walking Buddy. The program is intended to encourage bicycling and walking, and increase safety for
       bicyclists and pedestrians. The program allows users to select their preferred mode of transportation by
       trip type. For example, a person may be interested in a bike buddy for trips to work, and a walking buddy
       for a trip to the movies.

Proposed Recommendations


        Recommendation                         Implemented By                          Measured By


4.5 Improve attendance and           •   RTC                                •   For project-related outreach,
    engagement at public                                                        outreach is built into existing
    meetings.                        •   BPAC                                   citizen advisory board
                                                                                meetings, rather than
                                                                                scheduled as special meetings

                                                                            •   Meetings occur where the
                                                                                stakeholders are (i.e., at malls
                                                                                and markets)


4.6 Enhance creativity with public   •   RTC                                •   Effective public outreach tools,
    outreach strategies to gather                                               such as online surveys,
    input and engage                 •   BPAC                                   websites, and social media, are
    stakeholders; think beyond                                                  routinely employed for public
    the meeting.                                                                outreach

                                                                            •   Seniors, minority groups, the
                                                                                disabled, and the business
                                                                                community, in particular, are
                                                                                more engaged


4.7 Expand Smart Trips program.      •   RTC                                Individualized trip planning is a
                                                                            routine practice in public outreach
                                     •   BPAC                               efforts




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                     Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

5. DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS, AND PRIORITIZATION
COLLISION DATA
Identifying where crashes occur is an inexpensive easy way to identify high crash locations, corridors, and
neighborhoods. Recent collision data can be used as a baseline to focus resources and select countermeasures.

Computerized, timely, geo-coded pedestrian crash data are extremely useful to determine whether pedestrian
crashes are occurring at a) spot locations, b) along corridors, c) in a neighborhood area, d) throughout an entire
jurisdiction, or e) among certain populations (e.g., children, older adults). Once categorized, this information can
be used to select countermeasures, focus resources, and set priorities for engineering, education, and
enforcement programs. The data can also be used in crash typing. Crash typing categorizes all crashes based
on situational and behavioral circumstances and is a way to target countermeasures in engineering, education,
and enforcement programs at very specific types of crashes.

Existing Conditions

NDOT collects collision data for all modes of transportation that includes mode types, location, time, weather,
severity, crash type/reason, and lighting condition. The data can be requested in map form or spreadsheet form.

NDOT provides a Web CARE program, which allows NDOT staff and outside safety agencies to analyze collision
data using user-friendly maps, tables, and charts. This data can be linked to GPS units in police vehicles for the
collision location. If the police officer completed the report off-site, however, the GPS location in the report will be
incorrect. Data from all local agencies is not available in the database because not all agencies have the
equipment needed for the upload. NDOT is upgrading the database to downloadable GIS files at this time. RTC
has some of this data in GIS already.

The County Sherriff Data-Driven Approaches to Crime and Traffic Safety (DDACTS) system is considered the
leader in correlating collisions to crimes. This system coordinates location-based crime data and traffic crash
data because research shows that crime and collisions often occur in close proximity. The goal of the system is to
reduce crime, collisions, and traffic violations.

Collision under-reporting is a significant issue in Washoe County, especially for pedestrian-involved collisions.
One opportunity for enhancing the data would be to reconcile police reports with Regional Emergency Medical
Services Authority (REMSA) reports. REMSA reports all collision incidents in which an ambulance is involved;
however, their data is not kept in a format that is easy to disperse to the public. Mapping the data would be time
intensive.




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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


         Recommendation                          Implemented By                           Measured By


 5.1 Quantify collision under-         •   NDOT                               •    An estimate for undercounting
     reporting rates.                                                              is prepared and routinely used
                                       •   UNR                                     in collision data analysis.

                                       •   Department of Public Health        •    Suggested action item: Police
                                                                                   records are compared to
                                                                                   hospital records for a sample
                                                                                   date range to assess under-
                                                                                   reporting rates. These rates
                                                                                   are then available for
                                                                                   application to future data
                                                                                   analysis.


 5.2 Collaborate with enforcement      •   NDOT                               •    Collision forms provide desired/
     community and local agencies                                                  missing pedestrian data. See
     to improve data collection and    •   RTC                                     4.3
     assembly. See
     Recommendation 4.3.               •   City of Reno                       •    All jurisdictions and key
                                                                                   stakeholders (such as school
                                       •   City of Sparks                          districts) are aware of the online
                                                                                   database and use it regularly
                                       •   Washoe County


PEDESTRIAN COUNTS
Pedestrian counts along with field observations (e.g., driver yielding, conflicts, and pedestrian assertiveness) can
be very useful in understanding pedestrian behavior and in considering the need for facilities. Counts and
behavior studies, when combined with crash data, can also provide insights into specific crash causes and
potential countermeasures. On-site observations will often reveal behavior patterns that lead to recommended
design changes. Before and after counts can be used to gauge success, which in turn can be used to help secure
funding. Pedestrian counts are also important to assess when and where signals, stop signs, and marked
crosswalks should be installed.

Existing Conditions

The RTC does not maintain a countywide database of pedestrian count data at intersections. The local
jurisdictions have data for specific locations if they were analyzed as part a project. As part of the SmartTrips
program people can self report their commute patterns and modes of transportation, including walking trips;
however, since the program is voluntary the data is limited and not representative of a countywide group.

Other groups periodically collect pedestrian count data, such as the Safe Routes to School program. NDOT
routinely collects pedestrian count data at high collision locations. The RTC transit providers report the number of


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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

passengers boarding and alighting at each stop on an annual basis. Counts and projections are also done for
new transit projects.

The City of Reno conducts before and after counts with projects on occasion.

A consolidated, geo-coded database of these counts throughout the region is not currently available.

