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					Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Stairs poster
Strategies for energy behavior change
and information at the point of decision
Goal:
Save Energy

One Partial Solution:
Use Technology to Help People be Smarter About
Energy Use

Stephen Intille, Ph.D.
Technology Director, House_n
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Saving energy: the options

   Create new renewable energy sources or make
    known sources economical

   Make devices that consume energy (e.g.,
    vehicles, heating systems) more efficient

   Change behavior …
    so less energy is consumed
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Tech driven behavior change understudied




“engine behavior”
“more promising pathways (technological, behavioral, and institutional)”
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


What‟s the potential savings from behavior?




   10 week pilot study in our live-in laboratory
   Studied behavior and electrical power
    consumption
   37 electrical circuits monitored
                                                     Manu Gupta
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Assumptions

   Waste occurs if…
     Lights on with nobody in space
     Appliances on with nobody around

     Appliances on and not being used

     Nobody around and HVAC running




   Detect location every 8 seconds with various
    sensors (RFID, switch sensor, etc.)
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Analysis Tool
   Handlense sensor visualization tool
       Developed at House_n power sources
                         Vampire




                      Unused lights & Devices
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Study results: 65 days
                       Consumption   Vs   Wastage        43%



                                          Lights

                                          13%
                                                     Major Appliances

                                                    4%
                                                                Minor
                                                              Appliances
                                                         7%


                  Consumption                             Minor Appliances
                                                         7%
                      57%




                                                   12%

                                                   PC/Fax/Printer/
                                                     Boom box
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Study results: 65 days
                           Power Wastage Distribution




                       PC/Fax/Printer/
                         Boom box
                                                      Lights
                             28%
                                                       30%




                             16%                       10%
                                                             Major
                   TV/DVD/Home
                                                           Appliances
                  theatre/cable box
                                            16%

                                           Minor
                                         Appliances
              Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


              Study results
                                              Actual & Projected Power Consumption

             25000



                                                 Actual Consumption
             20000


                                                                      Savings

             15000
Power (Wh)




             10000




              5000

                                            Projected Consumption


                0
                     1   3   5   7   9   11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65
                                                                       Day Num ber
   Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
The “Smart” Home
   Not a “smart” home




       House_n goal: make technology that helps the
        home occupant to make decisions
       Empower via education at points of decision
The Jetsons, 1952
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Xanadu House: 1983 (Home automation)
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Cross-breeze thought experiment
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Cross-breeze thought experiment


                                                     You setup an
                                                     algorithm …


                                                     I’ll find a
                                                     special case to
                                                     break it…


                                                     Annoying the
                                                     occupant…
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


How do our ideas avoid this fate?




Xanadu House (destruction) 1997
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


A better way: use sensing to teach




Sensing monitors                               When occupant
indoor/outdoor                                 decides to open
environment                                    window, system
                           Subtle cue          teaches how best
                                               to do it
   Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy




                             Smart Home
                       Intelligent Home


                           Smart People!
                   Make technology that helps the home
                       occupant to make decisions

(made possible by sensor-enabled environments & devices that provide just-in-time information)
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Apps exploiting teachable moments
   Switch/bend sensors                     Activity recognition
      Doors
                                              Eating meals
    

     Cabinets

     Drawers
                                              Talking

     Thresholds                              Sleeping patterns
     Appliances
                                   new        Taking medications
     Objects                    machine
                                              Cleaning
   Wearable sensors             learning

     Accelerometers
                                algorithms    Cooking
     Heart rate monitor                      …
     Self report
                                                            Novel apps
   Multi-purpose sensors                             (e.g., energy, health)

     People-locator tags           Motivate behavior changes;
     Auditory sensors
                                    Provide info at teachable moment
     Optical sensors
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Motivating behavior: link advice with activity

   Simple messages (points of decision/behavior/consequence)
   Right time               Requires computational sensing
   Right place                Requires portable computing
   Tailored, non-disruptive            Requires attention
   Repeated and consistent             to interface design
                                                 Requires patience
                                                 (computers excellent at this)


   Big impact on behavior change
     Substantial gains for preventive medicine
     20% shown for energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Will just-in-time behavior change work?
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Recent example: Toyota Prius
  “Rarely do I worry about how much gas I’m burning while
   lead-footing it through town. But after a few days in the
   new Prius, I became fixated, like a kid staring at a video
  game, on the fuel-economy numbers flickering at the top
  of my dashboard. Soon I was poking along at 55 in a 65-
   mph zone, sweltering with my air-conditioning purposely
     shut off and the windows rolled up (it cuts down wind
    resistance). All that so I could nudge my mileage up to
          the government-rated 48 miles per gallon.”

                        -- The Seattle Times, September 1, 2000
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Yes … but timing and presentation critical!

   Need
     immediate feedback
     ability to take action




                                                     Ernesto Arroyo
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Long-Term Impact
                                                       Stairs poster




                       (Brownell, Stunkard, and Albaum ‘80)
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


First intervention study (early results)




   39% to 44% (p < .001)
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Key: find the “right time”




    Expected increase                       Small increase
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Finding the right message

   Kendall Outbound Station
   5 messages each displayed for 2
    weeks

   Baseline stair use: 31.4%
   “Free Workout!” sign: 32.5%
   “Feel Good!” sign: 32.5%
   “Fight Fat!” sign: 35.8%

   Concrete, outcome-oriented
    message results in 4.4% increase
    in stair use.
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Technology enables in-home feedback

   Information at time of action
   Component technologies enable simple
    “just in time” cues
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Time is right for “just in time”

   Relatively few energy behavior studies after „80s
     Reduced attention to conservation
     Cost of providing the information feedback too high

     Hard to study the long-term effectiveness of feedback




   Time is right to reconsider
     Focus on U.S. energy supply
     Computational devices lower delivery costs

     Living Laboratory and related tool development


  We can do even better with “just in time feedback”
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


House_n behavior change design strategies




                                                     Byron Stigge
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


House_n examples: energy interfaces

   Empowering the user with information
    (to encourage action)
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Our strategy

1.   Understand behavior
        Use portable observational sensor kit
        Use mobile phones and new wearable sensors

2.   Develop ideas for changing behavior
        Present info at points of decision (using sensors)
        Make behavior change easy

3.   Evaluate prototype systems
        Use portable sensors and observational sensor kit
 Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


 Testing in real homes

                                                           Larger n,
                                                           in-home
                                             Pilot Data     studies
Laboratory      Instrumented
                   people and           Design insight
prototyping
                environments       Important questions    Innovative
                                                              design
                                                               ideas



     Research on…
       Detecting context from home and wearable sensors
       Behavior change at points of decision
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


House_n sensors: object usage MITes

   Wireless
   Stick-on
   Easy
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


House_n sensors: wearable
                                   Context-sensitive
                                   questions




                 accelerometers




                                       GPS or GSM
                                       location
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


House_n sensors: RFID tags                     (with Intel)
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


House_n sensors: SenseCam recorders                  (with Microsoft)
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Real-time data visualization tool




    Sync.
     Data
 Playback




                                 Summary statistics.
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Deployment: NSF portable living lab system
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Opportunities for new research…
                                    Understand behavior and
                                    test technology to motivate
                                    behavior changes in real homes
Smart People (Not Just Smart Homes) to Save Energy


Next…

1.   Some inspirational prior work…

2.   House_n work on wearable data collection for
     research studies

3.   House_n work on wearable activity recognition
     for research studies

				
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posted:11/24/2011
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