Teach by yadd8eQB


									Teaching the Teacher
            Success is:
1.) what you know,
2.) how you use what you know
3.) how do you communicate your
  knowledge and skills
When we communicate with others, we
               are teachers: e.g.,
- our colleagues
- patients
- friends
- superiors;
- and those who control financial resources.
Thus we are all teachers and one
      secret to success is:

“How to Improve Our Teaching
I have been teaching medicine for 45
years. I may not be the best but here
 are some facts I feel are important.
Hints on Good Teaching

           Glenn S. Bulmer, Ph.D.

    Prof. Emeritus, University Oklahoma School Medicine (USA).
        VP ISHAM International (1997-2000 & 2003-2006).
        Prof (ret.) UST School Medicine & Surgery, (Phils.).,
   China: Prof (hon): 1) Third Military Medical Univ., Chongqing;
      2) Guiyang Medical College; 3) Xinjiang Prov. Hospitals
     4) Peking Medical Univ., Beijing; 5) Sun Yat-sen Univ., GZ
I think that two factors are involved in
   being a really good teacher:

A) Inherent, i.e., your genetics
B) Acquired, i.e., what you can learn to be a better teacher
A) Inherent
-   Most biologists believe that life is influenced by genes
    and environment.
-   It is debatable which one of these two is the most
-   If genes are important in being a good teacher, one should
    be born May 3-10. This is Taurus II which astrologists
    call “the week of the teacher”. I like this because that
    includes my birthday!!!
-   However, if you are Taurus II your genetic edge is very
    small, so you must acquire much on your own.
B) Acquired:

I want to show you 9 ways that will help
        you to be a better teacher.
1.) Teach with some entertainment.
- A good teacher must presents facts, data
  and knowledge. But he must make this
  process pleasant and easily accepted by
  his students.
The students at many medical schools in the USA
award their faculty for Excellence in Teaching.

At the medical university I worked at for 28 years,
one faculty member always seemed to win this award.

I decided to learn his secrets of good teaching so I
attended many of his lectures.
  At first I thought his lectures were wonderful, i.e.,
they were entertaining, he told many jokes and made
the students feel good. However, after the lectures I
                      asked myself,

“What did I learn from that lecture?” I had to admit
            that I learned nothing new.

 Yes, he was a great entertainer but a poor teacher.
A balanced lecture: Good teaching

Data                     Entertain
Facts                    Pleasure
        All facts: dull teacher

All entertainment: poor teaching

Acquired (con’t)
 2) Know your audience.
 - When asked to lecture the first question
   I ask is, “Who will I be lecturing to?”
     a) What level is their education, e.g., are they
     medical students, technicians, residents (if so,
     what field?) or are they non-medical people? It
     is important to know their level of
     education and interests.
      b) Is this an English speaking audience or will a
     translator be needed? If non English, use many
     slides, talk slowly and use a blackboard.
c) What type of lecture do they want?
- Is this an advanced lecture on their specialty, e.g.,
“Current therapy of mycoses.”
- Overview of their fields, e.g., “Mycoses in China
during the past decade”.
- Philosophical or opening of a Symposium, e.g.,
“The challenge of Orthopedic Surgery in the New
Never give a lecture until you know the audience
and what type of lecture is appropriate.
Acquired (con’t)
 3) Get the picture?
 - Many years ago, I was preparing a
   lecture on a fungus disease. This is a
   fungus disease which begins on the
   finger and progresses up the lymph
   nodes of the arm.
 Acquired (con’t)
During lecture preparation, a friend of mine called me
from the clinics. He told me that he was seeing a patient
with this disease. He suggested I come to the clinic to see
the patient. Instead I asked if he could bring the patient
here and we would present him to the students during my
He agreed and brought the patient. The two of us took the
patient into the lecture room. For the next hour we
discussed the patient who even participated by discussing
how and why he got his disease.
The students were greatly impressed, and, for many years
after students would stopped me and told me how much
they appreciated that lecture.
Acquired (con’t)