Proposed Recommendations


         Recommendation                         Implemented By                            Measured By


 5.3 Require pedestrian count data    •   RTC                                  •   All manual counts collected for
     to be collected with all                                                      Traffic Impact Studies include
     transportation impact            •   City of Reno                             pedestrian and bicycle counts
     analyses.
                                      •   City of Sparks                       •   Pedestrian trip generation and
                                                                                   impact analysis is routine as a
                                      •   Washoe County                            result of robust count data


 5.4 Conduct automated and            •   RTC                                  •   Automated pedestrian counting
     manual pedestrian counts                                                      machines have been
     throughout the county on a       •   City of Reno                             purchased.
     routine basis.
                                      •   City of Sparks                       •   Following guidelines from the
                                                                                   National Pedestrian and Bicycle
                                      •   Washoe County                            Documentation Project
                                                                                   (http://bikepeddocumentation.or
                                                                                   g/), automated and manual
                                                                                   pedestrian counts are
                                                                                   conducted annually




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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

         Recommendation                           Implemented By                           Measured By


 5.5 Consolidate current count         •    RTC                                •   All existing count data in all
     data into a usable and                                                        County jurisdictions is
     mapable database for the          •    City of Reno                           geocoded and accessible in
     County                                                                        one database
                                       •    City of Sparks
                                                                               •   All new count data is routinely
                                       •    Washoe County                          entered into the database and
                                                                                   geocoded

                                                                               •   The count data is frequently
                                                                                   accessed by jurisdictions
                                                                                   throughout the county for
                                                                                   project use


 5.6 Develop a pedestrian              •    RTC                                •   The pedestrian count database
     exposure model. This model                                                    is used to create a pedestrian
     predicts pedestrian volumes       •    City of Reno                           exposure model that can predict
     based on contextual                                                           pedestrian volume levels
     information (such as traffic      •    City of Sparks                         throughout the region
     volume, population density,
     and distance to transit). The     •    Washoe County                      •   Exposure numbers enable the
     model is developed using                                                      calculation of collision rates
     regression techniques based                                                   (collisions/exposure) throughout
     on data collection.                                                           the region.

                                                                               •   High priority location lists reflect
                                                                                   collision rates.


SIDEWALK INVENTORIES
Sidewalk inventories help identify system gaps and unsafe conditions. Sidewalk inventories can simply identify
where sidewalks do or do not exist. More extensive sidewalk inventories assess the condition of existing
sidewalks. When combined with crash data, pedestrian counts, behavior studies, and traffic characteristics, they
can be very useful in prioritizing locations for improving existing sidewalks, filling in short gaps between existing
sidewalks, and installing new sidewalks.

Completing comprehensive sidewalk inventories can be expensive. When resources are scare, an alternative
approach is to inventory smaller areas focused around schools, neighborhood commercial areas, neighborhood
centers, and facilities that serve people with special needs.

Existing Conditions

An extensive inventory of existing sidewalk conditions was collected as part of the RSBPP and the Reno Sparks
ADA Transition Plan. Presence of sidewalk was collected on all regional roads. Sidewalk surface condition, curb


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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

ramp, driveway, and travelway obstruction data was collected using GPS units that geo-coded the information for
easy mapping and analysis purposes for the ADA Transition Plan.

Walking audits were also conducted at four locations as part of the RSBPP project. A group of agency staff and
members of the public identified issues and constraints along the pedestrian travelway. Maps showing the issues
and recommended improvements are provided as part of the RSBPP in Appendix J. Many of these issues
include sidewalk deficiencies.

The Public Health Department at the University of Nevada, Reno routinely conducts walking surveys to identify
areas of needed improvement in pedestrian network.

Proposed Recommendations


         Recommendation                          Implemented By                          Measured By


 5.7 Keep sidewalk inventory up-       •   RTC                                All new sidewalk installations and
     to-date.                                                                 sidewalk repair projects are
                                       •   City of Reno                       reflected in the sidewalk inventory,
                                                                              as developed for the RSBPP and
                                       •   City of Sparks                     ADA Transition Plan

                                       •   Washoe County

                                       •   NDOT


 5.8 Sidewalk projects are             •   RTC                                Based on the sidewalk inventory,
     prioritized and funded.                                                  priority sidewalk repairs and
                                       •   City of Reno                       installations have occurred

                                       •   City of Sparks

                                       •   Washoe County

                                       •   NDOT


MARKED CROSSWALK INVENTORIES
Marked crosswalk inventories at controlled, uncontrolled, and midblock locations are needed to establish annual
re-marking programs and to work with local transit agencies (safe crossings should be provided at all transit
stops). When combined with crash data, pedestrian counts, behavior studies, and traffic characteristics, the
inventories can be very useful in prioritizing locations for evaluating crosswalks and then identifying measures to
upgrade and improve the crosswalks. Maintaining an up-to-date inventory of marked crosswalks is particularly
important since the majority of pedestrian crashes involve crossing the roadway. ADT (Average Daily Traffic),
road widths (number of lanes) and speeds are three of the most important factors to consider when evaluating
crosswalks. When combined with actual crash data and pedestrian counts, this information can be very useful in
prioritizing locations for making crossing improvements and determining where to install new marked crosswalks.



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                             Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Table 7 displays recommended crossing treatments for various combinations of speed limits, ADT, and number of
lanes.


                                                   TABLE 7
                         CROSSING TREATMENT RECOMMENDATIONS BY ROADWAY TYPE AND SPEED

                             Vehicle ADT                   Vehicle ADT                    Vehicle ADT                      Vehicle ADT
                               ≤ 5,000                   > 5,000 to 12,000             > 12,000 to 20,000                    > 20,000
 Number of
   Vehicle                                                                Speed Limit1
Travel Lanes
                      ≤ 30       35         40       ≤ 30        35        40        ≤ 30       35         40       ≤ 30       35         40
                      mph       mph        mph       mph        mph       mph        mph       mph        mph       mph       mph        mph
   2 lanes              1         1          2         1          1         2          1         1         3          1           2       3
   3 lanes              1         1          2         1          2         2          2         2         3          2           3       3
  4 or more
                        1         2          2         2          2         3          2         2         3          3           3       3
    lanes
  4 or more
 lanes (with
                        1         2          3         2          2         3          3         3         3          3           3       3
    raised
   median)
          1
 Notes:       Unsignalized locations with a speed limit greater than 40 mph should include more than a striped crosswalk alone.
 Crossing Types:
        1 = Crossings should include a minimum of High Visibility Crosswalk Striping, and consider additional treatments such as a
        Pedestrian Refuge Island and/or Advanced Yield Lines.
        2 = Crossings should include an enhanced treatment such as a Raised Crosswalk, In-Street Pedestrian Crossing Signs, Overhead
        Flashing Beacons, or Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacon.
        3 = Controlled crossing treatments such as a HAWK Signal, Pedestrian Signal, or Two-Stage Crossing should be considered. A
        signal warrant analysis should be performed prior to installation of a traffic signal.


