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					SITUATION & TRENDS
    SUPPLEMENT
       JACKSON COUNTY
                     October 2002




        Janet L. Griesel, Extension Associate
           John C. Leatherman, Director




  Provided as a service of the Office of Local Government
 In cooperation with the Jackson County Extension Office
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction ................................................................. 1

Population
     Urban Population ...................................................... 2
     Rural Population........................................................ 3
          Proportion Rural
          Farm Population
     Place of Residence Five Years Earlier...................... 5
          Proportion Same County

Income
     Median Household Income ....................................... 7
     Median Family Income .............................................. 8
     Median Non-Family Income ...................................... 9
     Household Income Distribution ................................. 9
     Poverty Rate ........................................................... 10
     Childhood Poverty Rate .......................................... 11
     Elderly Poverty Rate................................................ 12
     Working Poor .......................................................... 12
     Income by Type....................................................... 13

Local Economy
     Workers ................................................................... 16
     Full-Time, Year Round Workers.............................. 17
     Private Wage and Salary Workers .......................... 18
     Government Workers .............................................. 18
     Self-Employed Workers........................................... 19
     Unpaid Family Workers ........................................... 19
     Workers by Occupation ........................................... 20
     Work Outside the County ........................................ 21
     Work at Home ......................................................... 22
     Drive to Work .......................................................... 22
     Travel Time to Work ................................................ 23
Housing
  Average Rooms per Housing Unit........................... 24
  Bedrooms ................................................................ 25
  Median Gross Rent ................................................. 25
  Median Gross Rent as a Percentage of Income ..... 26
  Median Selected Monthly Owner Costs .................. 27
       With a Mortgage
       Not Mortgaged
  Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Income .. 28
  Median Year Built .................................................... 29
  Units Built in Last Ten Years ................................... 30
  Median Housing Value ............................................ 30
  Basic Amenities....................................................... 32

Education
  Preprimary School Enrollment................................. 34
  Elementary and High School Enrollment................. 34
  College Enrollment .................................................. 35
  Population with at Least a High School Diploma..... 35

Social Environment
  Marital Status .......................................................... 37
  Speak a Language Other Than English .................. 38

Summary
  Data Summary Table .............................................. 40
  Relative Situation Chart........................................... 41
                               INTRODUCTION
                               This report contains information from the final major
                               release of data from Census 2000 and supplements
                               information presented in the Situation and Trends report
                               for Jackson County released in January 2002. The
                               Situation and Trends report is available online at:
                               http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/direct/Sit&Trends.htm or contact
                               the Office of Local Government.

                               Together with the Situation and Trends report, the
                               information presented here allows readers to take a
                               comprehensive look at Jackson County’s current situation
                               and changes that have occurred over time. This
                               information can be used in a variety of ways including
                               helping residents understand trends affecting the county
                               and informing policy debate.

                               We begin this report with population indicators. These are
                               followed by indicators of the county’s income, local
                               economy, housing, education, and social environment.
                               Then, we summarize the situation in Jackson County with
                               a data summary table and relative situation chart.

                               For each indicator in this report we compare Jackson
                               County with Kansas and the average Kansas county. We
                               also present the high and low county values for each
                               indicator in the left-hand column to allow readers to see
                               how Jackson County compares. For a discussion of how
                               the averages are calculated, understanding the measures
                               presented, and making comparisons, refer to pages 2-5 of
                               the Situation and Trends report for Jackson County.

                               This report is provided as a service of the Office of Local
                               Government, a unit of K-State Research and Extension,
                               and represents our commitment to develop information
                               resources of use to local officials and the citizens of
Office of Local Government     Kansas. The Office of Local Government works in
Department of Agricultural     partnership with county Extension offices to provide this
Economics                      and other information. We hope this report will help
K-State Research & Extension   improve understanding of local conditions and trends.
10E Umberger Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-3415       The Office of Local Government welcomes any questions,
                               comments, or suggestions about this report or any of our
Phone: 785-532-2643            other services.
Fax: 785-532-3093
E-mail: olg@agecon.ksu.edu


                                                                                             1
                     POPULATION
                     Population may be the single most important indicator of a
                     county’s overall situation. The size of the local population,
                     its age distribution, and changes over time greatly affect
                     economic and social conditions in a county. Additional
                     information on Jackson County’s population is available in
                     the Situation & Trends report released in January 2002.




URBAN POPULATION

Source               The U.S. population has become more urban over time.
U.S. Census Bureau   While this is partially due to definitional changes, the urban
                     population grew an amazing 636% over the last century
                     from just 30 million in 1900 to 222 million in 2000. Over
2000                 the same period, the rural population grew only 28% to 59
High                 million.
Johnson 428,500
                     The urban population is of interest as urban places often
Low                  face a different set of circumstances than rural places. For
47 Counties 0        example, sprawl and crime are problems more typically
                     associated with urban places. From a more practical
                     standpoint, the urban population is important for
                     determining eligibility for certain state and federal
                     programs.

                     Traditionally, the urban population included all persons
                     living in incorporated places with a population of 2,500 or
                     more as well as those within census defined urbanized
                     areas (UAs). Urbanized areas contain a central place and
                     the densely settled territory surrounding it and must have a
                     population of at least 50,000. Areas in and around Kansas
                     City, Lawrence, Topeka, and Wichita meet this definition in
                     Kansas.

                     In 2000, the Census Bureau changed its practice of
                     defining all places with a population of 2,500 or more as
                     urban. Instead, the bureau defined urban clusters (UCs).
                     Clusters do not necessarily conform to place boundaries.
                     Rather, they include core census block groups or census
                     blocks with a population density of at least 1,000 people
                     per square mile and surrounding census blocks with an
                     overall density of at least 500 people per square mile.


2
                             In some cases, this definitional change caused places
                             classified as urban in 1990 to be classified as rural in
                             2000. In other cases, the opposite was true. While the
                             change in definition impacted some counties more
                             significantly than others, it makes it impossible to directly
                             compare the urban population in 1990 to that in 2000. We
                             will present the urban population for both periods but
                             caution the reader to more fully investigate how the
                             definitional change affected Jackson County before
                             drawing firm conclusions about the change in the urban
                             population over time.

                             The urban population in Kansas increased from 1.71
                             million in 1990 to 1.92 million in 2000, continuing a steady
                             upward trend. In 2000, the urban population in Jackson
                             County was 3,284 (Table 1). This represented an increase
                             from 3,196 in 1990. The urban population in the average
                             Kansas county increased to 18,286 over the same period.


     Table 1. Population by Urban/Rural Classification, Jackson
     County and Kansas County Average, 1990 and 2000
                                      Jackson                County Average
                                  1990       2000            1990       2000
     Total Population:           11,525     12,657          23,596    25,604
     Urban Population:           3,196      3,284           16,310    18,286
                    % of Total   27.7%      25.9%           32.2%      32.2%
     Rural Population:           8,329      9,373           7,286      7,317
                    % of Total   72.3%      74.1%           67.8%      67.8%
                         Farm    1,972      1,673           1,029        855
                      Nonfarm    6,357      7,700           6,256      6,463



RURAL POPULATION

Source                       The Census Bureau defines the rural population as that
U.S. Census Bureau           not classified as urban. See page 2 for a discussion of
                             how the Census Bureau defines the urban population. As
                             described there, changes in how urban is defined make it
2000                         impossible to directly compare the rural population from
High                         the 1990 Census to that from Census 2000.
Sedgwick 39,710
                             Kansas’ rural population totaled 768,337 in 2000. This
Low                          was up from a rural population of 765,003 in 1990. In
Scott 1,433                  2000, Jackson County had a rural population of 9,373
                             (Table 1). This compared to a rural population of 7,317 in
                             the average Kansas county.



