Women and Minorities in WWII

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					    Women and Minorities in WWII

 Following the United States' entry into World War
  II in 1941, millions of American women answered the
  government's call to enter the work force and fill
  traditionally male jobs left vacant by those who had
  gone off to fight. Above all, women's labor was
  urgently needed to help fill shortages created by the
  expanded wartime economy, especially in the
  production of military hardware. These women who
  wore hard-hats and overalls and operated heavy
  machinery represented a radical departure from the
  traditional American feminine ideal of housewife and
                                    Norman Rockwell portrayed Rosie
"Do the Job He Left Behind" was a   as a monumental figure clad in
                                    overalls and a work-shirt with the
campaign slogan that emphasized     sleeves rolled up to reveal her
women’s patriotism for the war      powerful, muscular arms
The entire country pulled together to
support the war effort and build the
"Arsenal of Democracy."
Rose Will Monroe, riveter at the Ford Willow Run
airplane factory, became a "Rosie the Riveter" icon
by starring in a film campaign to increase the sale of
war bonds.
Women Produced Wartime goods
Millions of women nationwide joined the work
force both as a matter of patriotic duty and to
support their families.
             Rosies worked on all phases of manufacturing,
             from electrical wiring to putting the finishing
             touches on a bomber.

The government attempted to alleviate some of this stress between two demands--country and
home--by creating federally funded daycare centers. There were about 130,000 children in
over 3,000 daycare centers at the height of the War
Nurses in the army
         Rosie the Riveter
             All the day long,
         Whether rain or shine,
  She's a part of the assembly line.
          She's making history,
          Working for victory,
            Rosie the Riveter.
 Keeps a sharp lookout for sabotage,
   Sitting up there on the fuselage.
That little girl will do more than a male
                  will do.
   Rosie's got a boyfriend, Charlie.
         Charlie, he's a Marine.
      Rosie is protecting Charlie,
Working overtime on the riveting machine
 When they gave her a production "E",
  She was as proud as she could be,
    There's something true about,
      Red, white, and blue about,
            Rosie the Riveter.
          Did women stay in the workforce??

 Soldiers began returning home and they
  wanted their jobs back. By late 1944,
  magazines were advertising "after-victory"
  homes, hoping to promote women’s return to
  their previous role as homemaker. Some
  women, who needed to work in order to
  survive, were forced back into lower-paying
  jobs consisting mostly of the stereotypical
  female occupations. The labor division between
  men and women was never totally eliminated,
  and attitudes returned to their original
  position that women’s first priority should be
  as homemakers.
The reversed strategy was to push the women back into the home with
promise of new and wonderful consumer goods to make their housewife
role easier and to ensure that their real happiness was in caring for their
men and children
Propaganda to move women back into the home
 The message that women should quit their jobs "for the
  sake of their homes as well as the labor situation"
  overwhelmed women. The company newspaper at Kaiser
  shipyards in the Pacific Northwest proclaimed in May
  1945, "The Kitchen-Women's Big Post-War Goal." Putting
  words into the mouths of Kaiser's female employees, the
  article asserted, "Brothers, the tin hat and welder's torch
  will be yours! ... The thing we want to do is take off these
  unfeminine garments and button ourselves into something
  starched and pretty."
 A General Electric ad predicted that women would
  welcome a return to "their old housekeeping routine"
  because GE intended to transform housework with new
 Critical thinking question
Women gained a position of great
 importance during WWII; Did
 another minority gain prestige?

Was any minority group
 Amendment V
 “No person shall be held to answer for a
 capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on
 a presentment or indictment of a grand jury,
 except in cases arising in the land or naval
 forces, or in the militia, when in actual service
 in time of war or public danger; nor shall any
 person be subject for the same offense to be
 twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall
 be compelled in any criminal case to be a
 witness against himself, nor be deprived of
 life, liberty, or property, without due process
 of law; nor shall private property be taken for
 public use, without just compensation.”
 Imagine you are living in the United States during World
    War II. The United States government feels that your ethnic
    group is a threat to national security. The president issues an
    order that states, “If you are of Japanese ancestry, you must
    report to a „relocation camp‟ with only the belongings you
    can carry.” You can no longer report to your job, attend
    school, or worship at your usual place of worship. You are
    given a place to sleep in a barracks with hundreds of others
    now interned with you. You must eat and sleep at scheduled
    times, and you are restricted to the perimeter of the camp,
    which is guarded by armed military personnel.
 This scenario was reality for Japanese-Americans during
    World War II as a result of Roosevelt issuing Executive
    Order 9066.
  The Plight of Japanese Americans

 After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941,
  fear of a Japanese invasion and of subversive acts by
  Japanese Americans prompted the government to
  move more than 110,000 people of Japanese ancestry
  to 10 relocation camps. Those forcibly removed from
  their homes, businesses, and possessions included
  Japanese immigrants legally forbidden to become
  citizens (Issei), their American-born children (Nisei),
  and children of the American-born (Sansei)
   First hand accounts
 "I remember the soldiers marching us to the Army
  tank and I looked at their rifles and I was just
  terrified because I could see this long knife at the end
  . . . I thought I was imagining it as an adult much
  later . . . I thought it couldn't have been bayonets
  because we were just little kids."

 "When we first arrived at Minidonka, everyone was
  forced to use outhouses since the sewer system had
  not been built. For about a year, the residents had to
  brave the cold and the stench of these
More than 120,000 Americans of Japanese Ancestry
were incarcerated in 10 camps scattered throughout
Western states during World War II
 These Japanese Americans, half of whom were
  children, were incarcerated for up to 4 years,
  without due process of law or any factual basis,
  in bleak, remote camps surrounded by barbed
  wire and armed guards.
 They were forced to evacuate their homes and
  leave their jobs; in some cases family members
  were separated and put into different camps.
  President Roosevelt himself called the 10
  facilities "concentration camps."
 Some Japanese Americans died in the camps
  due to inadequate medical care and the
  emotional stresses they encountered. Several
  were killed by military guards posted for
  allegedly resisting orders.
farm workers harvesting crops in field with Mt.
Williamson in the background
   Korematsu v. United States

       Fred Korematsu was arrested and convicted for
       not reporting to an assembly center in May 1942

The court ruled during WWII, that the
internment of Japanese Americans such as
Fred Korematsu was legal because the posed a
potential threat to the United States. This
illustrates the idea that freedoms of liberty and
speech can and have been restricted during the
extreme cases, such as wartime.
What about Native Americans;
   How were they affected by
                       Navajo Code Talkers

The Code used by the Navajo Code Talkers created
messages by first translating Navajo words into
English, then using the first letter of each English
word to decipher the meaning. Because different
Navajo words might be translated into different
English words for the same letter, the code was
especially difficult to decipher

          Navajo Code Talkers were used in Guadalcanal, Tarawa,
          Saipan, Iwo Jima and Okinawa and were a major reason
          for the success of the U.S. Marines. According to Major
          Connor, "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would
          never have taken Iwo Jima."

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