Existing Conditions

Crosswalk data throughout Washoe County is limited. Curb ramp
and roadway crossing locations were collected for the ADA
Transition Plan. Details on whether the crosswalk is marked or
unmarked were reported.

The City of Sparks has mapped all marked crosswalk locations.

NDOT has an inventory of speed, lanes, etc. for all regional roads
(defined by an average daily traffic (ADT) greater than 5,000).




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                   Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


         Recommendation                         Implemented By                         Measured By


 5.9 Develop a marked crosswalk       •   RTC                               •   The database from the ADA
     inventory for the region.                                                  Transition Plan is expanded to
                                      •   City of Reno                          include crosswalk condition and
                                                                                style information as well as
                                      •   City of Sparks                        context information

                                      •   Washoe County                     •   Suggested action item: The
                                                                                additional data is compiled
                                      •   NDOT                                  using GIS analysis and/or
                                                                                additional field work. The
                                                                                project is completed in
                                                                                collaboration with universities.


 5.10 Develop a crosswalk action      •   RTC                               Based on the crosswalk inventory,
      plan.                                                                 an implementation plan for 5, 10, 15
                                      •   City of Reno                      years is developed, with criteria for
                                                                            prioritization thoughtful and
                                      •   City of Sparks                    documented

                                      •   Washoe County

                                      •   NDOT


LIGHTING INVENTORY
Providing appropriate lighting at pedestrian crossing locations is one of the most important factors to consider
when evaluating and improving crosswalks. When combined with actual crash data and pedestrian counts,
information about lighting can be very useful in prioritizing locations for making lighting improvements.




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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Existing Conditions

NV Energy maintains an inventory of all street lighting to which they supply power. The City of Reno keeps an
inventory of their downtown lighting, and the City of Sparks keeps information about lighting at roadway crossings.
The City of Sparks has also evaluated LED lighting and other technologies for cost savings. Street lighting is
generally installed on a reactive basis, when a request or complaint is submitted for lighting in specific location.
New roadway crossing locations are typically supplied with adequate street lighting. NDOT routinely analyzes
lighting conditions at high crash locations.

Proposed Recommendations


         Recommendation                           Implemented By                          Measured By


 5.11 Create a regional lighting         •   City of Reno                     •    The lighting inventory includes
      inventory.                                                                   data from all local jurisdictions
                                         •   City of Sparks                        and is used for project
                                                                                   prioritization
                                         •   Washoe County
                                                                              •    Prioritization includes schools,
                                                                                   community centers, and other
                                                                                   locations with frequent early
                                                                                   morning or nighttime activities


 5.12 Balance lighting needs with        •   City of Reno                     •    Public outreach results in a
      residents’ desire for dark skies                                             consensus on appropriate
      at night.                          •   City of Sparks                        pedestrian-scale lighting in
                                                                                   residential areas
                                         •   Washoe County
                                                                              •    Lighting has been installed in
                                                                                   priority locations


PROJECTS INVENTORY
Existing projects and programs should be listed and described in one place to allow for overall agency
coordination and to avoid duplication. Examples include programs to repair sidewalks, install new sidewalks,
install new curb ramps, install countdown signals, upgrade crosswalks, implement safe routes to school
programs, and implement enforcement and education programs.

Existing Conditions

Numerous pedestrian safety projects are underway in the region. Two efforts that are ongoing include:

High Crash Location Review – NDOT reviews high crash locations on an annual basis and performs safety audits
as appropriate.

Pedestrian Countdown Signal Installation – NDOT and the City of Reno are replacing pedestrian signal heads
with pedestrian countdown signal heads throughout the City.

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                  Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


       Recommendation                          Implemented By              Measured By


5.13 Hold quarterly PSAP working     •   RTC                    •   The PSAP stakeholder group
     group meetings to update                                       continues to meet quarterly to
     project/program list.                                          discuss ongoing and upcoming
                                                                    projects

                                                                •   The meetings also address
                                                                    action plan implementation,
                                                                    evaluation, and grant writing


5.14 Include the Pedestrian Safety   •   NDOT                   Information sharing occurs as a
     Action Plan as part of the                                 result of this presentation
     Strategic Highway Safety Plan
     conference to highlight best
     practices (statewide).




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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

6. ANALYSIS AND PRIORITIZATION
PROJECT PRIORITIZATION
Pedestrian crash data along with other data should always be considered when prioritizing projects and
programs. This helps ensure that all projects and programs make pedestrian improvements where appropriate.
Since most pedestrian infrastructure is built in conjunction with other projects, inclusion of pedestrian crash data
when prioritizing projects is of particular importance.

Prioritizing pedestrian safety improvements is the final step once all appropriate data has been collected.
Priorities should be established based on a variety of factors including safety consequences, cost, travel demand,
availability of right-of-way, federal and / or state mandates, and public support. Countermeasures can be phased
and divided into temporary or permanent improvements.

Existing Conditions

Data collected as part of the RSBPP and ADA Transition Plan provide an extensive inventory of pedestrian
travelway conditions throughout Reno and Sparks. A list of existing deficiencies is provided in the RSBPP and
will be used to prioritize improvement projects. Currently NDOT and the RTC prioritize improvement projects on a
reactive basis by identifying high crash locations. RTC is developing criteria for prioritizing pedestrian
improvements at high collision locations.

Proposed Recommendations

The prioritization process that will be included in RSBPP represents a significant advancement from existing
conditions. The below recommendation is a longer-term vision that builds on the extensive GIS-based data that
will be collected through other action items in this Plan.


         Recommendation                          Implemented By                            Measured By


 6.1 Prioritize pedestrian safety      •   RTC                                 •   A GIS-based model yields a
     improvements building on the                                                  prioritization list that reflects a
     GIS inventory layers              •   NDOT                                    combination of deficiencies
     developed in previous action                                                  (such as high collision
     items.                                                                        locations) and opportunities
                                                                                   (such as latent demand
                                                                                   potential)

                                                                               •   This list includes:
                                                                                   o   Criteria for prioritizing
                                                                                       pedestrian improvements
                                                                                       along corridors
                                                                                   o   Criteria for prioritizing
                                                                                       projects on a proactive
                                                                                       basis (i.e. removing barriers
                                                                                       to increase walking)


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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

7. PROVIDING FUNDING
COMPLETE STREETS FUNDING
Complete Streets (or routine accommodation) is the most cost-effective funding strategy for reducing pedestrian
crashes and encouraging more walking by including pedestrian improvements in all projects, programs, and
maintenance activities. The majority of pedestrian infrastructure (including accessibility improvements) is built in
conjunction with other projects. This approach allows for significant improvements over time, even if no special
funding is available for pedestrian safety improvements. Recommendations in previous sections include
complete streets checklists for funding allocations. The Cities of Sparks and Reno are developing a Complete
Streets ordinance that will ensure implementation of the checklists. NDOT is revising context sensitive guidelines
which will also guide implementation.