                                                                                          3
PROPORTION RURAL

2000                            Only 28.6% of Kansas’ population was classified as rural in
High                            2000. This marks a significant shift from 100 years earlier
47 Counties 100.0%              when the rural population represented 77.6% of the state’s
                                population. Still, a majority of Kansas counties (67 in
Low                             2000) have a larger rural than urban population. The rural
Johnson 5.0%                    population represented 67.8% of the population in the
                                average Kansas county and 74.1% of Jackson County’s
                                population in 2000 (Table 1).

                                Not surprisingly, the rural population made up the smallest
                                proportion of the total population in 2000 for counties
                                encompassing the metropolitan areas of Kansas City,
                                Lawrence, Topeka, and Wichita (Figure 1). The rural
                                population also represented a relatively small proportion of
                                the total population for regional trade centers such as
                                Dodge City, Garden City, Liberal, Manhattan, and Salina.




    Figure 1. Rural Population as a Percent of the Total Population, 2000

                                                                                    0% to 25%

                                                                                    25% to 50%

                                                                                    50% to 75%

                                                                                    75% to 100%




      CN        RA    DC   NT   PL    SM    JW     RP      WS        MS        NM    BR       DP

                                                                                          AT
                                                   CD                           JA
      SH        TH    SD   GH   RO    OB     MC            CY             PT
                                                                RL
                                                                                         JF    LV
                                                   OT                                               WY
                                             LC                 GE                  SN
                                                                           WB
      WA    LG        GO   TR   EL    RS                   DK                             DG       JO
                                                   SA
                                             EW                  MR                 OS
                                RH                                                        FR       MI
      GL   WH    SC   LE   NS         BT                                   LY
                                             RC    MP      MN        CS
                                                                                    CF    AN       LN
                                PN
                           HG          SF             HV
      HM   KE    FI
                                ED            RN
                                                                          GW        WO    AL       BB
                      GY                                        BU
                           FO         PR             SG
      ST   GT    HS             KW           KM                                     WL    NO
                                                                                                   CR
                                                                          EK

      MT   SV    SW   ME   CA   CM     BA     HP     SU         CL                  MG    LB
                                                                          CQ                       CK




4
PROPORTION FARM

2000                 The rural population has both a farm and nonfarm
High                 component. The rural farm population includes all persons
Sheridan 28.8%       living in a farm residence. The Census Bureau defines a
                     farm residence as a housing unit located on property an
Low                  acre or more in size from which $1,000 or more of
Wyandotte 0.1%       agricultural products were sold in the preceding year.

                     While this is a very broad definition of a farm as $1,000 in
                     sales of most agricultural products represents an extremely
                     small operation, only 3.3% of the state’s population, or
                     89,758 Kansans, lived on farms in 2000. This represented
                     a decline of nearly 20,000 from 108,083 in 1990. While
                     the definition change referenced above may be partly
                     responsible for this decline, it is likely that a good portion of
                     this decline reflects the continuing decline in the number of
                     farms in Kansas. See page 72 of the Situation and Trends
                     Report for data related to the number of farms in Jackson
                     County. The farm population represented 9.3% of the
                     population in the average Kansas county and 13.2% in
                     Jackson County in 2000.



PLACE OF RESIDENCE
FIVE YEARS EARLIER

Source               Information on the place of residence of a county’s
U.S. Census Bureau   population five years earlier provides an indication of
                     residential mobility and migration. For example, if a
                     significant number of a county’s residents lived outside that
                     county five years earlier, this suggests the county has
                     experienced an influx of new residents over the period.
                     Such an influx could suggest persons are finding the
                     county a more desirable place to live, perhaps due to
                     economic growth in the county or a neighboring urban
                     center. It might also indicate that the county has a more
                     transient population for some reason. Counties that
                     contain universities, for example, tend to have a large
                     population turnover in any given five-year period.

                     A more mobile or migratory population may impact public
                     service provision. The county may need to provide more
                     services to support a growing population or offer a different
                     mix of services to meet the specific needs of a more
                     transient population. Individual counties will need to
                     identify more precisely who makes up their transient
                     population to assess these public service needs.




                                                                                    5
                                Families with young children, for example, have different
                                needs than college students or retirees.

                                For Census 2000, place of residence data represents an
                                individual’s place of residence on April 1, 1995. Similarly,
                                data from the 1990 Census refers to the place of residence
                                on April 1, 1985. As place of residence data refers to a
                                period five years earlier, only the population age 5 and up
                                is included.

                                Persons who resided in the same county five years earlier
                                may have lived in the same house the entire period or
                                moved to a different residence within the county. Persons
                                who resided outside the county five years earlier may have
                                lived in a different county within the same state, another
                                state, or a different country.


PROPORTION SAME
COUNTY

2000                            Between 1990 and 2000, the number of individuals in
High                            Kansas residing in the same county five years earlier grew
Smith 86.6%                     from 76.4% of the population age 5 and up to 76.6%. Over
                                the same period, the proportion of Jackson County
Low                             residents who lived in Jackson County five years earlier
Riley 46.6%                     declined 4.5% to 79.6% (Table 2). The proportion declined
                                1.8% between 1990 and 2000 in the average Kansas
                                county.
1990-2000
High                            Riley, Geary, and Douglas counties had the lowest
Riley  18.3%                    proportion of their population residing in the same county
                                five years earlier. As described above, this is not
Low                             particularly surprising as the college students and soldiers
Hamilton      11.5%             that make up a significant proportion of their populations
                                tend to be fairly transient.



    Table 2. Population by Place of Residence Five Years Earlier,
    Jackson County and Kansas County Average, 1990 and 2000
                                               Jackson               County Average
                                            1990      2000           1990      2000
    Population Over Age 5:                 10,683    11,782         21,806    23,813
    Resided in Same County:                8,909     9,384          16,660    18,251
                              % of Total   83.4%     79.6%          80.3%     78.7%
    Resided Outside County:                1,774     2,398          5,146      5,562
                              % of Total   16.6%     20.4%          19.7%     21.3%



6
                            INCOME
                            Income allows individuals to buy goods and services and
                            serves as a broad measure of residents’ economic or
                            material well-being. Income indicators also provide
                            important information about the prosperity of the local
                            business community, the capacity of local government, and
                            residents’ social well-being. Low levels of income may be
                            associated with greater levels of child poverty and juvenile
                            crime, poor health, lower levels of educational attainment
                            and civic participation, and a greater need for social
                            programs.

                            The value of a dollar declines over time due to inflation –
                            general price increases. This distorts trends over time,
                            because a dollar today does not have as much purchasing
                            power as a dollar one year or five years ago. To make fair
                            comparisons of dollar amounts over time, income data are
                            adjusted to a single year’s value using an inflation index.
                            In this report, values are adjusted to 1999 dollars (1999$)
                            using the Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE)
                            chain price index. By removing the effects of inflation, the
                            focus shifts to the “real” forces affecting changes over time.


MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD
INCOME

Values are inflation-       Median household income is the middle value of reported
adjusted to 1999 dollars.   income for all households in the county. Household
                            income includes the income of all persons age 15 and over
                            in a household.
Source
U.S. Census Bureau          Between 1989 and 1999, the median household income in
                            Kansas grew 16.4% to $40,624. Over the same period,
                            the median household income in the U.S. grew 9.2% to
1999                        $41,994 and the median household income in the average
High                        Kansas county grew 17.9% to $34,838. Jackson County’s
Johnson $61,455             median household income grew from $32,491 in 1989 to
                            $40,451 in 1999, an increase of 24.5% (Table 3).
Low
Woodson $25,335




                                                                                        7
Median Household Income,      This data suggests that households in Kansas were better
continued                     off in 1999 than in 1989, as income growth outpaced
                              inflation. It is clear, however, that not all households
1989-1999                     benefited equally. Some may even have been worse off in
High                          1999. For a better idea of how households in Jackson
Ellsworth 39.4%               County fared, see the income distribution data presented
                              on page 10.
Low
Woodson     0.9%


    Table 3. Median Income, Jackson County and Kansas
    County Average, 1989 and 1999
                                        Jackson                 County Average
                                    1989       1999            1989       1999
    Median Household Income        $32,491    $40,451         $29,652    $34,838
    Median Family Income           $39,109    $46,520         $35,980    $42,253
    Median Nonfamily Income        $13,215    $20,729         $15,298    $19,320



MEDIAN FAMILY
INCOME

Values are inflation-         Median family income is the middle value of reported
adjusted to 1999 dollars.     income for all family households in the county. Family
                              income includes the incomes of all members of the family
                              age 15 and over. Family households are those in which
Source                        two or more related persons live together. Persons in
U.S. Census Bureau            family households may be related by birth, marriage, or
                              adoption.

