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Habitats 3-5 - Lakota Stories

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Habitats 3-5 - Lakota Stories Powered By Docstoc
					Students start out by hearing “The Animals of the Four Directions.” They go on to learn about how
animals are classified under the Western and Lakota classification systems. Students learn about
animals that are sacred to the Lakota as they learn about habitats, adaptations, and food chains.


Length: 16 Days


Standards:
      Students are able to differentiate between vertebrates and invertebrates, and classify the five
       groups of vertebrates (mammal, reptile, amphibian, bird, and fish) based on characteristics.
       SD Example: Reproduction (live birth or eggs), body covering, respiration; Define vertebrate and
       invertebrates. (4.L.1.2.)
      Students are able to identify behavioral and structural adaptations that allow a plant or
       animal to survive in a particular environment. SD Example: Hibernation and migration; Explain
       environments and adaptations. (4.L.2.1.)
      Students are able to explain how a size of a population is dependent upon the available
       resources within its community. SD Example: Know community resources; Define population.
       (4.L.2.2.)
      Students are able to describe the flow of energy through food chains and webs. SD Example:
       Understand food chains. (4.L.3.1.)


Objectives:
      Day 1: “The Animals of the Four Directions”
      Day 2: Vertebrate or invertebrate? (4.L.1.2.)
      Day 3: What are the five kinds of vertebrates? (4.L.1.2.)
      Day 4: What is a mammal? (4.L.1.2.)
      Day 5: What is a reptile? (4.L.1.2.)
      Day 6: What is an amphibian? (4.L.1.2.)
      Day 7: What is a bird? (4.L.1.2.)
      Day 8: What is a fish? (4.L.1.2.)
      Day 9, 10, 11: What are adaptations? (4.L.2.1.)
      Day 12: What resources do animals find in their habitats? (4.L.2.2.)
      Day 13: How do resources affect population size? (4.L.2.2.)
      Day 14: What are producers, consumers, and decomposers? (4.L.3.1.)
      Day 15-16: What is a food chain? (4.L.3.1.)
Appendix:
     The Animals of the Four Directions
     Prehistoric Giants Reading Companion
     Mammal Research
     Amphibian Fun! + Answer Sheet
     Ziŋtkála (Bird) Research
     Wamákaškaŋ Research
     “All Dried Up” Questions
     Prairie Animal Name Cards
                      Three-Minute Comprehension Rubric
                     BB = Below Basic (59% or less); B = Basic (60-79%);
                   P = Proficient (80-89%); A = Advanced (90% and above)

Student   Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day
 Name      1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16
Day 1: “The Animals of the Four Directions”
Materials: Laptop Computer Attached to an LCD Projector; “The Animals of the Four Directions”

Introduction: We’re going to begin learning about habitats and the animals that live in them. We’re
going to begin by hearing a story from Homer White Lance, a Lakota elder, who will tell about the
animals of the four directions.

    1. Show your students “The Animals of the Four Direction,” available on the Lakota Stories
       website.
    2. After distributing “The Animals of the Four Directions” worksheet, play “The Animals of the Four
       Directions” video again. Have students fill in the name of each animal family (tiyóšpaye) as
       Homer names them. After the video is over, have students illustrate each section of the
       medicine wheel.
    3. NOTE: In the video and throughout this unit, your students will learn new Lakota words. You
       can reinforce their memory by having them keep a pictorial vocabulary notebook for their new
       Lakota words. You can have them turn an ordinary notebook into a Lakota vocabulary notebook
       by having them record the new word, a drawing of the word, and a definition in their notebook,
       starting a new word on each page.




Day 2: Vertebrate or invertebrate?
Materials: Laptop Computer Attached to an LCD Projector; Blank 11x17 Paper

Introduction: There are many different classification systems that we use to put different kinds of living
into groups based on their characteristics. What is a characteristic? Challenge students to name an
animal. Then, list one or two characteristics. Challenge other students in the class to list more
characteristics of the animal.

    1. Wamákaškaŋ is the Lakota word for animal. Write wamákaškaŋ on the board.
            Wa means “being” (if students are interested, you can explain that “wa” has several
               meanings, including “purity” and “snow,” but in this word, it means anything which is
               something, or any being)
            Máka means Mother Earth
            Škaŋ means motion
    2. So, wamákaškaŋ means any being of Mother Earth which moves, or any moving being from the
       Earth. According to Lakota elders, you should not use the word “animal” when referring to the
       Wamákaškaŋ Nation. “Animal” means second-class citizen or beast. Wamákaškaŋ are our
       equals.
    3. Traditionally, the Lakota system distinguished between the two-leggeds, the four-leggeds, and
       the winged. Additionally, each kind of animal was considered a nation or oyáte, and each group
   within a nation was considered a tiyóšpaye or family. You can have a nation of people, for
   instance, the Sicangu Oyáte. Or, you can have a nation of animals, like the Tatáŋka Oyáte. Also,
   according traditional Lakota wisdom, many non-living beings like rocks have a spirits. So, you
   can have the Ίŋyaŋ Oyáte. It’s useful to know both the way the Lakota classify beings and the
   classification system that scientists use today.
4. On the board, draw the following chart:




5. Ask that students draw their own outlines of this chart on blank 11x17 paper, then turn the
   paper over.
6. With students’ help, fill in the chart:
        First Tier: Plants (Wató) and Animals (Wamákaškaŋ)
        Second Tier: Vertebrates are animals with backbones. (Show students your backbone
           and have them touch their own.) Invertebrates are animals without backbones. Can
           anyone think of an animal without a backbone? (Worm…but not a snake!, starfish,
           octopus, flies, spiders, crabs, etc.) Vertebrates and invertebrates are the two basic
           divisions of animals.
        Third Tier: For now, we’re going to focus on vertebrates. Can anyone think of the family
           that humans belong to? (Mammals.) What about frogs? (Amphibians.) Snakes, lizards,
           and crocodiles? (Reptiles.) Blue jays and hawks? (Birds.) Salmon and trout? (Fish.)
7. The chart should look something like the following:
    8. Next, with students’ help, think of several examples to write by each classification family.
    9. Then, have students write the nine classification families on their own charts. However, instead
        of writing examples, they should pick one example from each classification family and draw a
        beautiful illustration alongside the category. (There should be nine drawings in total.)
    10. Now, let’s explore the difference between vertebrates and invertebrates a little bit more. (If
        students like, they can take notes on the back of their charts as you introduce the following
        material on the board:


                        Vertebrates                                      Invertebrates
                        Usually bigger                                    Usually smaller
          57,739 different species (2% of all species)    2 million different species (98% of all species)
                A skeleton made of vertebrae                               No backbone
        Highly developed brain and a protective outer     No highly developed brain; no protective skin
                         layer of skin
                      5 different groups:                              30 different groups
        mammals, amphibians, birds, fish, and reptiles

    11. Since we’ll spend the rest of the week learning about vertebrates, let’s learn about some of my
        favorite invertebrates in the remaining time. Boot up your laptop computer to
        http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/.
             The shark is a vertebrate. It’s actually a mammal. An octopus is an invertebrate. It
                doesn’t have a spine. What if a shark and an octopus got in a fight. How many people
                think the vertebrate would win? How about the invertebrate? Show
                http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/animals/invertebrates-
                animals/octopus-and-squid/octopus_giant_kills_shark.html for the outcome.
             Let students choose other invertebrate video segments to watch based on their interest
                in the remaining time: http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: What’s the MAIN difference between vertebrates and
invertebrates? Have students write their answers on a half-sheet of paper. (Answer: Vertebrates have
backbones and invertebrates don’t.)



Day 2: What are the five kinds of vertebrates?
Materials: Laptop Computer attached to LCD projector; Reading A-Z subscription; Prehistoric Giants
Reading Companion

Introduction: Yesterday we learned about how human beings classify animals, wamákaškaŋ. There are
many different ways. Traditionally, the Lakota distinguished between the two-leggeds and the four-
leggeds. These days, scientists classify animals as vertebrates or invertebrates. Can anyone tell me
about some characteristics of invertebrates? What about vertebrates? Today we’re going to learn
about the five different kinds of vertebrates and some of their characteristics by taking a trip to the
prehistoric world. NOTE: This lesson requires a subscription to Reading A-Z. If your school does not
have a subscription, you can use an equivalent passage (with comprehension questions) in a fourth
grade science textbook.

   1. Does anyone know what animals most famously lived in the prehistoric world, that is, the world
      before human beings? Yes, dinosaurs. However, dinosaurs weren’t the only animals to live back
      then. There were also
   2. Go to http://www.readinga-z.com/book.php?id=1151 and have students choral-read
      “Prehistoric Giants” as a projectable book using the LCD projector. (Click on the “Projectable
      Book” link in the right-hand column.)
   3. As students read the book, pause when appropriate and have them fill out the Prehistoric Giants
      Reading Companion (in Appendix).
   4. Click on “Comprehension Quiz” under “Projectable Resources” in the right-hand column. Have
      students work together in groups to discuss each answer, then have tables vote A, B, C, or D for
      each question.
   5. Make the following chart on the board. Have students think of characteristics belonging to each
      tiyóšpaye in small groups, using the “Prehistoric Giants Reading Companion” as a guide, then
      have volunteers share with the class. Students will refine their thinking as they learn more
      about the characteristics of different wamákaškaŋ over the next five days.

                    Reptiles   Mammals        Birds      Amphibians       Fish




Three-Minute Comprehension Check: Have students list the five vertebrate families on a half-sheet of
paper.




Day 3: What is a mammal?
Materials: Computer Lab; “Mammal Research”

Introduction: Let’s review. What are vertebrates? What are invertebrates? What are the two-leggeds?
What are the four-leggeds? These categories both belong to different classification systems, the
Western and the Lakota. Today we’re going to continue learning about the animal family that human
beings belong to, MAMMALS.

   1. Have each table or group of students pick a favorite mammals. Pick a representative from each
      group to write the mammal’s name on the board, and another representative to make a (quick)
      chalk or dry erase marker drawing of the mammal their group chose.
   2. Ask students to volunteer ideas about what these mammals have in common. Write down
      student answers.
   3. Once a fairly long list has been generated, go over each item and see if students can think of an
      animal from another family (e.g. a reptile or a bird) that shares this characteristic. The goal here
      is to figure out what characteristics set mammals apart from all other animals.
   4. There are a few things that make mammals unique: (1) All mammals are born live (not hatched
      from an egg) and fed with milk when they are young (females or wίŋyela have mammary
      glands). (2) All mammals have hair, even if it’s only a little. Even whales have hair, because
      they’re mammals!
   5. In addition, most (but not all) mammals are warm-blooded, meaning that they keep their body
      at a constant temperature, and have four limbs.
   6. Before we start our activity, you need to know two more things. Mammals can be carnivores
      (eat meat), herbivores (eat plants), or omnivores (eat meat or plants). In addition, many
      mammals are protected by the World Wildlife Federation because their species is danger of
      dying out. Blue whales are endangered, and if people kill blue whales for their skin, there won’t
      be any blue whales left. So, people aren’t allowed to kill blue whales anymore. Hopefully, if we
      let them be, blue whales will breed and they won’t be endangered anymore!
   7. Mammal Research Activity. Pass out Mammal Research note-takers, and have students work in
      groups at student computers or individually in a computer lab. (This activity can also be done as
      a whole-group activity using an LCD projector and a laptop computer.) Have students visit
      http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/facts/ and go to the Mammals section. They
      should read the article and fill out the note-takers for the mammals listed. Then, they should
      pick their own mammals to learn about.