DEDICATED FUNDS
Dedicated funds and set-asides for pedestrian projects allow for immediate action in addressing high crash
locations, corridors, and other targeted areas. They can be federal, state, or local funds and are often a
percentage of another, multi-modal fund.

Existing Conditions

Chapter 7 of the RSBPP provides a list federal, state, regional and local funding sources for bicycle and
pedestrian improvements. The following are funding sources for pedestrian projects and programs that have been
used in the region:

    •   Federal

        −   Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ)

        −   National Highway Safety Act

        −   Transportation, Community and System Preservation Program

    •   State

        −   Transportation Enhancements Program

        −   Community Development Block Grants

        −   Office of Traffic Safety Grants

        −   Safe Routes to Schools

    •   Local/Regional/Other

        −   Regional Road Impact Fee Program

        −   General Funds

        −   AAA funding for safety patrol

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                  Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


        Recommendation                          Implemented By                       Measured By


7.1 Acquire grant funding to hire a   •   RTC                             Pedestrian safety-related staff time
    RTC staff person for                                                  is funded (and therefore
    implementation of this Plan.                                          incentivized) through grants by
                                                                          considering administration time as
                                                                          an in-kind match


7.2 Incorporate complete streets      •   NDOT                            HSIP funds for the region reflect a
    requirements or pedestrian                                            proportional allocation for
    safety set-asides for the                                             pedestrian safety projects based on
    Highway Safety Improvement                                            the percentage of pedestrian
    Program.                                                              collisions or fatalities to overall
                                                                          regional collisions


7.3 Allocate flexible FHWA            •   NDOT                            Ten percent of the Flex Funds
    funding to pedestrian safety                                          available from the FHWA are
    projects.                                                             routinely used for pedestrian
                                                                          projects in the region


7.4 Seek out public-private           •   RTC                             •   Insurance companies,
    partnerships to fund                                                      hospitals, foundations, or other
    pedestrian safety projects.                                               private funding organizations
                                                                              have contributed to pedestrian
                                                                              safety project implementation in
                                                                              the region

                                                                          •   An ongoing, effective process
                                                                              for grant writing and
                                                                              administration is in place


7.5 Collaborate with schools to       •   Washoe County School District   •   School-initiated pedestrian
    fund safety programs.                                                     safety projects have joint
                                      •   RTC                                 funding from transportation
                                                                              agencies and the school district

                                                                          •   Projects tie together on- and
                                                                              off-campus improvements




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                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

8. EDUCATION AND ENFORCEMENT
PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ENCOURAGEMENT
Public education is essential to reduce pedestrian crashes. It also builds public support for programs, projects,
and policies to reduce pedestrian crashes. To be effective, it must target those behaviors within selected age
groups that will most likely result in fewer pedestrian crashes.

Existing Conditions

Chapter 6 of the RSBPP provides information about existing Education and Encouragement Programs related to
bicycling and walking in Washoe County. These programs include the RTC’s SmartTrips program, the Safe Kids
“Ready to Walk and Roll” Summer Camp, and Walk Safely Washoe.

RTC Smart Trips

The RTC Smart Trips group provides a trip matching service for people looking for a Bike Buddy or Walking
Buddy. The program is intended to encourage bicycling and walking, and increase safety for bicyclists and
pedestrians. The program allows users to select their preferred mode of transportation by trip type. For example,
a person may be interested in a bike buddy for trips to work, and a walking buddy for a trip to the movies.

Kiwanis Bike and Pedestrian Education Programs

The Reno Sparks Kiwanis Bike Program provides bicycle education programs related to bicycle repair and safe
riding practices for at risk youth throughout northern Nevada. In addition to their regular bicycle rodeos and
bicycle repair clinics, the Kiwanis Bike Program distributes over 600 bicycles and over 1,500 helmets annually.
Kiwanis offers a “Caught Safe” incentive programs that encourages children to use helmets.

According to the Nevada Big Book of Safety, Kiwanis has expanded to teach pedestrian safety basics, and plans
to develop two educational guides – one focused on bicycle safety and one on pedestrian safety – which they will
share with other community education groups in an effort to collaborate community wide.

Safe Kids “Ready to Walk and Roll” Summer Camp

In partnership with Safe Kids Washoe County, the RTC participates in the Safe Kids “Ready to Walk and Roll”
Summer Camp aimed at encouraging Sun Valley neighborhood youth to become independent travelers. The six,
one-week camps teach children between the ages of 10-13 years old how to safely reach the many recreational,
educational, and future work destinations available in their community by establishing a safe and positive
bicycling culture in Washoe County. Campers are provided with a mountain-style bike, helmet, lock, and repair
kit. Through active participation and attendance the children can earn these items to keep.

RTC staff work together to coordinate and present the Bikes on Buses option to the campers as one of their camp
activities. The children begin their trek from base camp at the Sun Valley Community Center and end at the RTC
CITICENTER where they learn about the RTC, the advantages of using alternative modes of transportation, and
how riding bicycles and buses, as well as walking, benefits their health and improves the air quality in the Truckee
Meadows. The camp concludes with a ride on RTC SIERRA SPIRIT to the UNR Knowledge Center. The
summer camp program runs from mid-June through the end of August.



                                                                                                                 33
                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Safe Routes to Schools Program

The Washoe County School District and NDOT coordinate on Safe Routes to Schools programs in the region.
The programs encourage students to walk or bicycle to school to: fight childhood obesity, decrease vehicle
emissions, reduce traffic congestion, promote healthy living, and encourage community harmony.

Office of Traffic Safety Grants

The Office of Traffic Safety provides grants to several pedestrian safety education programs. As an example, the
Office of Traffic Safety provided a grant for pedestrian safety education and enforcement on and around the UNR
campus.