1999                          Family household incomes tend to be higher than
High                          nonfamily incomes. This is primarily because many family
Johnson $72,987               households have more than one income earner. This
                              often is not the case for nonfamily households, as they are
Low                           commonly persons living alone. See page 41 of the
Woodson $31,369               Situation & Trends report for data on the number of family
                              households by type in Jackson County.

1989-1999                     In 1999, Kansas’ median family income was $49,624. This
High                          represented an increase of 17.7% from $42,172 in 1989.
Chase    38.8%                Over the same period, median family income grew 17.8%
                              to $42,253 in the average Kansas county and 18.9% in
Low                           Jackson County (Table 3). Median family income
Norton    0.1%                increased in real terms over the period in all but one
                              Kansas county (Norton).




8
MEDIAN NONFAMILY
INCOME

Values are inflation-       Median nonfamily income is the middle value of reported
adjusted to 1999 dollars.   income for all nonfamily households in the county.
                            Nonfamily income includes the incomes of all members of
                            the household age 15 and over. Nonfamily households
Source                      may be either one person living alone or a group of
U.S. Census Bureau          unrelated persons living together.

                            Again, nonfamily income is generally lower than family
1999                        income because the majority of nonfamily households are
High                        persons living alone. See page 44 of the Situation &
Johnson $36,588             Trends report for data on the number of nonfamily
                            households by type in Jackson County.
Low
Woodson $14,485             Median nonfamily income in Kansas grew 21.5% between
                            1990 and 2000 to $23,002. This compared to growth of
                            27.9% in the average Kansas county (Table 3). Median
1989-1999                   nonfamily income in Jackson County grew from $13,215 in
High                        1989 to $20,729 in 1999, a 56.9% increase. Only 3
Lincoln   68.3%             Kansas counties (Edwards, Kearny, and Wallace)
                            experienced a decline in median nonfamily income
Low                         between 1989 and 1999.
Kearny    9.9%



HOUSEHOLD INCOME
DISTRIBUTION

Source                      Though counties may have a similar level of median
U.S. Census Bureau          household income, income may be distributed very
                            differently across the households in each. For example,
                            one county may have a few extremely wealthy households
                            and large numbers of households with incomes at or below
                            the poverty level while another may have a large number
                            of households with a moderate level of income and a
                            reasonably equitable distribution of income. Table 4
                            illustrates how the distribution of income in Jackson County
                            compares to that in the average Kansas county.

                            Between 1989 and 1999, households with higher levels of
                            income generally grew both in number and as a proportion
                            of total households. Households in the highest income
                            category showed particularly strong growth. The smaller
                            number of households in the lowest income category
                            suggests that low income households gained over the
                            period as well. In part, this reflects inflation as incomes
                            generally rise over time to account for increases in the



                                                                                      9
                            cost of living. Still, households in the lowest three income
                            categories represented a greater proportion of total
                            households in the average Kansas county in 2000 (64.3%)
                            than those in the highest three categories (35.7%).

                            Household income levels provide information about
                            resident’s economic well-being but also offer some
                            indication about the need for certain public services. A
                            large number of low income households, for example, may
                            indicate a greater need for social service programs.


     Table 4. Households by Level of Income, Jackson County and
     Kansas County Average, 1989 and 1999
                                      Jackson               County Average
                                 1989        1999           1989       1999
     Total Households:          4,273       4,734          9,012      9,895
     Income $14,999 or Less:    1,274         642          2,317      1,478
                   % of Total   29.8%       13.6%          31.5%      18.0%
     Income $15,000-$29,999     1,227       1,061          2,588      2,060
                   % of Total   28.7%       22.4%          32.4%      24.8%
     Income $30,000-$44,999       936       1,020          1,933      1,939
                   % of Total   21.9%       21.5%          20.4%      21.5%
     Income $45,000-$59,999       530         718          1,076      1,485
                   % of Total   12.4%       15.2%          8.8%       14.7%
     Income $60,000-$74,999       192         585            523      1,064
                   % of Total   4.5%        12.4%          3.6%       8.9%
     Income $75,000 or More:      114         708            574      1,870
                   % of Total   2.7%        15.0%          3.4%       12.1%


POVERTY RATE

Source                      Another indicator for assessing local economic well-being
U.S. Census Bureau          is the poverty rate. As with the information on income
                            presented above, poverty data provides an indication of
                            the need for public services, particularly social service
1999                        programs. Such needs, of course, vary depending on who
High                        in is in poverty. Children in poverty, for example, may
Riley 20.6%                 mean increased demand for after-school programs and
                            free or reduced school meals while elderly persons in a
Low                         similar situation may benefit from home meal delivery or
Johnson 3.4%                home-based health care services. Data on the proportion
                            of children and the elderly in poverty is presented on the
                            following pages.




10
1989-1999           To determine a person’s poverty status, the Census
High                Bureau compares the person’s total family income with the
Clark   127.5%      poverty threshold for that person’s family size and
                    composition. If the total income of the family is below the
Low                 threshold, the individual and every member of their family
Chase    53.0%      are considered poor. The characteristics used to
                    determine the poverty threshold are: family size, number of
                    children within the family, and age of the householder.
                    Poverty status for individuals not living in a family
                    household is determined in the same fashion. For 1999,
                    poverty thresholds ranged from just over $8,500 for a
                    person living alone to approximately $34,500 for a family of
                    nine or more. Poverty status is not computed for
                    institutionalized persons, people in military group quarters,
                    people living in college dorms, and unrelated individuals
                    under 15 years of age.

                    In 1999, 9.9% of the Kansas population, 12.4% of the U.S.
                    population, and 10.9% of the average Kansas county’s
                    population were in poverty. The poverty rate in Jackson
                    County was 8.8% in 1999, down from 12.0% in 1989.

                    Between 1989 and 1999, the proportion of Kansans in
                    poverty fell 13.8%. This compares to a decline of 5.3% in
                    the U.S., a decline of 26.8% in Jackson County, and a
                    decline of 13.3% in the average Kansas county over the
                    same period. Of 105 counties, 86 experienced a decline in
                    their poverty rate from 1989 to 1999.


CHILDHOOD POVERTY
RATE

1999                To more accurately assess the economic well-being of
High                children, we present the poverty rate for persons under 18
Sheridan 27.9%      for whom poverty status is determined. See our earlier
                    discussion of the poverty rate for more information about
Low                 how the Census Bureau determines poverty status.
Johnson 3.6%
                    In 1999, 12.0% of children under age 18 were in poverty in
                    Kansas, a 16.0% decline from 1989. A higher proportion
1989-1999           of children in the U.S. were in poverty in 1999, 16.6%. The
High                percent of children in poverty in the average Kansas
Clark   470.9%      county fell 5.4% from 15.8% in 1989 to 13.8% in 1999.
                    Over the same period, Jackson County’s childhood poverty
Low                 rate grew from 12.4% to 12.8%, an increase of 2.7%.
Thomas    58.9%




                                                                              11
                     As the number of children under age 18 is small in many
                     Kansas counties, a small absolute change in the number
                     of children below poverty may result in a large percentage
                     change.


