Nonverbal Communication in the Organization by liaoqinmei


									    Chapter 5: Nonverbal
Communication in the Organization
       Nonverbal Communication:
        Definition and Principles
• Nonverbal communication are all intentional and
  unintentional messages that are not written, spoken, or
• One way to understand the relationship between culture
  and nonverbal messages is through the dimension of
  technical-formal-informal levels of culture.
   – Technical level- the rules for cultural and nonverbal behaviors
     are openly known and easily stated by most citizens of a
     particular culture.
   – Formal level- the rules for behavior are clearly stated, but the
     reasons for the rules are not.
   – Informal level- neither the rules for behavior nor the reason for
     the rules are taught; they are unconsciously learned by imitation
     (modeling ourselves after others).
    Facial Expressions and Eye
• The face is responsible for most of the
  meaning in nonverbal messages.
• The eyes are the most expressive part of
  the face. Eye contact:
  – 1) shows interest and attentiveness
  – 2) signals a wish to participate
  – 3) controls and persuades others
• Eye contact has different meanings in
  various cultures
    Other Body Movements and
• Gestures and body
  movements can be
  divided into four
  – Emblems are
    intentional body
    movements and
    gestures that carry an
    exact meaning (ex.
    middle finger)
      • Illustrators are intentional
        movements or gestures
        that add to or clarify
        verbal meaning (ex.
        Pointing when giving
• Regulators control the
  flow of a conversation
  (ex. looking at watch
  during meeting)
• Adaptors are habitual
  gestures and movements
  we use in times of stress
  (ex. popping knuckles)
Clothing and Personal Appearance
• Clothing and appearance
  are used to determine
  status, credibility, and
• Today’s business dress
  ranges from traditional to
  casual and vary from
  company to company.
• Clothing is important to
  an organization’s image.
   – Color and style of clothing
     affect appearance.
  Distance and Personal Space
               Types of distance
• intimate distance: from touching to 18 inches—
  reserved for private use
• personal distance: from 18 inches to 4 feet is
  used by close friends or colleagues as they eat
  lunch together or stand at coffeepot
• social distance: from 4 to 12 feet are used in
  most business transactions
• public distance: from 12 to 15 feet to farther is
  maintained between speakers and a large group
  of listeners.
        Physical Environment
• Physical environments reveal characteristics of
  the owner of the territory and affect how people
  – Color affects our emotional response and is a
    determining factor in whether an environment is
    judged as effective or not
  – Lighting and room size also affects communication.
  – Ergonomics, the science of mating machines to
    human requirements.
     • Poor ergonomics may result in backache, headache, and
• One way to understand the relationship between
  time and culture is to look at the time
  dimensions: monochromic and polychromic.
  – Monochromic (M-time) view time as a scarce
    resource which must be rationed and controlled
    through the use of schedules and appointments.
  – Polychromic (P-time) see the maintenance of
    harmonious relationships as the important thing, so
    that the use of time needs to be flexible in order that
    we do right by the various people to whom we have
    Nonverbal Status Symbols
• Clothes
• Location and Size of Office (interior
• Time—how it is handled

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