Proposed Recommendations


         Recommendation                         Implemented By                         Measured By


 8.1 Expand Safe Routes to            •   NDOT                              •   Expanded programs include
     School programs throughout                                                 engineering treatments as well
     the region.                      •   RTC                                   as education, enforcement, and
                                                                                encouragement strategies
                                      •   BPAC
                                                                            •   Education strategies range from
                                                                                in-classroom activities to
                                                                                motivational speakers

                                                                            •   Encouragement includes
                                                                                walking, school buses, walk to
                                                                                school days, and/or classroom
                                                                                competitions


 8.2 Educate road users on            •   BPAC                              Before and after knowledge and
     pedestrian safety skills/                                              behavior surveys suggest skills and
     knowledge. Reach 80% of          •   NDOT                              knowledge have improved.
     population through education
     yearly.                          •   Health Department

                                      •   RTC

                                      •   Safe Routes to Schools




                                                                                                             34
                   Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

         Recommendation                          Implemented By                        Measured By


 8.3 Extend and enhance Street        •   RTC                               •   Continuing funds from OTS
     Smart program.                                                             support safety education
                                      •   NDOT (OTS)                            programs

                                                                            •   Education materials, such as
                                                                                posters at bus stops, are
                                                                                prepared with multi-lingual
                                                                                translation

                                                                            •   A variety of websites, public
                                                                                safety announcements, social
                                                                                media, brochures, and other
                                                                                media are used for education


 8.4 Expand outreach to schools.      •   RTC                               •   Safe Routes to Schools
                                                                                outreach programs are
                                      •   BPAC                                  available in all schools

                                      •   Washoe County School District     •   Educational programs teaching
                                                                                children to ride the bus, walk
                                      •   Safe Kids Washoe City                 safely, and bicycle safely are in
                                                                                place
                                      •   Safe Routes to Schools




PARTNERSHIPS
Partnerships with non-profit groups, the private sector, and other local governmental agencies are an excellent
way to get the entire community involved in safety education projects and programs. This includes schools,
neighborhood groups, advocacy organizations, and local businesses, as well as local health departments,
hospitals, and public safety officials (e.g., firefighters and other first responders).

Existing Conditions

The RTC does not formally partner with any outside organization to promote pedestrian safety; however, they do
collaborate with others to encourage pedestrian safety. Examples of groups that collaborate are:

   •   AAA (provide funding for safety patrol)

   •   FedEx (promotes pedestrian safety and sponsors the Safe Kids Walk This Way program)

   •   Kiwanis (partner with several local groups to promote pedestrian safety and education)




                                                                                                               35
                   Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


         Recommendation                         Implemented By                         Measured By


 8.5 Create a strategic               •   Task Force                        A pedestrian safety outreach
     communication alliance for                                             campaign is developed and
     pedestrian safety messaging.                                           implemented by a multi-disciplinary
                                                                            stakeholder group


 8.6 Evaluate success of current      •   RTC                               •   Professional educators are
     and future education and                                                   involved in the evaluation of
     enforcement programs.            •   Task Force                            education programs

                                                                            •   Program adjustments are made
                                                                                based on evaluation results

                                                                            •   Suggested action item:
                                                                                Assemble before and after data
                                                                                for program evaluation.


 8.7 Effectively partner with         •   Task Force                        •   Advocacy groups collaborate
     advocacy organizations to pair                                             with local and regional agencies
     education and encouragement                                                early on in pedestrian projects
     with engineering treatments.                                               and champion implementation
                                                                                of education and
                                                                                encouragement strategies

                                                                            •   Advocacy groups lead grant
                                                                                preparation efforts for education
                                                                                and encouragement funding


ENFORCEMENT
Enforcement is an essential element of an overall program to reduce pedestrian crashes. To be effective, it must
be done in partnership with the community and law enforcement while targeting motorist and pedestrian
behaviors that will most likely result in fewer pedestrian crashes.

Existing Conditions

The Code of Ordinances for the City of Reno, City of Sparks, and Washoe County related to bicyclists and
pedestrians is provided in Appendix A of the RSBPP.

Existing enforcement programs in the region are described in Chapter 6 of the RSBPP. Several are also
described below.




                                                                                                                36
                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

State and local police routinely patrol for traffic violations that could impact pedestrian safety. Radar trailers are
often used near schools to reduce vehicle travel speeds. The Office of Traffic Safety provides funding for “sting”
operations and surveys of pedestrian understanding of right-of-way laws and responsibilities.

Photo Red Light Enforcement Programs

Activated by loops in the pavement, red light cameras photograph the license plate and sometimes the driver of
any vehicle entering an intersection after the light has turned red. Warnings or citations are sent to offenders to
discourage a repeat of the offense. Speeding and double-parking can be discouraged with similar measures.

Red light cameras are appropriate for locations with speeding or red-light-running issues. Fines from citations
help pay for the red light camera system. These programs discourage drivers from performing dangerous
maneuvers that can be particularly harmful to a bicyclist or pedestrian.

Radar Speed Signs

Radar speed signs feature a changeable message sign linked to a radar unit; the signs display a vehicle’s actual
speed as the vehicle approaches the sign. Radar speed signs can be mounted permanently to a pole (where
they are powered by hard wire or a solar unit) or they can be mounted to a trailer (also known as a “speed trailer”)
and deployed on a temporary basis. Studies in the United States have shown that radar speed signs are an
effective way of slowing traffic. Slower vehicle traffic creates a safer and more comfortable walking and bicycling
environment for bicyclists and pedestrians.

Reno Police Bicycle/Pedestrian Enforcement

According to the Nevada Big Book of Safety, the Reno Police Department recognizes the need to increase the
enforcement of bicycle and pedestrians laws. Increased police enforcement targets pedestrians, bicyclists, and
motorists in an effort to expand obedience to traffic laws while promoting a safer traffic environment.

Joining Forces Program

Joining forces is a statewide program that is funded by the Office of Traffic Safety for State Police enforcement at
marked crosswalks.

Safe Routes To School Enforcement

Enforcement includes speed enforcement, radar trailers, and curb side management near schools.