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: What two characteristics make mammals unique? Have students
respond on a half-sheet of paper.




Day 4: What is a reptile?
Materials: Laptop attached to an LCD projector

Introduction: Yesterday we learned about mammals. What two characteristics make mammals unique?
Can anyone list a fact that they learned about a mammal yesterday? What is the Lakota name for
“animal”? Traditionally, how do the Lakota classify wamákaškaŋ?

   1. We’re going to learn about a very important animal for the Lakota, kéya, the turtle. Does
      anyone know what family the turtle belongs to? Yes, the turtle is a reptile.
   2. In the Lakota calendar, each time haŋwί, the moon, completes a phase is a month. It takes 28
      days for haŋwί to complete one phase. 13 moons x 28 days = 364 days in the Lakota calendar
      year. Because there are 13 moons in a year, 13 is a very special number for the Lakota. Kéya is a
      special animal because there are 13 moons on kéya’s back. Draw or show a picture of a kéya to
      illustrate the 13 moons:
3. Now, I bet that you already know a lot of facts about kéya. But, I also bet that there’s a lot of
   stuff that we can still learn. Let’s see if we can think about the facts that we know about kéya,
   and also, some questions we can ask by making a Fact-Question-Answer chart. Make the
   following chart on the board (similar to a K-W-L chart):




4. Have students generate facts about kéya, for instance, that kéya lays eggs. For each fact, have
   students generate 1+ question(s) that relate to the fact. (How many eggs can kéya lay at once?
   How often does kéya lay eggs?)
5. Using your laptop and LCD projector, show students the following:
        “A Tale of Two Turtles” http://octopus.gma.org/turtles/tale2.html Perhaps have a boys
           versus girls read-aloud competition, having one group read the part of the snapping
           turtle and the other read the part of the loggerhead turtle.
        Then show students “Turtle Parts” at http://octopus.gma.org/turtles/parts.html
        Next, show students how turtles lay eggs at http://www.5min.com/Video/Sea-Turtles-
           and-Their-Hatchlings-1354390
        Finally, have students learn about the painted turtle at
           http://naturemappingfoundation.org/natmap/facts/painted_turtle_k6.html
6. Have students prompt you to write down answers to their questions as you learn about kéya. At
   the end, if there are any unanswered questions, talk about different ways to find out the
   answers. In addition, if any answers are puzzling, encourage students to think of a new question
   that an answer inspires.
   7. It’s important to remember that kéya aren’t the only reptiles. In fact, scientists break down
      reptiles into three main categories. (If possible, write this in on the classification system chart
      from earlier in the week.)
             Crocodiles and alligators (23 different species)
             Lizards and snakes (7,900 different species)
             Turtles and tortoises (300 different species)
   8. All reptiles, including turtles, share the following characteristics that distinguish them from
      mammals, amphibians, birds, and fish.
             Cold-blooded (temperature changes as the climate changes; can handle extreme
               temperatures)
             Lay eggs (do not give birth to live animals like mammals)
             Have scales (and unlike mammals, no hair!)

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: On a half-sheet paper, have students give three reasons why a
turtle is not a mammal.




Day 5: What is an amphibian?
Materials: Computer lab; “Amphibian Fun!”

Introduction: As a warm-up, let’s list the characteristics of mammals and reptiles. Yes, mammals drink
their mothers’ milk when they’re young and have hair. Reptiles are cold-blooded, have scales, and lay
eggs. We have three more vertebrates to learn about: birds, fish, and amphibians. Today we’re going to
learn about amphibians.

   1. Amphibians are cold-blooded animals. “Amphi” means both, and amphibians can live both in
      water and on land. Most amphibians start out as water-dwellers, then grow lungs suitable for
      land when they’re adults. Amphibians lay eggs, and since the young can only survive in water,
      they lay eggs in water. Finally, unlike mammals or reptiles, amphibians do not have hair or
      scales.
   2. Even though Reptile Gardens in Rapid City, South Dakota, is mostly a place to learn about
      reptiles, they actually let some amphibians in. So, we’re going to go on a (virtual) field trip to
      learn about amphibians.
   3. Have students work together or in groups in a computer lab or at student computers to answer
      questions on “Amphibian Fun!” It would be useful to bookmark the webpage they’ll be using,
      http://www.reptilegardens.com/learning-pages/amphibians/, in advance. (Note: If a computer
      lab is unavailable, this activity can be complete as whole-group exercise using a computer and
      an LCD projector.)

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: Have students list three characteristics of amphibians on a half-
sheet of paper. (Answer: Lay eggs, no hair or scales, can survive in water or on land.)
Day 6: What is a bird?
Materials: Computer Lab; Bird Research activity sheet

Introduction: The Lakota word for “bird” is ziŋtkála. What birds are sacred to the Lakota? (Eagles and
hawks.) What are some characteristics of eagles and hawks?

    1. Ziŋtkála have wings, two legs, and a beak, are warm-blooded, and lay eggs. Interestingly
       enough, dinosaurs are the early ancestors of ziŋtkála.
    2. Bird Research Activity. Pass out Mammal Research note-takers, and have students work in
       groups at student computers or individually in a computer lab. (This activity can also be done as
       a whole-group activity using an LCD projector and a laptop computer.) Have students visit
       http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/facts/ and go to the Birds section. They should
       read the article and fill out the note-takers for the birds listed. Then, they should pick their own
       birds to learn about.

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: What are three characteristics that make ziŋtkála unique? Have
students respond on a half-sheet of paper.




Day 7: What is a fish?
Materials: Laptop attached to an LCD projector

Introduction: So far, we’ve been talking about what characteristics make different families of
vertebrates unique. Does anyone remember a difference between vertebrates and invertebrates? What
are the five families of vertebrates? Today we’re going to talk about the final family, fish or hoğáη, and
discuss what makes these families similar and different.