That case changed the way I taught forever.
Thereafter, I used many pictures (e.g., patients,
fungus cultures, histopathology slides),
experiences with patients and stories about
therapy. Thus, I tried to make each lecture come
Acquired (con’t)
 4) Know your subject.
 - The main reason why lecturers are
   nervous is because they feel inadequate
   about the material in their lecture.
 - Remember the old saying, “Fear is lack
 - Some fear is necessary to keep us alert.
 - But never give a lecture unless you feel
   very knowledgeable about the subject.
Acquired (con’t)
 5) Contact with the audience.
 - Many lecturers feel that they and the audience
   are competitive, e.g., adversarial or
 - Try to overcome this by being friendly with
   your audience before the lecture begins.
 - If you are afraid to look into the eyes of the
   students, look at their foreheads, they won’t
   know the difference.
 - Always be honest, even to admit you are
   wrong or don’t know.
Acquired (con’t)
  6) Be up-to-date.
  - When I visit the office of colleagues I am
    amazed to see how old their books are. If
    you are not up-to-date the students will be
    the first to notice and they will lose respect
    for you.
  - Always keep up-to-date: Go to seminars,
    read new books, and use the Internet.
  - Be careful not to be always teaching “the
    latest” because tomorrow “the latest” is old
Acquired (con’t)
 7) Timing.
 - Many lecturers seemed to be in a hurry to finish
 their lecture. Maybe it is old and dull for them so
 they are happy to complete it.
 - Remember that, this is the first time the
 students have heard this material. They need time
 to digest it mentally.
 - Slow down. Look at your students and you will
 see if you are going too fast.
 - When I make an important point, I stop as
 though I am thinking about that myself.
Acquired (con’t)

  8) Visual Aids.
  - Most of us use visual aids such as pictures,
    35mm slides, or more recently, PowerPoint
    presentations. These can be extremely
    important but they must be presented well.
  - For example, let’s look at some tables to
    study different approaches;
The following is an example of
a very poor table. There is too
much information. The
audience will not be able to see
what is important and will learn
Serum cryptococcal antigen titres and main necropsy findings of koalas from
wild population at Port Macquarie, NSW.
 Koala         Age           Sex           Nasal       Cryptococcal    Main Necropsy
                                        Colonization   antigen titre
  39            <2          Female                          0                NVL
  40            <2          Female                          0            Acute oxalate
  41           2–4          Female           -              0           Urogenital tract
  42            3           Female           -              0               Trauma
  43            4            Male           NR              0                NVL
  44           3–6           Male           NR              0                 NR
  45            5           Female           -              0              Ill-Thrift
  46            6           Female                          0             Pulmonary
  47            6            Male            -              0               Bilary
  48            6           Female                                        Acute tract
  49            6           Female           +             16+           NVL Trauma
  50            8            Male                           0             Urogenital
  51           7–9          Female           -              4+         Acute renal failed
  52           7–9          Female           +              8+                NR
  53            9           Female           +              4+                NR
  54           > 10          Male            +                               NVL
  55           > 10          Male                           0               Trauma
This is another example of a poor table. Note that some
colors are very good while others are terrible.
    Serum cryptococcal antigen determinations from koalas with clinical
    cryptococcosis necropsied at Faculty of Veterinarian Science.

       Koala         SEX         Age                 Main Necropsy
        132         Female        3      Nasal cavity disease, early dissemination
        133         Female        8              Nasopharyngeal disease.
        134         Female       > 10              Nasal cavity disease
        135          Male         1                Wide dissemination
        14+          Male         9                Nasal cavity disease
        136          Male         10               Meningoencephalitis
        137          Male         5                    Pneumonia
A very good table: not too much data and good colors.

 Serum cryptococcal antigen determinations from koalas with clinical
 cryptococcosis necropsied at Faculty of Veterinarian Science.

     Koala         SEX         Age                Main Necropsy
      132         Female        3     Nasal cavity disease, early dissemination
      133         Female        8             Nasopharyngeal disease.
      134         Female       > 10             Nasal cavity disease
      135          Male         1               Wide dissemination
      14+          Male         9               Nasal cavity disease
      136          Male        10               Meningoencephalitis
      137          Male         5                   Pneumonia
Visual Aids (con’t)

      We may spend years developing good data
from our research. But, in a lecture, we normally
have 1-2 minutes to present it. Thus, it is
important to design tables that are clear and
meaningful to the audience.
Acquired (con’t)
 9) Be a salesman.
 - Students are not as interested in your
   specialty as you are. Thus, you need to
   sell yourself and your product (i.e., your
   specialty) to the audience.
 - For example, many people feel that the
   study of Infectious Diseases must be a
   very dull subject. But to you it is
   extremely exciting and always changing.
   For this reason I feel you must make your
   field alive. Sell it!
Acquired (con’t)

  -I feel it is important that a teacher challenges his
  students intellectually. There is an old saying:
  “A really good teacher can drive a student to think.”
  -As a teacher, this is your responsibility. Remember
  that the primary purpose of a teacher is to be
  replaced. Hopefully some of the better students in
  your audiences will be your replacement.
  - Lastly for medicine to advance our students must
  eventually be better than us.
Thank You!

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