                                                                                                                   37
                   Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


         Recommendation                         Implemented By                        Measured By


 8.8 Implement enforcement            •   NDOT                             •   The effect of the enforcement
     efforts with media and                                                    effort lasts beyond the
     education campaigns, building    •   NHP                                  implementation period and
     on success from other                                                     extends beyond the application
     programs to further improve      •   Reno Police Department               area
     public awareness and
     knowledge of bicycle and         •   Sparks Police Department         •   Enforcement efforts are used as
     pedestrian issues (such as the                                            an opportunity for education
     successful program in Dade       •   County Sheriff                       through brochure distribution or
     County, FL).                                                              warnings in lieu of citations

                                                                           •   Enforcement and education
                                                                               efforts target age groups with
                                                                               the highest collision rates


 8.9 Select enforcement locations     •   NDOT                             •   Enforcement efforts reflect the
     and strategies based on                                                   needs in each target area – with
     collision trends and             •   NHP                                  a focus on pedestrians, drivers,
     typologies.                                                               or both
                                      •   Reno Police Departments
                                                                           •   Collisions are reduced in the
                                      •   Sparks Police Department             target area as a result of
                                                                               increased enforcement
                                      •   County Sheriff

                                      •   RTC


ENFORCEMENT COLLABORATION
Collaboration with local law enforcement is an essential element of an enforcement program to reduce pedestrian
crashes. To be effective, it must be done in partnership with schools and other community leaders.

Existing Conditions

Currently no formal collaboration occurs between the RTC and local law enforcement. RTC does meet with law
enforcement occasionally.




                                                                                                                38
                   Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


        Recommendation                          Implemented By                  Measured By


8.10 Develop regional leadership      •   OTS                        •   Most if not all jurisdictions send
     for the enforcement role in                                         a representative to routine
     pedestrian safety.               •   RTC                            enforcement collaboration
                                                                         meetings

                                                                     •   Police departments commit
                                                                         data, data collection, and
                                                                         continued engagement


8.11 Share enforcement resources      •   NHP                        •   Local police departments have
     region- and state-wide.                                             collaborated with neighboring
                                      •   NDOT                           departments to increase police
                                                                         presence during major
                                      •   Reno Police Department         enforcement campaigns

                                      •   Sparks Police Department   •   Communication between police
                                                                         departments in the region
                                      •   County Sheriff                 regarding pedestrian safety has
                                                                         improved


8.12 Collaborate with police          •   OTS                        •   Enforcement is at the table
     departments throughout the                                          throughout the region for
     region to implement this Plan.   •   NHP                            development review and
                                                                         engineering decisions
                                      •   County Sheriff
                                                                     •   Police officers throughout the
                                      •   Reno Police Department         region have taken a pedestrian
                                                                         safety enforcement class
                                      •   Sparks Police Department




                                                                                                         39
                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

9. ENGINEERING COUNTERMEASURES
This chapter addresses commonly used and effective pedestrian crash engineering countermeasures. Numerous
policy, planning, and design guidelines exist that transportation planners and engineers can use; however, only a
few address pedestrian designs thoroughly. The following publications provide detailed pedestrian design facility
guidance: Guide for Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities (AASHTO), PEDSAFE: Pedestrian
Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System (FHWA-SA-04-003). The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control
Devices (MUTCD) should be used for selecting appropriate traffic controls: signs, traffic signals, marked
crosswalks, and other pavement markings.

Many of the above-mentioned pedestrian policy, planning, and design guidelines were used to develop the
following list of some of the effective countermeasures in terms of improving pedestrian safety. They should also
be used for guidance to fix spot problems and to update and improve agency design guidelines, practices and
procedures. The actual countermeasure chosen must fit in the context of a particular roadway. Table 8 provides
information on countermeasures to address crash types and crash-reduction factors.

                                                  TABLE 8
                                       ENGINEERING COUNTERMEASURES

                                                            Crash
  Countermeasure           Design Features                Reduction                  Reference/Guidance
                                                           Factor
                                 WALKING ALONG THE ROAD COLLISIONS
                     •   4 ft min. width                                  •   AASHTO – A Policy on Geometric Design of
  Paved Shoulders    •   6 ft + desired                      80%              Highways and Streets Chapter 4
                     •   8-10 ft w/ on-street parking                     •   PEDSAFE – Table 1
                                                                          •   RSBPP Design Best Practices
                     •   4 ft min. width                                  •   AASHTO – A Policy on Geometric Design of
     Sidewalks       •   6 ft + desired                      88%              Highways and Streets Chapter 4
                     •   Continuous and connected                         •   PEDSAFE – Table 1 and Sidewalks and
                                                                              Walkways
                                                                          •   RTC Regional Transportation Plan
                                                         See individual   •   FHWA
                     •   Reductions in driveways        countermeasures
Access Management                                                         •   AccessManagement.org
                     •   Installation of medians            such as
                                                           “medians”      •   NDOT Access Standards and Guidelines
                                                                              (July 1999)
                     •   Sidewalk continuous                              •   NDOT Access Standards and Guidelines
  Driveway Design        across driveway                     N/A              (July 1999)
                     •   Driveway width minimized                         •   PEDSAFE – Driveway Improvements
                                                                          •   Investigation of the Impact of Medians on
                                                                              Road Users
                     •   Increases pedestrian and                         •   PEDSAFE – Roadway Lighting
    Illumination                                             N/A
                         driver visibility                                •   AASHTO Roadway Lighting Design Guide
                                                                          •   Roadway Lighting Revisited – Public Road
                                                                              Article