    1. Make a grid on chart paper. Label each horizontal column with the following: Mammals,
       Reptiles, Amphibians, Birds, Fish. Then, ask students to supply characteristics of the families
       (without telling you which family each characteristic belongs to). Write responses on the
       vertical column. The chart should contain at least the following:

                              Mammals            Reptiles      Amphibians         Birds            Fish
                                                                                (Ziŋtkála)       (Hoğáη)
           Live birth
            Fed milk
        Born from an egg
            Has hair
           Has scales
           Has a beak
           Has wings
            Has fins
            Has gills
        Can live on land
        Can live in water
         Cold-blooded
         Warm-blooded
        Can be 2-legged
        Can be 4-legged
        Can have no legs
        Mouth or nostril
           breather
        Breathe through
            the skin

    2. Next, work with students to discuss each characteristic for mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and
       birds. If there are any surprises (mammals can live in the water), talk about relevant examples
       (whales).
    3. Then, have students choral read “All About Fish” at http://www.kidzone.ws/animals/fish1.htm
       on a laptop computer attached to an LCD projector. (Or, print out the short article.)
    4. Then, go through the categories, and discuss the characteristics of fish.

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: How are fish different from mammals? List three differences.
Have students respond on a half-sheet of paper.




Day 8: What are adaptations?
Materials: Print-out pictures of different animals; blank white paper

Introduction: Who remembers the Lakota word for animal? What does wamákaškaŋ mean? Now that
we’ve talked about the characteristics of wamákaškaŋ, we’re going to talk about how different
characteristics make different animals well-suited for their environments. When an animal is well-suited
for its environment, this is called an adaptation.

    1. Show students print-out pictures of a buffalo, a turtle, and a skunk.
           Buffalo/Tatáŋka: Where does tatáŋka live? What is its hair like? Is its skin thick or thin?
              How does its hair and skin help protect it from intense prairie winds? What about
              tatáŋka’s size? (The biggest one that scientists have a record of weighed 2,500 pounds.)
              How does its size protect the tatáŋka, a herbivore, from carnivorous predators like
              wolves (šuŋgčίŋča) and bears (mató)? Does tatáŋka live alone or in herds? How does
              living in herds help protect tatáŋka from predators?
                Turtle/Kéya: Tell me about where kéya lives. What is its shell like? What’s special about
                 what it can do with its head, limbs, and tail? How does pulling its head and limbs help
                 protect kéya from predators in its environment? How does this adaptation help kéya
                 when the weather is rough? What about kéya’s tongue? Scientists have recently
                 discovered that kéya’s tongue allows it to breathe underwater…it can stay underwater
                 for months! How does this help kéya in a harsh environment? Finally, what about
                 kéya’s color? How does being green/tózi or brown/ğί help it hide from predators?
                Skunk/Maká: Where does maká live? Who are maká’s predators? What special thing
                 can maká do if it senses danger? How does emitting a foul smell help maká survive in an
                 environment with šuŋgčίŋča and mató?

    2. According to scientists, wayyyyyyy back in history, there used to be two different kinds of maká.
       Some had the ability to spray a foul smell, some did not. What do you think happened to those
       who could not spray a smell? Why didn’t they survive? What about those who could? Why did
       this skill help them survive? Today, all maká have the ability to spray. This is called an
       adaptation. Due to the challenges of their environment, all maká have developed the ability to
       spray a foul smell.
    3. How is this relevant to tatáŋka? (Maybe the hairiest ones with the thickest skin survived, and
       the rest did not.) What about kéya? (Maybe those who could pull their head in their shell
       survived, and the rest did not.)
    4. Have students draw one of the following animals on a sheet of blank white paper:
       Buffalo/Tatáŋka, Wolf/ Šuŋgčίŋča, Bear/Mató, Horse/ Šúnkawakáŋ, Turtle/Kéya, Turkey/
       Waglékšuŋ, Eagle/Waŋblί, Owl/ Hiŋháŋ, Duck/ Mağáksiča, Hawk/Četáŋ, Skunk/Maká. The
       heading should contain both the English name and the Lakota name of the animal. The will use
       this animal in tomorrow’s assignment.

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: Choose an animal. List one of its adaptations on a half-sheet of
paper, and explain briefly why this adaptation helps it survive in its environment.




Day 9: What are adaptations? (Cont’d)
Materials: Library or computer lab, “Wamákaškaŋ Research”

Introduction: What is the Lakota name for animal? Where does the word “wamákaškaŋ” come from?
Yesterday we talked about the adaptations of wamákaškaŋ. Who can tell me one of tatáŋka’s
adaptations? What about maká? What about kéya? What is an adaptation? Yes, it’s a trait of an
animal that helps it survive in its environment. It can be a color, the shape of its tongue, the nature of its
hair, fur, or scales, a special skill, and so on.

    1. Have each student share the animal (using its Lakota name) he or she drew the prior day. After
       a student names his/her animal in Lakota, have everyone in the class say the English name of
       the animal aloud.
    2. Next, take the class to the library or computer lab for research. Have students use
       encyclopedias, nonfiction books, or websites to read more about their animals.
    3. Finally, pass out “Wamákaškaŋ Research.” Still using reference materials, have students fill out
       the forms.

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: What is an adaptation? Have students respond on a half-sheet of
paper.




Day 10: What are adaptations? (Cont’d)
Materials: “Wamákaškaŋ Research”; Wamákaškaŋ Pictures

Introduction: Today we’re going to talk about two special kinds of adaptations, then we’re going to
finish our Wamákaškaŋ projects.