ELDERLY POVERTY
RATE

1999                 The elderly poverty rate is the percent of persons age 65
High                 or over for whom poverty status is determined who have
Atchison 17.9%       income below the poverty threshold. Refer to our earlier
                     discussion of the poverty rate for more information about
Low                  how the Census Bureau determines poverty status.
Johnson 3.6%
                     In 1999, 8.1% of persons age 65 and over in Kansas were
                     in poverty. This represented a 32.5% decline from 1989
1989-1999            when the elderly poverty rate was 12.0%. Ninety-nine of
High                 105 Kansas counties saw declines in the elderly poverty
Pawnee    40.4%      rate over the period. The rate fell 32.7% between 1989
                     and 1999 in the average Kansas county from 13.9% to
Low                  9.1%. Similarly, the elderly poverty rate in Jackson County
Sheridan     67.2%   fell 47.7% from 17.6% to 9.2%.


WORKING POOR

1999                 Though some assume that those in poverty do not work,
High                 this is not always the case. Many work full-time, year
Greeley 69.7%        round jobs but still their income falls below the poverty
                     threshold. Here we present data on the percent of families
Low                  with income below the poverty level that had at least one
Scott 0.0%           family member working full-time, year round in 1999.
                     Comparable data was unavailable for 1989.

                     In 1999, 23.6% of the 47,299 families in Kansas with
                     income below poverty had at least one member who
                     worked full-time, year round. This compared to 30.2% of
                     the families below poverty in the average Kansas county.
                     In Jackson County, 73 families or 32.0% of those below
                     poverty had at least one member who worked full-time,
                     year round in 1999.




12
INCOME BY TYPE

Source               Total income is actually the sum of eight different types of
U.S. Census Bureau   income – wage or salary; self-employment; interest,
                     dividend, or net rental; social security; Supplemental
                     Security Income (SSI); public assistance; retirement; and
                     all other. Income does not include: money received from
                     the sale of property (unless the recipient was engaged in
                     the business of selling such property); capital gains; the
                     value of income “in kind” from food stamps, medical care,
                     etc.; the withdrawal of bank deposits; money borrowed; tax
                     refunds; the exchange of money between relatives living in
                     the same household; gifts and lump-sum inheritances,
                     insurance payments, and other types of lump-sum
                     receipts.

                     Table 5 shows the proportion of households receiving each
                     type of income and how much the average household
                     received for Jackson County and the average Kansas
                     county. Data for 1989 is not presented as it is not directly
                     comparable with that from 1999.

                     While data is not directly comparable, we can make some
                     generalizations. The average household in Kansas, for
                     example, received more income in real terms from most
                     sources in 1999 than 1989. This means that income
                     growth generally outpaced inflation.

                     Income from other sources grew the most significantly over
                     the period. On average, households in Kansas received
                     57.0% more income from other sources in 1999 than 10
                     years earlier. The proportion of Kansas households
                     receiving other income also increased over the period
                     (33.4%). All other income includes unemployment
                     compensation, Veteran’s Administration (VA) payments,
                     alimony and child support, contributions received
                     periodically from people outside the household, military
                     family allotments, and other kinds of periodic income other
                     than earnings. Given the components of other income, the
                     greater number of households receiving it in 1999 may be
                     related to increases in the divorce rate over time or
                     increases in the number of veterans due to the Gulf War
                     and other military action in the 1990s.

                     The average Kansas household received 54.4% more
                     retirement income in 1999 than in 1989. The proportion of
                     households in Kansas receiving such income grew 14.9%
                     over the period. The majority of Kansas counties saw
                     similar increases. This growth likely reflects increases in
                     the number of persons of retirement age in the state
                     between 1989 and 1999. Growth will likely continue as the


                                                                              13
     the population continues to age and life expectancy
     increases.

     Income from social security and interest, dividends, and
     rentals increased 14.7% and 19.8% respectively in the
     average Kansas household between 1989 and 1999.
     Interestingly, the proportion of households in the state
     receiving each decreased (4.6% for social security and
     9.1% for interest, dividends, and rentals). This result is
     somewhat surprising as we would expect income from
     these sources to be a large component of earnings for the
     elderly who continue to increase in number as mentioned
     above. Growth in income from interest, dividends, and
     rentals may reflect, in part, the strength of the stock market
     through the 1990s.

     Wages and salaries were the most common source of
     household income in Kansas in 1999, with 78.6% of
     households receiving income from this source. This was
     up 1.6% from the proportion receiving wage and salary
     income in 1989. On average, Kansas households
     received 18.3% more wage and salary income in 1999
     than in 1989.

     Self-employment income includes income from self-
     employment in farm and nonfarm enterprises. Data on
     households receiving farm and nonfarm self-employment
     income were reported separately in 1989 but combined in
     1999, making it impossible to calculate a percentage
     change in the proportion receiving such income or the
     amount received. It is important to recognize, however,
     that self-employment earnings for farms are dependent on
     farm prices in a given year. This may help to explain
     higher or lower than expected self-employment income.

     The remaining categories of income are SSI
     (Supplemental Security Income -- a nationwide assistance
     program that guarantees a minimum level of income for
     needy aged, blind, or disabled individuals) and public
     assistance (includes general assistance and Temporary
     Assistance to Needy Families). Again, data on income
     from these sources are not directly comparable as the two
     categories were combined in 1989 but reported separately
     in 1999. Welfare reform policies enacted in the mid-1990s,
     such as the Personal Work Responsibility and Work
     Opportunity Reconciliation Act which replaced Aid for
     Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with Temporary
     Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), likely impacted both
     the number of households receiving public assistance
     income and the amount received.



14
Table 5. Income by Type, Jackson County and Kansas
County Average, 1999
                                              Jackson   County Average
Wage or Salary Income:
                            % of Households    75.7%        72.2%
                  Average Amount Received     $47,893      $38,127
Self-Employment Income:
                            % of Households    21.8%        22.5%
                  Average Amount Received     $15,791      $20,453
Interest, Dividend, or Net Rental Income:
                            % of Households   41.5%         40.6%
                  Average Amount Received     $6,261        $8,942
Social Security Income:
                            % of Households    29.8%        33.2%
                  Average Amount Received     $11,232      $11,507
Supplemental Security Income:
                            % of Households    3.0%          3.4%
                  Average Amount Received     $5,989        $5,956
Public Assistance Income:
                            % of Households    2.9%          2.3%
                  Average Amount Received     $2,470        $2,195
Retirement Income:
                            % of Households    17.2%        14.3%
                  Average Amount Received     $12,354      $13,819
All Other Income:
                            % of Households   15.7%         13.6%
                  Average Amount Received     $6,747        $7,643




                                                                         15
                     LOCAL ECONOMY
                     The strength of a county’s economy is important to the
                     current and future well-being of its residents. The
                     problems of economic decline are obvious, but economic
                     growth presents its own set of challenges.


PROPORTION WORKED

Source               The Census Bureau defines workers as persons age 16
U.S. Census Bureau   and over who worked one or more weeks in 1999. This
                     work may have been for pay or profit or without pay on a
                     family farm or in a family business. Active duty in the
1999                 armed forces is also considered work.
High
Riley 83.0%          In 1999, 73.8% of persons age 16 and over in Kansas
                     worked. This represented a 0.5% increase from 73.4% of
Low                  persons 16 and over in 1989. The proportion working fell
Elk 58.4%            0.3% over the same period in the average Kansas county
                     from 70.4% to 70.1%. Jackson County had an increase of
                     2.1% in the proportion working from 71.3% in 1989 to
1989-1999            72.8% in 1999. Numbers of persons that worked in
High                 Jackson County and the average Kansas county are
Chase    12.5%       presented in Table 6. A lower proportion working in a
                     given county may indicate that retired persons make up a
Low                  greater proportion of its working age population. Similarly,
Rawlins     10.7%    a decrease over time may reflect growth in the number of
                     persons of retirement age.