                                                                                                                      40
                       Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

                                                     TABLE 8
                                          ENGINEERING COUNTERMEASURES

                                                               Crash
 Countermeasure             Design Features                  Reduction                    Reference/Guidance
                                                              Factor
                                        CROSSING THE ROAD COLISSIONS
                       •   Minimum island width of 5
                           ft, 6 ft preferred                                 •   Reno Sparks BPP Design Best Practices
Mid-Block Pedestrian
                       •   Should be considered in                            •   PEDSAFE – Raised Medians
Accessible Crossing                                           25 – 46%
       Islands             locations of two or more                           •   Investigation of the Impact of Medians on
                           lanes with > 60 ft crossing                            Road Users
                           distance
                       •   Curb extends a minimum
                           of 6 ft into the street                            •   RSBPP Design Best Practices
                           adjacent to parallel                               •   The Effects of Traffic Calming Measures on
                           parking, 12 feet adjacent                              Pedestrian and Motorist Behavior
  Curb Extensions          to diagonal parking, and              N/A          •   Pedestrian Safety Impacts of Curb
                           no further than the edge of                            Extensions
                           the vehicle travel lane or                         •   FHWA-HRT-04-091: 9.1.2 Provide Curb
                           bicycle lane in any                                    Extensions
                           situation
                                                                              •   RSBPP Design Best Practices
                       •   Provides pedestrians with
                                                                              •   PEDSAFE – Traffic Signal PEDSAFE –
                           a protected crossing
   Traffic Signals                                               N/A              Pedestrian Signals
                           phase and allows parallel
                           vehicle movement                                   •   Signalized Intersection – An Information
                                                                                  Guide
                       •   Crosswalks on either side
                           of median are separated
                           by at least 10 ft
  Mid-block, Two-
                       •   Increases visibility for both         N/A          •   Design Best Practices
Stage Traffic Signal
                           drivers and pedestrians
                       •   Decreases pedestrian
                           crossing distances
                       •   23’ clearance required for 90% (fatal/injury)
                           railroad tracks crossing        86% (all           •   Walkinginfo.org – overpass/underpasses
  Overcrossing or          underneath path                crashes)            •   PEDSAFE – Overpasses/Underpasses
  Undercrossing        •   17’ clearance otherwise    13% (all crashes        •   FHWA-HRT-04-091:9.1.6 Grade-Separate
                       •   10’ minimum clearance for at unsignalized              Pedestrian Movements
                           pedestrian undercrossing     intersection)
                       •   Requires adequate sight
Marked Crosswalks          distance and visibility so      Varies up to 40%
                                                                              •   RSBPP Design Best Practices
      Alone                pedestrians can be seen          with medians
                           by motorists




                                                                                                                              41
                       Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

                                                     TABLE 8
                                          ENGINEERING COUNTERMEASURES

                                                            Crash
 Countermeasure             Design Features               Reduction                    Reference/Guidance
                                                           Factor
                       •   Shall be installed only at
Textured, Stamped,         signalized locations
                                                              N/A           •   MUTCD Section 3E. Colored Pavements
Colored Crosswalks     •   Shall include white paint
                           as required by MUTCD

                       •   Reno Sparks region shall                         •   RSBPP Design Best Practices
                           continue to use                                  •   MUTCD – Section 3B.17 Crosswalk
Crosswalks with High
                           Continental striping as            N/A               Markings
 Visibility Markings
                           standard crosswalk                               •   PEDSAFE – Marked Crosswalks and
                           markings                                             Enhancements

  Crosswalks with                                                           •   RSBPP Design Best Practices
 Advance Stop Bar      •   Yield lines should be 20 ft                      •   MUTCD Section 3B.16 Stop and Yield Lines
     and Signs             before a marked                    `N/A          •   PEDSAFE – Advanced Stop Lines
   (Uncontrolled           crosswalk, 50 ft preferred                       •   FHWA-HRT-04-091:9.1.3 Modify Stop Bar
   Intersections)                                                               Location
                       •   Stop bars help to
                           distinguish pedestrian
    Stop Bars at                                                            •   PEDSAFE – Advanced Stop Lines
                           crosswalk from roadway
     Controlled                                               N/A
    Intersections
                           and keep motor vehicles                          •
                           from encroaching into the
                           crosswalk
                       •   Increases driver
In-Street Pedestrian       awareness of pedestrians
                                                                            •   MUTCD Section 2B.12 In-Street Pedestrian
Crossing, Mid-Road         at school crossings and            N/A
                                                                                Crossing Signs (R1-6, R1-6a)
 Yield or Stop Signs       other locations with
                           vulnerable populations
                       •   Traditional traffic and
                                                       28% less vehicle
                           pedestrian signal heads                          •   RSBPP Design Best Practices
   High-Intensity                                         collisions
                           are used above roadway
Activated Crosswalk                                       58% less          •   MUTCD
      (HAWK)           •   Pedestrian activates either
                           passively or by push
                                                         pedestrian/        •   City of Tucson DOT
                                                       vehicle collisions
                           button
                       •   Reduces vehicle speed
                       •   Decreases pedestrian
                           crossing distances                               •   PEDSAFE Curb Radius Reduction
 Tighter Curb Radii                                           N/A
                       •   Locations with no on-street                      •   FHWA-HRT-04-091 9.1.1 curb radius
                           parking should have a
                           maximum radius of 20 ft
                       •   Decreases pedestrian
                           crossing distances
 “Lamb/Pork-Chop”                                                           •   PEDSAFE – Improved Right-Turn Slip-Lane
                       •   Reduces pedestrian                 N/A
   Shaped Islands                                                               Design
                           exposure
                       •   Improves signal timing


                                                                                                                      42
                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

                                                 TABLE 8
                                      ENGINEERING COUNTERMEASURES

                                                       Crash
Countermeasure           Design Features             Reduction                Reference/Guidance
                                                      Factor
                    •   Channelizes and slows
                        down left-turning vehicles
 Median Islands     •   Allows pedestrians to         25 – 46%     •   PEDSAFE – Raised Medians
                        cross roadway in single
                        signal cycle
                    •   Ensures pedestrians cross
                        close to the intersection
                        where drivers can see
Proper Curb Ramp                                                   •   PEDSAFE – Curb Ramps
                        them
  Placement and                                         N/A        •   FHWA – ADA memo
                    •   Recommended 2 ramps
      Design                                                       •   Access Board Public Rights of Way
                        per corner
                    •   Crosswalks are not to be
                        too far back from corner
                    •   Allows pedestrians a 2-5
                        second lead into the
                        intersection before
 Lead Pedestrian        vehicles are given green
                        light                            5%        •   PEDSAFE- Pedestrian Signal Timing
  Interval (LPI)
                    •   Reduces conflicts between
                        vehicles turning right and
                        pedestrians
                    •   Tells pedestrians how
                        much time is left in the
                        pedestrian clearance
                        interval                                   •   MUTCD – Section 4E.07 Countdown
   Pedestrian                                                          Pedestrian Signals
                    •   Encourages pedestrians to       25%
Countdown Signals
                        cross before time expires                  •   MUTCD – All new installations are
                                                                       countdowns
                    •   Reduces tendency for
                        pedestrians to “dash”
                        across an intersection
                    •   Reduces the number of                      •   PEDSAFE – Lane Reduction
                        travel lanes by utilizing
                        bike lanes and center-turn                 •   Evaluation of Lane Reduction “Road Diet”
                                                      29% (All
                        lanes                                          Measures and Their Effects on Crashes and
                                                      Crashes)
   Road Diets                                                          Injuries
                    •   Decreases pedestrian         Unknown for
                        crossing distances                         •   Road Diets: Fixing the Big Roads
                                                     Pedestrians
                    •   May also narrow travel                     •   Road Diet Handbook: Setting Trends for
                        lanes to slow traffic                          Livable Streets