    1. I’m thinking of two special kinds of adaptations. The first one is an adaptation for very cold
       winters. Before winter comes, the animal with this adaptation grows its coat very thick, eats a
       lot of food, and stores the food in its belly as fat. Then, the animal goes to sleep for the winter.
       During this time, the animal’s heartbeat slows down so that its body conserves more energy.
       (That is, it doesn’t use energy any needlessly so that it can save up its energy for as long as
       possible.) What is this adaptation? (Hibernation.)
    2. Have students generate a list of animals that hibernate in the wild. (Bears, squirrels, bees,
       possums, hamsters, hedgehogs, lizards, frogs, toads, prairie dogs, skunks, bats, badgers,
       marmots, newts, snakes, turtles, etc. Note: Not every species of animal from this list hibernates;
       the adaptation may vary with climate conditions.)
    3. I’m thinking of another kind of adaptation. Like hibernation, this adaptation is for animals that
       live in places where it gets too cold to survive during the winter. When it starts getting cold,
       animals move in flocks, schools, or herds to a warmer climate. Then, when the winter’s over,
       they come back to their home. What is this adaptation? (Migration.)
    4. Have students generate a list of animals that migrate. (Most birds and geese, buffalo, whales,
       sea turtles, zebras, caribou, rich humans who have a second home in Florida, etc. Note: Not
       every species of animal from this list migrates; the adaptation may vary with climate conditions.)
    5. Ask students if anyone picked an animal that hibernates or migrates. What feature on your
       animal’s body helps it with hibernation or migration? (Ex. Mató’s coat helps it stay warm while
       it sleeps; Tatáŋka’s sturdy hooves help it travel long distances when it starts getting cold.)
    6. Pass out students’ pictures and “Wamákaškaŋ Research” forms. The goal is to have them draw
       arrows that point at five or six adaptations found on their animals’ body, write a one or two
       word label for the adaptation, and write one sentence explaining how this adaptation helps it
       survive in its climate. Have them write in pencil first, then go over in marker. A sample might
       look something like this:
   7. Frame the pictures by stapling them to construction paper, then hang in the hallway to have
      other classes learn about the Lakota names of animals and animal adaptations.

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: Define hibernation and migration on a half-sheet of paper.




Day 11: What resources do animals find in their habitats?
Materials: TV with DVD player or Laptop computer attached to LCD projector; “Magic School Bus: All
Dried Up” DVD; “All Dried Up” Questions

Introduction: We learned about how adaptations help animals survive in their environments. What are
some common adaptations? Today we’re going to focus on the different environments that animals live
in and what resources exist in these environments.

   1. Define the following the following for students on the board:
           Habitat: The environment where an animal community lives
           Resources: Things naturally found in a habitat that an animal needs to survive
   2. Have students generate a list of common habitats. (Ocean, Wetlands, Prairie, Arctic, Desert,
      Jungle, etc.)
   3. Explain that in every habitat, there are three resources that all animals need to survive: food
      (wóyute), shelter (tipί…this word just means “home”), and water (mnί). Have students chant
      these three words over and over, both in English and in Lakota.
   4. Circle “desert” on the student-generated list and explain that the Lakota word for “desert” is
      hópuza. Tell students that they are going to go on a field trip to learn about the resources in the
      desert/ hópuza habitat.
   5. Pass out “All Dried Up” Questions. Show students “All Dried Up” (available for free online at
      www.veoh.com/browse/videos/category/educational_and_howto/watch/v19263769zeTyn23n
      or at many school libraries.)
   6. At the end of the episode, review questions with students.

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: Define “habitat” and “resources” on a half-sheet of paper.




Day 12: How do resources affect population size?
Materials: Laptop Computer attached to LCD projector

Introduction: What is a habitat? What are the three things animals who live in a habitat need? Does
anyone remember the Lakota words for food, shelter, and water?

   1. Define the following for students:
            Resources: Things naturally found in a habitat that an animal needs to survive
            Scarcity: When there’s not enough resources for all the animals living in a habitat
            Population: The number of animals belonging to a certain species
   2. Today we’re going to talk about how resources affect a population. Food is a resource. Let’s say
      that we’re in the prairie. It’s a very dry summer, a drought. Grass dries up. There’s lots of
      scarcity. How does this affect tatáŋka? Yes, tatáŋka is an herbivore, and needs grass to survive.
      If there’s not enough grass, many members of tatáŋka’s herd will die, and the herd will become
      smaller. If the herd is smaller, there will be fewer females to have calves, and there will be fewer
      calves born than in the year before. There will be fewer female calves to eventually have babies,
      and if there’s still a drought, there’s a good chance that many calves won’t even survive in the
      first place.
   3. Write the following sentence on the board: WHEN RESOURCES ARE SCARCE, THE POPULATION
      SIZE GOES DOWN.
   4. Let’s say that there’s a ton of rainfall. Grass grows everywhere. Tatáŋka has plenty to eat, and
      no members of the herd die. When females have calves, none die of starvation because there’s
      plenty of food for all.
   5. Write the following sentence on the board: WHEN RESOURCES ARE ABUNDANT, THE
      POPULATION GROWS.
   6. As you know, human beings are animals. What kind? (Mammals.) Raise your hand if you think
       that our first observation, WHEN RESOURCES ARE SCARCE, THE POPULATION SIZE GOES DOWN,
       applies to humans. Raise your hand if you think that our second observation, WHEN RESOURCES
       ARE ABUNDANT, THE POPULATION GROWS, applies to humans.
   7. Watch “The Population Connection: World Population” on an LCD projector hooked up to a
       laptop computer at www.populationconnection.org/site/PageServer?pagename=issues_main.
       (Note: Your network firewall must allow Youtube.com for the video to play. Talk to your firewall
       coordinator if this is an issue.)
   8. Name two times when the population of humans exploded. (The 1800s – Industrial Age, Mid-
       1900s – Modern Medicine.) What do scientists predict will happen in the future? (The
       Information Age and another population explosion.)
   9. Based on what we learned about wamákaškaŋ, what must have happened to humans for our
       population to explode? (More resources.) Is abundant rainfall the only way to increase
       resources? (No, human beings have technological innovations that have affected the amount
       and quality of resources. Resources are not limited to food, but also to shelter, access to
       drinking water, and medicine.) How has technology improved our shelter, access to drinking
       water, and medicine? (Ex. air conditioning helps older people endure hot summers.)
   10. With students, generate three lists of specific innovations that helped or will help human beings
       increase or improve their resources during: The 1800s – Industrial Age, Mid-1900s – Modern
       Medicine, The Future – Industrial Age.