                     Traditionally, a greater proportion of males work than
                     females. Though the gap has narrowed over time, a
                     higher proportion of males worked than females in 1999 in
                     Kansas and all but one Kansas county (Norton County is
                     the exception). In Kansas, 80.6% of males age 16 and
                     over and 67.2% of females age 16 and over worked in
                     1999. Similarly, the average Kansas county had 78.1% of
                     males and 62.6% of females working in 1999. This
                     compared to 78.4% of males and 67.6% of females in
                     Jackson County.




16
FULL-TIME, YEAR
ROUND WORKERS

Source                      Full-time, year round workers are those persons 16 and
U.S. Census Bureau          over who usually worked 35 or more hours per week for 50
                            to 52 weeks of the year.

1999                        Between 1989 and 1999, the number of full-time, year
High                        round workers in Kansas grew 16.1% to just over 900,000.
Johnson 175,514             Over the same period, the number of workers grew from
                            7,416 to 8,607 in the average Kansas county, an increase
Low                         of 8.1%. The number of full-time, year round workers in
Greeley 466                 Jackson County increased 19.4% from 3,609 in 1989 to
                            4,308 in 1999. Twenty-eight Kansas counties experienced
                            a decline in the number of full-time, year round workers
1989-1999                   from 1989 to 1999.
High
Miami   44.5%               Additional data on the number of individuals in Jackson
                            County and the average Kansas county that worked
Low                         various numbers of hours per week and weeks per year is
Rawlins   22.9%             presented in Table 6. This data provides some indication
                            of the number of persons in the county working part-time or
                            seasonally.


  Table 6. Work Status by Hours and Weeks Usually Worked,
  Jackson County and Kansas County Average, 1989 and 1999
                                       Jackson               County Average
                                   1989       1999           1989      1999
  Persons Age 16 and Over:
                       Worked     6,100         6,929       13,142        14,464
                  Did Not Work    2,453         2,586       4,766         5,147
  Workers By Hours Worked:
                    35 or More    4,775         5,570       10,170        11,286
                       15 to 34    966          1,058       2,337         2,488
                        1 to 14    359           301         636           690
  Workers By Weeks Worked:
                       40 to 52   4,664         5,537        9,950        11,530
                       27 to 39    442           544         1,026         995
                       14 to 26    501           432         1,093        1,036
                        1 to 13    493           416         1,074         903




                                                                                    17
PRIVATE WAGE &
SALARY WORKERS

Source               Private wage and salary workers are those who worked for
U.S. Census Bureau   wages, salary, commission, tips, pay-in-kind, or piece rates
                     for a private for-profit employer or private not-for-profit, tax-
                     exempt or charitable organization. This includes persons
2000                 who are self-employed in their own incorporated business
High                 as they are considered paid employees of their companies.
Johnson 205,956      Data refers to the primary job worked by employed
                     persons 16 and over in the week immediately prior to
Low                  completion of the Census questionnaire. For unemployed
Greeley 400          persons, data reflects their most recent job.

                     The number of private wage and salary workers in Kansas
1990-2000            grew 16.1% between 1990 and 2000 to 1,004,980. Over
High                 the same period, the number in Jackson County grew
Linn   59.0%         23.7% from 3,414 to 4,224. In the average Kansas county,
                     there were 8,245 private wage and salary workers in 1990
Low                  and 9,571 in 2000. This represented an increase of
Greeley    13.0%     12.4%.


GOVERNMENT
WORKERS

Source               Government workers include persons who were employed
U.S. Census Bureau   by any federal, tribal, state, or local governmental unit.
                     This includes local school districts. Again, data reflects the
                     job worked in the week prior to completing the Census
2000                 questionnaire.
High
Johnson 26,159       Between 1990 and 2000, the number of government
                     workers in Kansas grew 7.1% to nearly 204,000. This
Low                  compares to growth of 6.7% in the average Kansas county,
Wallace 134          where the number of government workers increased from
                     1,813 to 1,942. The number of government workers grew
                     26.8% in Jackson County from 1,017 in 1990 to 1,290 in
1990-2000            2000.
High
Chase    77.3%       In most Kansas counties, the majority of government
                     workers are employed by the local government.
Low                  Exceptions are counties that house state universities, state
Sheridan   36.0%     or federal prisons, military installations, or the state capital.
                     In 2000, 55.9% of government employees in the average
                     Kansas county worked for the local government. Local
                     government employees accounted for 46.1% of all
                     government workers in Kansas and 46.1% in Jackson
                     County.




18
SELF-EMPLOYED
WORKERS

Source               Self-employed workers include only those who worked in
U.S. Census Bureau   their own unincorporated business, professional practice,
                     or trade, or who operated a farm. We recognize that this
                     does not account for self-employed workers that work in
2000                 their own incorporated businesses. These individuals are
High                 included with private wage and salary workers because the
Johnson 14,742       Census Bureau considers them paid employees of their
                     own companies. We maintain this distinction so we can
Low                  make accurate comparisons of the number of workers over
Greeley 142          time.

                     The number of self-employed workers in unincorporated
1990-2000            businesses in Kansas fell 6.2% between 1990 and 2000 to
High                 approximately 102,400. Over the same period, the number
Ellsworth 22.5%      of self-employed workers in the average Kansas county fell
                     12.7% from 1,040 to 975. The number of self-employed
Low                  workers in unincorporated businesses in Jackson County
Morton      41.6%    fell from 736 in 1990 to 595 in 2000, a 19.2% decrease.



UNPAID FAMILY
WORKERS
                     Unpaid family workers are persons who worked 15 hours
Source               or more without pay in a business or on a farm operated by
U.S. Census Bureau   a relative.

                     Unpaid family workers in Kansas numbered just over 5,000
2000                 in 2000, a decrease of 27.4% from 1990. Over the same
High                 period, the number of unpaid family workers in the average
Sedgwick 455         Kansas county increased 14.7% to 48. The number in
                     Jackson County decreased 62.7% from 83 in 1990 to 31 in
Low                  2000. As the number of unpaid family workers in many
Greeley 0            counties is small, an increase or decrease of a few workers
                     may result in a large percent change.

1990-2000
High
Ottawa    600.0%

Low
Greeley     100.0%




                                                                             19
WORKERS BY
OCCUPATION

Source               Occupational classifications reflect the kind of work a
U.S. Census Bureau   person does on the job. This data reflects the primary job
                     worked by employed civilians age 16 and over in the week
                     immediately prior to completion of the Census
                     questionnaire. Data is presented for 2000 only as data
                     from 1990 and 2000 are not directly comparable due to
                     revisions reflecting changes to the Standard Occupational
                     Classifications.

                     Of the 23 occupational classifications we consider here, 11
                     are considered management, professional, and technical
                     occupations. They are: management except farming; farm
                     management; business operations and financial
                     specialists; computer and math; architecture and
                     engineering; life, physical, and social science; community
                     and social service; legal; education, training, and library;
                     arts, entertainment, sports, and media; and healthcare
                     practitioners and technicians. Service occupations include:
                     healthcare support; protective service; food preparation
                     and serving; building and ground cleaning and
                     maintenance; and personal care and service. Sales and
                     office occupations are of two types: sales and related and
                     office and administrative support. Remaining occupations
                     considered are: construction and extraction; installation,
                     maintenance, and repair; production; transportation and
                     material moving; and farming, fishing, and forestry.

                     In 2000, the largest proportion of the population age 16
                     and over in Kansas worked in office and administrative
                     support occupations (15.2%). Occupations rounding out
                     the top five included: sales and related (10.7%), production
                     (8.9%), management other than farming (7.9%), and
                     education, training, & library (6.4%).

                     Similar occupations represented the largest proportion of
                     jobs in the average Kansas county, though farming and
                     transportation were relatively more important than in the
                     state as a whole. In 2000, occupations representing the
                     largest proportion of the population in the average Kansas
                     county were office and administrative support (13.6%),
                     production (8.6%), sales and related (8.6%), transportation
                     and materials moving (7.5%), and farm management
                     (7.1%). Figure 2 presents the most significant occupations
                     in Jackson County compared to their relative importance in
                     the average Kansas county for 2000.