                                                                                                             43
                       Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

                                                        TABLE 8
                                             ENGINEERING COUNTERMEASURES

                                                                 Crash
 Countermeasure                 Design Features                Reduction                     Reference/Guidance
                                                                Factor
                         •    Roadways are redesigned
Speed Management
                              to reduce the frequency                            •    FHWA Speed Management Strategic
  Policy – Arterial                                                N/A
                              and severity of pedestrian                              Initiative
 Roadway Design
                              crashes
                                                               70% for
                         •    Reduces the frequency
                                                            pedestrians with
    Speed Limits              and severity of pedestrian                         •    US Limits 2
                                                                speed
                              crashes
                                                             enforcement
                         •    Narrow roadway designs
                         •    On-roadway parking
Residential Roadway                                                              •    US Traffic Calming Manual
                         •    Tight curb radii                     N/A
      Design                                                                     •    www.trafficcalming.org
                         •    Short block lengths
                         •    Roadway lights
                         •    Slows traffic inside
                              neighborhoods                                      •    www.trafficcalming.org
                                                             See Desktop
                         •    Speed humps                                        •    PEDSAFE – Traffic Calming
                                                             Reference for
   Traffic Calming                                                               •
                         •    Mini traffic circles          Crash Reduction           US Traffic Calming Manual (APA Planners
                                                                Factors               Press and American Society of Civil
                         •    Diverters
                                                                                      Engineers, 2009)
                         •    Chokers
                     Bus stops are:                                              •    How Far, By Which Route, and Why?
                      •    easily accessible           See Desktop               •    Pedestrian Safety Guide for Transit
 Location of Transit  •    located where driver can    Reference for                  Agencies
       Stops               easily stop and merge with Crash Reduction            •    PEDSAFE – Transit Stop Treatments
                           traffic                        Factors                •    Guidebook for Mitigating Fixed-Route Bus-
                      •    accessible by disabled                                     and-Pedestrian Collisions
 Source: FHWA Template for Creating a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan, Fehr & Peers, 2011


DESIGN STANDARDS
Design guides and standard specifications should ensure roadways and intersections are designed to maximize
pedestrian safety and access. This includes intersection design, curb radii, marked crosswalks, design speed,
number of lanes, signal warrants, transit stop design, sidewalk widths, sidewalk setbacks, etc.

Existing Conditions

Design standards for bicycle and pedestrian facilities in the Reno Sparks area are provided in the new Reno
Sparks Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan Design Best Practices. All facilities should at least conform to AASHTO
design standards if stricter standards are not specified in this Design Best Practices guide. The following
resources are also currently used in the region to help design pedestrian facilities:

    •    Regional Transportation Plan

                                                                                                                              44
                   Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

   •   NDOT’s Access Management System and Standards (July 1999)
   •   AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets
   •   AASHTO’s Guide for Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities
   •   FHWA’s PEDSAFE: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System
   •   Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
   •   Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities
   •   ITE’s Improving the Pedestrian Environment Through Innovative Transportation Design

Proposed Recommendations

The recently-completed Reno Sparks Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan Design Best Practices reflects current best
practices in pedestrian safety engineering countermeasures. This Manual should be used in the implementation
of this Plan.

ADA TRANSITION PLAN
American Disabilities Act (ADA) transition plans are required in all communities to ensure that all pedestrian
facilities will become accessible over time.

Existing Conditions

A prioritized list of ADA enhancements is included in
the recently-completed Reno Sparks ADA Transition
Plan. The Plan includes:

       •   A Policy for implementation of ADA
           requirements into all regional projects
           and programs.
       •   A list of non-compliant areas with
           solutions, timing, and responsibility
       •   A pro-active strategy to make all
           facilities ADA compliant over time.

Proposed Recommendations

The recently-completed Reno Sparks ADA
Transition Plan reflects current best practices in
ADA accommodation. This Transition Plan should be
used in the implementation of this Plan.




                                                                                                           45
                    Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

10. EVALUATION/ACCOUNTABILITY
No plan will be successful unless it is implemented and continually evaluated. This chapter presents action items
for evaluating the implementation of this Plan.

EVALUATION OF RESULTS
An evaluation of results ensures that implemented countermeasures are effective in reducing crashes and
improving safety; it also helps ensure future funding opportunities if the Plan is perceived as a success. Success
should be measured against the objectives set forth in this Plan.

Existing Conditions

Goal 1 of the RSBPP is to:

     Support walking and bicycling and the development of a comprehensive bicycle and pedestrian
     transportation network that connects to other transportation modes, meets the needs of all users, and
     creates a viable alternative to the automobile in order to increase the number of people bicycling and walking
     to work to 10 percent by 2040.

Related policies include:

     Report bicycle and pedestrian commute mode split using US Census Bureau American Community Survey
     3-year Estimates annually.

This data can be used as a benchmark to determine accountability.




                                                                                                                46
                   Northern Nevada Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Proposed Recommendations


        Recommendation                         Implemented By                     Measured By


10.1 Establish a pedestrian safety   •   RTC                           •   Annual collision reports and
     report card.                                                          trends are documented
                                     •   Task Force
                                                                       •   The effectiveness of innovative
                                                                           treatments and programs is
                                                                           studied and documented

                                                                       •   The report card documents
                                                                           changes in and suggests
                                                                           improvements related to
                                                                           education, enforcement,
                                                                           engineering, and
                                                                           encouragement


10.2 Collaborate with NDOT on        •   NDOT                          •   Projects are implemented as a
     road safety audits (RSAs) and                                         result of RSAs
     before and after analysis.
                                                                       •   Before/after studies show
                                                                           improvement


10.3 Specifically evaluate public    •   Department of Public Health   •   Before/after studies of body
     health outcomes associated                                            mass index (BMI)/persons
     with pedestrian safety                                                meeting physical activity level
     improvements.                                                         guidelines are documented

                                                                       •    Results are correlated with
                                                                           built environment variables

                                                                       •   Before/after surveys address
                                                                           learning, attitude, and behavior
                                                                           associated with education
                                                                           efforts and public health
                                                                           outcomes




                                                                                                          47

				
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