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: How do scarce resources affect population size? How do abundant
resources affect population size? Have students respond on a half-sheet of paper.




Day 13: What are producers, consumers, and decomposers?
Materials: Laptop Computer attached to LCD projector

Introduction: We’ve been learning about habitats and resources. What are habitats? What are
resources? Today, we’re going to focus on the habitat where tatáŋka and mató both live, the prairie or
makóblaye, and talk about how animals rely on each other to survive.

   1. Define the following on the board for students:
           Producer: A living thing that can make its own food
           Consumer: A living thing that gets its energy from eating other living things
           Decomposer: An organism that breaks down other living things in order to get its energy
   2. A producer is usually green and has chlorophyll, which allows it absorb sunlight, and then to turn
      the nutrients it obtains through its roots from the soil into energy. (This process is called
      photosynthesis. Who can think of an example of a producer? (Let students name plants, and list
      their responses on the board.) Producers stay put. Their roots enable them to obtain nutrients
      from the soil, but prevent them from moving around.
   3. A consumer eats plants (herbivores) or other animals (carnivores) or both plants and animals
      (omnivores) to get their energy. If they’re an herbivore, they consume the energy that a plant
      has created through the process of photosynthesis, and use it to survive. If they’re a carnivore,
      the animal that they eat will contain the energy originally made by the plant (a producer), either
      first-hand or second-hand. Who can think of an example of a consumer? (Let students name
      animals, and list their responses on the board. Label each as an herbivore, carnivore, or
      omnivore.) Consumers move around to find their food. If they couldn’t move, they couldn’t eat,
      because they don’t have roots or chlorophyll, the two things that are required for a living thing
      to be a producer.
   4. A decomposer is a small, microscopic organism. You can only see it with a microscope! Most
      decomposers are bacteria, and they break down dead bodies and waste from carnivores. Special
      decomposers are called actinolites, and they break down the dead bodies and waste from
      herbivores, and also break down dead plants. Once a decomposer breaks down a dead thing or
      waste, it becomes absorbed into the soil, taking the form of healthy nutrients. These healthy
      nutrients are absorbed up into a plant through its roots, and the whole cycle starts again!
   5. On a laptop computer attached to an LCD projector, boot up
      sheppardsoftware.com/content/animals/kidscorner/games/producersconsumersgame.htm and
      have student groups take turns responding to the “Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers
      Game.”

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: Have students list an example of a producer, consumer, and
decomposer on a half-sheet of paper.




Day 14: What is a food chain?
Materials: “A Prairie Food Chain,” available for online at
http://steckvaughn.hmhco.com/HA/correlations/pdf/f/FOS4f_prairie.pdf.

Introduction: Yesterday, we learned about producers, consumers, and decomposers. Who can give me
an example of a producer? A consumer? A decomposer? What is a producer? A consumer? A
decomposer?

   1. Mitákuye Oyásiŋ is one of the most important philosophies of the Lakota. It means “We are all
      related.” Mitákuye Oyásiŋ means that we come from the earth when we are born and return to
      the earth when we die. Like all wamákaškaŋ, we rely on the earth for food and water. We eat
      plants and animals in order to survive, but because living things are sacred, we don’t kill
      needlessly. In the Lakota tradition, when we eat, we give thanks, knowing that the plant or
      animal is becoming a part of us and that we need it to live.
   2. In nature, wamákaškaŋ almost never kill each other for no reason. Wamákaškaŋ kill other
      wamákaškaŋ that their bodies need for food, and leave wamákaškaŋ alone that won’t help
         them. Food chains and food webs show how all living things are connected through their need
         for food, and their ability to be food for each other.
    3.   Why do animals need to eat each other? If you look on the back of your box of cereal, you’ll see
         something called a nutrition label. There’s a word on there, “calories.” Calories are the scientific
         word for energy. Energy is what gets your body going. If you haven’t eaten all day, you feel
         tired and sluggish. That’s because you don’t have any energy—you haven’t had enough calories
         to keep your body going. Think about a car. Can a car run if it has no gas in it? Gas contains the
         energy that a car needs, and food contains the energy that all living things need.
    4.   Distribute “A Prairie Food Chain,” available for online at
         http://steckvaughn.hmhco.com/HA/correlations/pdf/f/FOS4f_prairie.pdf. Next to each of the
         English names, direct the students to write the following Lakota names:
               Sun = Wί
               Gopher = Wahiŋkéya
               Owl =Hiŋháŋ
               Grass = Pežί
               Grasshopper = Gnugnúška
               Mouse = Itúŋkala
               Coyote = Šuŋgmánitu
    5.   Remind students that when animals die, their bodies decompose and turn into healthy bacteria.
         This bacteria contains the minerals and nutrients that grass needs to grow. Who eats grass in
         this picture?
    6.   Have students work individually or in groups to complete the questions that go with “A Prairie
         Food Chain.” After ten minutes, have students discuss and revise their answers.

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: What is a food chain? Have students respond on a half-sheet of
paper.



Day 15: What is a food chain? (Cont’d)
Materials: Prairie plant and animal name cards (printed on cardstock for durability and attached to yarn
so that students can wear like a necklace)

Introduction: What is a producer? A consumer? A decomposer? What is a food chain? What is
transferred from one living thing to another through the food chain? Can anyone give an example of a
simple food chain? Today we’re going to learn about a food web, a complex way of understanding how
different food chains fit together in a certain habitat.