20
                      Figure 2. Workers by Occupation, Jackson County and
                                  Kansas County Average, 2000

                   Office & Admin.                     17.0%
                       Support                     13.6%

                                            9.2%
                        Production         8.6%
      Occupation




                    Construction &         7.9%
                      Extraction         6.2%

                                          7.5%
                   Sales & Related         8.6%

                   Transportation &       7.2%
                   Material Moving        7.5%

                                                                                       51.3%
                          All Other                                                        55.5%

                                  0.0%   10.0%       20.0%       30.0%    40.0%    50.0%   60.0%
                                                     Percentage of Workers
                                          Jackson              Average Kansas County




PROPORTION WORKING
OUTSIDE THE COUNTY

Source                                   The proportion of workers who work outside the county
U.S. Census Bureau                       serves as an indicator of out-commuting. Data is for all
                                         workers age 16 or over who worked during the week
                                         immediately proceeding completion of the Census
2000                                     questionnaire.
High
Jefferson 67.4%                          If a large proportion of a county’s workers commute to jobs
                                         elsewhere, this may suggest the county lacks suitable
Low                                      employment for its residents. Or, it could indicate the
Sedgwick 3.5%                            county serves as a “bedroom community” for one of its
                                         neighbors.

1990-2000                                In 2000, 22.6% of Kansas workers worked outside their
High                                     county of residence. This represented an increase of
Norton   166.9%                          12.5% from 20.1% of workers in 1990. Over the same
                                         period, the proportion working outside the average Kansas
Low                                      county grew 36.7% from 18.9% to 23.9%. The proportion
Johnson             15.2%                working outside Jackson County fell from 50.7% in 1990 to
                                         47.3% in 2000, a decrease of 6.8%.


                                                                                                    21
                     While this is useful information, it is important to recognize
                     that a number of workers are likely commuting into the
                     county to work. Workers commuting into the county may
                     even offset the number commuting out. Unfortunately,
                     data on in-commuting is not currently available.


PROPORTION WORKING
AT HOME

Source               Persons working at home include anyone who indicated
U.S. Census Bureau   that they usually worked at home regardless of their
                     profession. Therefore, those working at home could be
                     farmers, owners of home-based businesses, or
2000                 telecommuters.
High
Gove 13.5%           Four percent of workers or 51,862 Kansans worked at
                     home in 2000. This represented a 4.6% decline from the
Low                  4.1% of workers doing so in 1990. This is somewhat
Wyandotte 2.0%       surprising as anecdotal evidence suggests that
                     telecommuting is on the rise. It may be that a decline in
                     the number of farms is offsetting any increase in
1990-2000            telecommuting or that telecommuting is not yet a viable
High                 alternative for most Kansans.
Russell   148.0%
                     Six percent of workers in the average Kansas county
Low                  worked at home in 2000. This represented a 9.2% decline
Stanton   62.0%      from 1990 when 7.2% of workers worked at home.
                     Between 1990 and 2000, the proportion working at home
                     in Jackson County fell 27.9% from 6.7% of workers to
                     4.8%. Table 7 presents the number working from home in
                     Jackson County in each year.



PROPORTION DRIVING
TO WORK

Source               This data represents the principal means of transportation
U.S. Census Bureau   workers age 16 and over used in the week immediately
                     prior to completion of the Census questionnaire. Drivers
                     include those who traveled to and from work in a car, truck,
2000                 van, or motorcycle whether they drove alone or carpooled.
High                 Non-drivers may have taken public transportation, walked,
Shawnee 94.8%        biked, or used some other means of transport.

Low
Gove 77.2%




22
1990-2000                  The majority of Kansans (92.2%) drove to and from work in
High                       2000. This was up slightly from 90.5% in 1990. The
Nemaha    14.6%            proportion driving to work increased 3.8% in the average
                           Kansas county over the same period from 85.8% of
Low                        workers to 89.0%. In Jackson County, 88.8% of workers
Wallace   7.8%             drove in 1990 and 91.9% in 2000. This represented an
                           increase of 3.5%.

                           Only 11.5% of the Kansans that drove to work in 2000
                           carpooled. This compared to 12.9% in the average
                           Kansas county and 17.6% in Jackson County.


TRAVEL TIME TO WORK

Source                     Travel time to work is the travel time in minutes that
U.S. Census Bureau         workers usually took to get from home to work (one-way)
                           during the week immediately proceeding completion of the
                           Census questionnaire. Travel time includes time spent
                           waiting for public transportation, picking up passengers in
                           carpools, and time spent on other activities related to
                           getting to work. Data on travel time may provide an
                           indication of urban sprawl and give readers some idea
                           where county residents are traveling to work.

                           Table 7 presents data on workers’ travel time for both
                           Jackson County and the average Kansas county.


Table 7. Travel Time to Work, Jackson County and Kansas
County Average, 1990 and 2000
                                 Jackson                      County Average
                          1990              2000            1990          2000
Traveled to Work:        4,875             5,770           10,763        11,995
< 15 Minutes:            1,419             1,791           4,914          5,194
        % of Travelers   29.1%             31.0%           59.9%         55.4%
15-29 Minutes:           1,247             1,610           3,890          4,414
        % of Travelers   25.6%             27.9%           22.9%         23.8%
30-44 Minutes:           1,191             1,376           1,321          1,540
        % of Travelers   24.4%             23.8%           10.2%         11.7%
45-59 Minutes:             683               570             335           426
        % of Travelers   14.0%              9.9%            3.4%          4.1%
> 60 Minutes:              335               423             302           421
        % of Travelers    6.9%              7.3%            3.6%          5.1%
Worked at Home:            349               292             465           494




                                                                                    23
                         HOUSING
                         Adequate housing is one of several factors affecting local
                         quality of life and the potential for economic growth. The
                         quantity, quality, and affordability of housing are all
                         important. Here we focus on indicators of quality and
                         affordability. Information about the number of housing
                         units is available in the Situation & Trends report for
                         Jackson County.


AVERAGE ROOMS PER
HOUSING UNIT

Source                   By Census Bureau definition, rooms include living rooms,
U.S. Census Bureau       dining rooms, kitchens, bedrooms, finished recreation
                         rooms, enclosed porches suitable for year-round use, and
                         lodgers’ rooms. Excluded are: strip or pullman kitchens,
2000                     bathrooms, open porches, balconies, halls or foyers, half-
High                     rooms, utility rooms, unfinished attics or basements, or
Gove 6.8                 other unfinished space used for storage. A partially
                         divided room is a separate room only if there is a partition
Low                      from floor to ceiling.
Seward & Wyandotte 5.3
                         In general, the number of rooms per housing unit has
                         grown over time indicating that homes today are larger
1990-2000                than they were in the past. This was certainly true in
High                     Kansas between 1990 and 2000. In 2000, housing units in
Linn   14.6%             Kansas averaged 5.8 rooms each. This represented a
                         3.5% increase from 5.6 rooms per unit in 1990. Over the
Low                      same period, rooms per unit in the average Kansas county
Seward     1.8%          grew 3.7% from 5.7 to 5.9. Only 4 Kansas counties
                         experienced a decline in the number of rooms per unit
                         between 1990 and 2000 (Chase, Elk, Finney, and
                         Seward). The number of rooms per unit in Jackson County
                         grew 3.0% over the period from 5.8 to 5.9.