    1. FOOD WEB ACTIVITY:
          Distribute name cards with plants and animals who live in a prairie habitat (makóblaye).
           Give the sun (wί) the ball of yellow yarn. The name cards have both the English and Lakota
           names of prairie animals.
       Before starting the activity, have each stand up and say whether their card represents a
           producer, consumer, or a decomposer. If their card represents a consumer (most are), have
           the student say whether their card represents a herbivore, carnivore, or omnivore.
       Have the students stand in a circle, with the student holding the sun card in the center.
           Because the sun is the source of energy for living things on Earth (Uŋčί Maká), direct the
           student portraying the Sun to hold on to the end of the ball of yarn, and toss the ball of yarn
           to a PRODUCER (a plant) of her choice. Why is this the first step in a food chain?
       Still holding onto a piece of yarn, have the PRODUCER toss the ball of yarn to a CONSUMER.
           The CONSUMER has to be a HERBIVORE. (Ask students about why this is the case.)
       Still holding onto a piece of yarn, have the CONSUMER/HERBIVORE toss the ball of yarn to a
           CONSUMER/OMNIVORE or CONSUMER/CARNIVORE. (Ask students about why this is the
           case.)
       This continues until the ball of yarn reaches a CONSUMER/CARNIVORE with no enemies.
           What happens when this animal (hawk, eagle, etc.) dies? Toss the ball of yarn to a
           DECOMPOSER.
       Repeat the activity several times, making sure to include all students in the activity. In the
           final round, cut the yarn from the ball after each food chain is completed, having students
           still hold on to their piece of string. At the end of the round, you’ll have a web made of
           yellow string representing the flow of energy in the prairie habitat.
                 Note: This activity has been adapted from http://www.gk-
                 12.osu.edu/Lessons/5th%20Grade/FoodWeb%20Eco%205.pdf. For educational use only.
   2. Sing the song, "I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly" and discuss with students if the song
      represents a true food chain. (Lyrics available at http://www.peterpaulandmary.com/music/17-
      07.htm.)
   3. If students agree "I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly" doesn't represent a true food
      chain, ask them how it could be changed to be more scientifically accurate.

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: Is "I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly" accurate? Why or
why not? Have students respond on a half-sheet of paper.



Day 16: What is a food chain? (Cont’d)
Materials: Computer with good speakers; “The Food Chain” by Teacher and the Rockbots purchased on
iTunes or Amazon (available for $.99 download); print-out of “Food Chain” lyrics (available for free
online at www.4boysinc.com/teacherandtherockbots/lyrics_rockbots_science_na.html#03); print-out of
“Food Chain” worksheet (available for free online at
www.4boysinc.com/teacherandtherockbots/worksheets/Sci_Food_Chain.pdf)
Introduction: Who can tell me what a food chain is? What is the Lakota phrase that means “we are all
related”? How does Mitákuye Oyásiŋ relate to the food chain?

   1. As a fun way to finish up the unit on habitats, have students listen to “The Food Chain” by
      Teacher and the Rockbots.
           The first time, they should just listen
           The second time, have them fill in the missing lyrics
              (www.4boysinc.com/teacherandtherockbots/lyrics_rockbots_science_na.html#03)
           Go over the answers, and have the students listen once more while singing along
   2. Have students complete “Food Chain” worksheet (available for free online at
      www.4boysinc.com/teacherandtherockbots/worksheets/Sci_Food_Chain.pdf)

Three-Minute Comprehension Check: Have students draw a food chain with at least one producer and at
least two consumers on a half-sheet of paper.
Name _____________________                              Date ______________________


                        The Animals of the Four Directions

Directions: Listen to “The Animals of the Four Directions.” In the Medicine Wheel,
write down the name of the animal tiyóšpaye (family) on the blank. Draw a
picture of the animal tiyóšpaye (family) in the remaining space.
Name _____________________                            Date ______________________


                      Prehistoric Giants Reading Companion



Tiyóšpaye          Examples                      Characteristics

Amphibians




Fish




Reptiles




Birds




Mammals
Name _____________________                                            Date ______________________


                                       Mammal Research
Directions: Visit http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/facts/ and find the Mammals section.
Read about each mammal. At the end, you can pick your own mammals to learn about!

   Name of              Diet            How long       Endangered?          Nurse         Does it
   Mammal            (Herbivore,       does it live     (Yes or no)       young with     have hair?
                    Carnivore, or     in the wild?                          milk?
                     Omnivore)

 Blue Whale


   Coyote
(Šuŋgmánitu)


  Black Bear
    (Mató)


    Horse
(Šúnkawakáŋ)


 Prairie Dog
  (Pispίza)


  Pick your
    own!
 __________
  Pick your
    own!
 __________
  Pick your
    own!
 __________
Name _____________________                                          Date ______________________


                                       Amphibian Fun!
Directions: Visit www.reptilegardens.com/learning-pages/amphibians/ and answer the following
questions. Make sure you read all the directions!


Read the left column on the main page. Also read “Amphibian Fun Facts.”

   1.   How many species of amphibians are there? __________
   2.   How do amphibians breathe? _____________
   3.   Do amphibians prefer sea water or fresh water? _________
   4.   Do amphibians lay eggs on land or water? _________


Now read “Frogs” on the main page. Click on “Learn More About Frogs. Read it!

   1.   What does a tadpole grow before it becomes an adult? _________
   2.   How many legs does a tadpole have as an adult? ____________
   3.   Are frogs mostly carnivores or herbivores? ________________
   4.   List two of a frog’s adaptations that helps it survive.
        _____________________________________________________________


Read “Salamanders” on the main page. Read “Learn More About Salamanders.”

   1. Where do salamanders like to live? _______________________
   2. Can a salamander grow back an arm or leg if it loses it? _________
   3. Do salamander eggs have shells? ____________


Read “SD Amphibians” on the main page. Read “Learn More About South Dakota’s
Amphibians.”

   1. What species of salamander can you find in S. Dakota? _____________________
   2. But, what kind of amphibian is a mudpuppy? ______________________
   3. What kind of frog can jump a surprisingly long distances (5 or 6 feet) for its size?
      Northern Cricket Frog
   4. What’s usually bigger, a male or a female North American bullfrog? ___________
   5. What kind of frog prefers grass and loose soil that is easy to burrow in to living
      near the water? ___________________
Name _____________________                                          Date ______________________


                               Amphibian Fun! Answer Sheet
Directions: Visit www.reptilegardens.com/learning-pages/amphibians/ and answer the following
questions. Make sure you read all the directions!


Read the left column on the main page. Also read “Amphibian Fun Facts.”

   5.   How many species of amphibians are there? 3000
   6.   How do amphibians breathe? Through their skin
   7.   Do amphibians prefer sea water or fresh water? Fresh water
   8.   Do amphibians lay eggs on land or water? Water


Now read “Frogs” on the main page. Click on “Learn More About Frogs. Read it!

   5.   What does a tadpole grow before it becomes an adult? Legs
   6.   How many legs does a tadpole have as an adult? Four
   7.   Are frogs mostly carnivores or herbivores? Carnivores
   8.   List two of a frog’s adaptations that helps it survive. Webbed feet, camouflage,
        toe pads, mild toxins/poisons


Read “Salamanders” on the main page. Read “Learn More About Salamanders.”

   4. Where do salamanders like to live? Where it is moist
   5. Can a salamander grow back an arm or leg if it loses it? Yes!
   6. Do salamander eggs have shells? No, the eggs are shelless


Read “SD Amphibians” on the main page. Read “Learn More About South Dakota’s
Amphibians.”

   6. What species of salamander can you find in S. Dakota? Tiger Salamander
   7. But, what kind of amphibian is a mudpuppy? Salamander
   8. What kind of frog can jump a surprisingly long distances (5 or 6 feet) for its size?
       Northern Cricket Frog
   9. What’s usually bigger, a male or a female North American bullfrog? Female
   10. What kind of frog prefers grass and loose soil that is easy to burrow in to living
       near the water? Great Plains Toad
Name _____________________                                             Date ______________________


                                        Ziŋtkála (Bird) Research
Directions: Visit http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/facts/ and find the Birds section. Read
about each bird. At the end, you can pick your own birds to learn about!

   Name of               Diet            How long       Endangered?          Nurse          Does it
   Mammal             (Herbivore,       does it live     (Yes or no)       young with      have hair?
                     Carnivore, or     in the wild?                          milk?
                      Omnivore)

Wild Turkey
(Waglékšuŋ)


  Bald Eagle
   (Waŋblί)


Great Horned
    Owl
  (Hiŋháŋ)


Mallard Duck
 (Pagóŋta)


  Red-Tailed
    Hawk
   (Četáŋ)

   Pick your
     own!

 __________
  Pick your
    own!

 __________
Name _____________________                                                 Date ______________________


                                       Wamákaškaŋ Research
Directions: Wamákaškaŋ means “animal” in Lakota. Now that you’ve chosen a wamákaškaŋ to draw,
read all about it in an encyclopedia, nonfiction book, or on a website. Fill in the following information.



Lakota Name _________________                              English Name ____________________

Where it lives (Example: desert, grasslands, ocean) ______________________________

Provide three details about where it lives (Example: cold winters)

     1. __________________________________________________________

     2. __________________________________________________________

     3. __________________________________________________________


What are its predators? (List as many as you can.)

______________________________________________________________________


On the right, list six adaptations of your animal. On the left, explain why each
adaptation helps it survive. (Example: If you list thick, wooly hair as a sheep’s
adaptation, in left-hand column, you might say that this helps it survive cold winters.)

                   Adaptation                                  How does this help it survive?
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.
Name _____________________                                         Date ______________________


                                  “All Dried Up” Questions

Directions: Watch “All Dried Up” and answer the following questions about the desert habitat.



   1. Phoebe learns that there is scarcity in the desert. What does scarcity mean?
      ________________________________________________________________________



   2. Phoebe is told that there is NO food, water, or shelter in the desert. Is that claim one
      hundred percent true? _______________



   3. What animals are found in the desert habitat? ______________________________



   4. What challenges are faced by animals who live in the desert?
      ________________________________________________________________________



   5. How do desert animals “defeat the heat”? _____________________________________



   6. Does it rain in the desert? _____________________________________



   7. What happens when it rains in the desert? _____________________________________



   8. What does it mean when Ms. Frizzle says, “When it pours, the desert stores”?
      ________________________________________________________________________



   9. Is soaking up water as quickly as possible an adaptation? _________________________



   10. What is another adaptation for “beating the heat” in the desert?
       ________________________________________________________________________
   Sun          Gopher
   Wί          Wahiŋkéya
   Owl           Grass
  Hiŋháŋ         Pežί
Grasshopper      Mouse
 Gnugnúška      Itúŋkala
  Coyote        Chicken
Šuŋgmánitu    Kokóyah’aŋla
  Buffalo        Wolf
  Tatáŋka      Šuŋgčίŋča
   Bear         Worm
   Mató         Waglúla
 Turkey          Horse
Waglékšuŋ     Šúnkawakáŋ
  Eagle          Owl
  Waŋblί        Hiŋháŋ
  Duck           Skunk
 Pagóŋta         Maká
  Hawk             Cat
  Četáŋ           Igmú
  Plant        Porcupine
  Wató           Pahίŋ
  Otter         King-Bird
  Ptáŋ        Wasnáshaheča
Prairie Hen      Corn
  Šiyóka        Wagmίza
  Frog             Fox
 Gnašká          Šuŋğίla
 Insect         Flower
Wablúška        Wanáča

				
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