                         Owner-occupied units tend to have more rooms each than
                         renter-occupied units. For example, in 2000 owner-
                         occupied units in Kansas averaged 6.6 rooms each, while
                         renter-occupied units averaged only 4.4. The same held
                         true for the average Kansas county, where owner-occupied
                         units had 6.4 rooms each and renter-occupied only 5.0,
                         and all 105 Kansas counties. In Jackson County, owner-
                         occupied units had 6.3 rooms each in 2000 and renter-
                         occupied units had 4.8


24
BEDROOMS

Source                       The Census Bureau classifies all rooms designed to be
U.S. Census Bureau           used as bedrooms as such, even if they are currently being
                             used for other purposes. Thus, the number of bedrooms
                             for a given unit should equal the number of rooms in that
                             unit that would be listed as bedrooms if the home,
                             apartment, or mobile home were on the market for sale or
                             rent. A housing unit consisting of only one room, such as
                             an efficiency apartment, is classified as having no
                             bedrooms. Table 8 presents housing units by the number
                             of bedrooms for Jackson County and the average Kansas
                             county.


   Table 8. Housing Units by Number of Bedrooms, Jackson
   County and Kansas County Average, 1990 and 2000
                                         Jackson                 County Average
                                    1990        2000            1990       2000
   Housing Units:                   4,564      5,094            9,944     10,773
                    No Bedrooms       3          24              127        179
                       1 Bedroom     346         382            1,135      1,227
                      2 Bedrooms    1,468      1,442            3,232      3,150
                      3 Bedrooms    1,895      2,277            3,763      4,058
                      4 Bedrooms     749         836            1,376      1,742
              5 or More Bedrooms     103         133             310        416



MEDIAN GROSS RENT

Values are inflation-        Gross rent is monthly contract rent plus the estimated
adjusted to 2000 dollars.    average monthly cost of utilities (electricity, gas, water, and
                             sewer) and fuels (oil, coal, kerosene, wood, etc.), if these
                             are paid by the renter. Median gross rent is the middle
Source                       value: one-half of renter-occupied households fall below
U.S. Census Bureau           the median and one-half above.

                             Between 1990 and 2000, median gross rent in Kansas
2000                         grew 6.6% to $498. This indicates that it was relatively
High                         more expensive to rent housing in Kansas in 2000 than 10
Johnson $702                 years earlier. Median gross rent grew 10.4% in the
                             average Kansas county over the same period from $352 to
Low                          $387. Jackson County’s median gross rent grew from
Jewell $266                  $313 in 1990 to $453 in 2000, an increase of 44.9%. Only
                             5 Kansas counties experienced a decline in median gross
                             rent over the period (Greenwood, Pawnee, Pratt, Riley,
                             and Woodson).



                                                                                         25
Median Gross Rent,
continued

1990-2000
High
Jackson   44.9%

Low
Pawnee    6.2%


MEDIAN GROSS RENT
AS A PERCENTAGE OF
HOUSEHOLD INCOME

Source               Gross rent as a percentage of household income is a
U.S. Census Bureau   computed ratio of monthly gross rent to monthly household
                     income (total household income divided by 12). This
                     provides a measure of the percentage of household
2000                 income being used to pay for housing. Gross rent as a
High                 percentage of household income is not computed for
Douglas 29.3%        renter-occupied households that do not pay cash rent or
                     for households that reported no income or a net loss. One-
Low                  half of cases fall below the median and one-half above.
Trego 15.0%
                     In general, median gross rent as a percentage of
                     household income has fallen over time. This implies that
1990-2000            while rental costs have generally increased in Kansas,
High                 household income has grown faster.
Gove    38.1%
                     In Kansas, median gross rent as a percentage of
Low                  household income in 1999 was 23.4%. This represented a
Decatur   26.0%      4.5% decline from 24.5% of household income in 1989.
                     Median gross rent as a percentage of household income
                     fell 4.9% in the average Kansas county over the same
                     period from 22.2% to 20.9%. In Jackson County, median
                     gross rent as a percentage of household income fell 20.8%
                     from 26.5% of income in 1989 to 21.0% in 1999.

                     Table 9 presents the number of renter-occupied
                     households in Jackson County and the average Kansas
                     county by gross rent as a percentage of household
                     income.

                     Households with lower incomes tend to spend a greater
                     proportion of that income on rent. Nearly eighty percent
                     (78.2%) of renter-occupied households in Kansas with
                     income of less than $10,000 in 1999 spent 35% or more of
                     that income on rent. By comparison, only 0.8% of
                     households with income of $50,000 or more spent 35% or



26
                            more of their income on rent. In fact, 90.9% of households
                            with income of $50,000 or more spent less than 20% on
                            rent.


  Table 9. Renter-Occupied Households by Gross Rent as a Percentage
  of Household Income, Jackson County and Kansas County
  Average, 1990 and 2000
                                           Jackson               County Average
                                        1990     2000            1990      2000
  Units with Gross Rent as a % of
                                         546         766         2,570       2,721
                  Income Computed:
  Less Than 20%:                        194          361         919         1,097
                % of Computed Units    35.5%        47.1%       43.6%        48.0%
  20% to 24%:                            68          108         408          392
                % of Computed Units    12.5%        14.1%       15.1%        13.5%
  25% to 29%:                            36           62         295          294
                % of Computed Units    6.6%         8.1%        10.5%        9.9%
  30% to 34%:                            51           57         208          199
                % of Computed Units    9.3%         7.4%        7.4%         6.4%
  35% or More:                          197          178         740          740
                % of Computed Units    36.1%        23.2%       23.4%        22.2%



MEDIAN SELECTED
MONTHLY OWNER
COSTS

Values are inflation-       The Census Bureau defines selected monthly owner costs
adjusted to 2000 dollars.   as the sum of payments for mortgages, deeds of trust,
                            contracts to purchase, or similar debts on the property; real
Source                      estate taxes; fire, hazard, and flood insurance on the
U.S. Census Bureau          property; utilities (electricity, gas, water, and sewer); and
                            fuels (oil, coal, kerosene, wood, etc.). Where appropriate,
                            selected owner costs also include monthly condominium
                            fees and mobile home costs. The data on selected
                            monthly owner costs presented here is for specified owner-
                            occupied units only. These include 1-family homes on less
                            than 10 acres without a business on the property.

                            The median selected monthly owner cost is the middle
                            value: one-half of owner-occupied households fall below
                            the median and one-half above. Medians are calculated
                            separately for units with a mortgage and those not
                            mortgaged as shown on the following page.




                                                                                      27
WITH A MORTGAGE

2000                  Between 1990 and 2000, median monthly owner costs for
High                  owner-occupied units with a mortgage in Kansas grew
Johnson $1,228        12.6% to $888. This indicates that it was relatively more
                      expensive to own a home in Kansas in 2000 than in 1990.
Low                   Median monthly owner costs grew 14.6% in the average
Osborne $483          Kansas county over the same period from $602 to $687.
                      Only two Kansas counties experienced a decline in median
                      monthly owner costs between 1990 and 2000 (Barber and
1990-2000             Republic). Median monthly owner costs for mortgaged
High                  units in Jackson County grew from $600 in 1990 to $767 in
Stevens   39.6%       2000, an increase of 27.8%.

Low
Republic     3.4%


NOT MORTGAGED

2000                  In 2000, median monthly owner costs for non-mortgaged
High                  owner-occupied units in Kansas totaled $273. This
Johnson $350          represented a 16.3% increase from $235 in 1990. Again,
                      this tells us it was more expensive to own a home in
Low                   Kansas in 2000 than in 1990. Over the same period,
Chautauqua $199       median monthly owner costs in the average Kansas county
                      grew 18.1% from $216 to $254. For non-mortgaged units,
                      median monthly owner costs grew in all but one Kansas
1990-2000             county between 1990 and 2000 (Chautauqua County is the
High                  exception). Median owner costs in Jackson County grew
Ottawa    37.6%       29.3% over the period from $203 to $263.

Low
Chautauqua     0.3%


SELECTED MONTHLY
OWNER COSTS AS A
PERCENTAGE OF
HOUSEHOLD INCOME

Source                As with gross rent, selected monthly owner costs as a
U.S. Census Bureau    percentage of household income is a computed ratio of
                      monthly owner costs to monthly household income (total
                      household income divided by 12). This provides a
                      measure of the percentage of household income being
                      used to pay for housing. Monthly owner costs as a
                      percentage of household income is not computed for
                      owner-occupied households that reported no income or a
                      net loss.



28
                            Table 10 presents data on the number of owner-occupied
                            households by monthly owner costs as a percentage of
                            household income for Jackson County and the average
                            Kansas county.

                            As owner costs are typically higher for mortgaged than
                            non-mortgaged units, costs generally represent a higher
                            proportion of income in units with mortgages. Median
                            monthly owner costs as a percentage of household income
                            in 1999 was 19.1% for mortgaged units in Jackson County
                            but only 10.4% for non-mortgaged units.


    Table 10. Specified Owner-Occupied Households by Selected
    Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Household Income,
    Jackson County and Kansas County Average, 1990 and 2000
                                         Jackson               County Average
                                      1990     2000            1990      2000
    Units with Owner Costs as a
                                     1,710        2,020        4,804       5,505
           % of Income Computed:
    Less Than 20%:                   1,147        1,346       3,024        3,482
              % of Computed Units    67.1%        66.6%       68.1%        68.1%
    20% to 24%:                       248          192         689          751
              % of Computed Units    14.5%        9.5%        11.8%        11.3%
    25% to 29%:                       102          174         408          433
              % of Computed Units    6.0%         8.6%        6.7%         6.5%
    30% to 34%:                        57           91         221          258
              % of Computed Units    3.3%         4.5%        3.9%         4.1%
    35% or More:                      156          217         463          581
              % of Computed Units    9.1%         10.7%       9.4%         9.9%


MEDIAN YEAR BUILT

Source                      Year built refers to when the unit was first constructed, not
U.S. Census Bureau          when it was remodeled, added to, or converted. Year built
                            is reported for both occupied and vacant units. One-half of
                            units were built before the median year built and one-half
2000                        after.
High
Johnson 1979                The median year built for housing units in Kansas was
                            1966 in 2000, up 5 years from 1961 in 1990. That the
Low                         median year built was more recent in 2000 is not surprising
9 Counties 1939             given that new housing is constantly being built while older
                            housing is, in some cases, eliminated. The median year
                            built also grew in the average Kansas county from 1952 in
                            1990 to 1955 in 2000. Over the same period, the median
                            year built in Jackson County grew from 1957 to 1966.


                                                                                      29
Median Year Built,            This tells us that the median age of housing in Jackson
continued                     County in 2000 was 34 years. This compares to a median
                              age of 45 years in the average Kansas county and 34
1990-2000                     years in Kansas. The median age of housing was
High                          greatest, 61 years, in 9 Kansas counties (Comanche, Elk,
Gray & Ottawa      12 years   Jewell, Lincoln, Marshall, Osborne, Republic, Smith, and
                              Washington).
Low
Sheridan    6 years



UNITS BUILT IN LAST
TEN YEARS

Source                        Data on the number of housing units built in the last ten
U.S. Census Bureau            years provides a measure of the amount of residential
                              development that has taken place in the county over that
                              period. An increase over time suggests residential
2000                          development has picked up, while a decrease suggests
High                          the opposite. Data represents only those units that were
Johnson 42,068                occupied when the Census was conducted.

Low                           Between 1990 and 2000, 154,102 housing units were built
Comanche 26                   in Kansas. This represented a 4.6% decline from the
                              161,602 units built in the state between 1980 and 1990.
                              The number of units built in the average Kansas county
1990-2000                     declined 17.7% over the same period from 1,539 between
High                          1980 and 1990 to 1,468 between 1990 and 2000.
Hodgeman        80.6%         Meanwhile, the number of units built in the last 10 years in
                              Jackson County grew 44.2% from 556 to 802. Of the 802
Low                           built between 1990 and 2000, 713 were owner-occupied
Barber     85.4%              and 89 renter-occupied.

                              As the number of housing units built in a 10-year period is
                              small in many Kansas counties, a small change in the
                              number of units built can result in a large percentage
                              change.


MEDIAN HOUSING
VALUE

Values are inflation-         Housing value is the respondent’s estimate of how much
adjusted to 2000 dollars.     the property (house and lot, mobile home and lot, or
                              condominium unit) would sell for if it were for sale. Data is
                              for specified owner-occupied units only. These are 1-
Source                        family houses on less than 10 acres without a business on
U.S. Census Bureau            the property. One-half of the specified units have a value
                              below the median and one-half above.



30
2000                          Between 1990 and 2000, median housing value in Kansas
High                          grew 28.4% to $83,500. Over the same period, median
Johnson $150,100              housing value in the average Kansas county increased
                              30.2% from $44,128 to $57,129. Jackson County’s
Low                           median housing value grew from $44,198 in 1990 to
Jewell $24,000                $70,200 in 2000, an increase of 58.8%. Only 3 Kansas
                              counties experienced a decline in median housing value
                              over the period (Barber, Comanche, and Geary).
1990-2000
High                          Figure 3 allows the reader to compare the proportion of
Miami   76.4%                 households in various value categories for Jackson County
                              and the average Kansas county.
Low
Barber   5.8%




                 Figure 3. Owner-Occupied Housing Units by Value,
                 Jackson County and Kansas County Average, 2000



             100%                                          $250,000 or More

                 90%                                       $100,000 - $249,999
                 80%
                 70%                                       $60,000 - $99,999
                 60%
                 50%
                 40%
                                                           $40,000 - $59,999
                 30%
                 20%                                       $20,000 - $39,999

                 10%                                       $19,999 or Less
                 0%
                           Jackson           Average County




                                                                                    31
BASIC AMENITIES

Source               Here we present data on several basic household
U.S. Census Bureau   amenities including: availability of a vehicle, telephone
                     service, and the completeness of kitchen and plumbing
                     facilities.

                     In 2000, 3.9% of occupied housing units in Jackson
                     County did not have a vehicle available. This compared to
                     5.1% of occupied units in the average Kansas county and
                     5.7% in Kansas (Table 11). Vehicles include passenger
                     cars, vans, and pick-up or panel trucks of one-ton capacity
                     or less that are kept at home and available for use by
                     household members.

                     Only 2.8% of occupied households in Kansas did not have
                     a telephone in working order that they were able to make
                     and receive calls from in 2000. This compared to 3.2% of
                     occupied units in the average Kansas county and 2.4% in
                     Jackson County.

                     The Census Bureau defines households with the following
                     as having complete kitchen facilities: a sink with piped
                     water, a range or cook top and oven, and a refrigerator. In
                     2000, 1.4% of housing units in Kansas, 2.6% of those in
                     the average Kansas county, and 0.7% of those in Jackson
                     County did not have complete kitchen facilities.

                     Complete plumbing facilities include the following: hot and
                     cold piped water, a flush toilet, and a bathtub or shower.
                     One percent of housing units in Kansas did not have
                     complete plumbing facilities in 2000. This compared to
                     2.0% of units in the average Kansas county and 0.8% in
                     Jackson County.




32
Table 11. Housing Units by Basic Amenities, Jackson County
and Kansas County Average, 1990 and 2000
                                          Jackson      County Average
                                       1990     2000   1990      2000
Occupied by Vehicles Available:
                                None    273     183     572      567
                           1 or More   4,004   4,544   8,425    9,318
Occupied by Telephone Service:
                        Do Not Have     226     113     397      279
                                Have   4,051   4,614   8,600    9,606
Units by Kitchen Facilities:
                         Incomplete      37      36     110      151
                           Complete    4,527   5,058   9,834    10,622
Units by Plumbing Facilities
                         Incomplete      76      42     75       110
                           Complete    4,488   5,052   9,869    10,664




                                                                         33
                     EDUCATION
                     The level of educational attainment and quality of
                     educational institutions also impact local quality of life. In
                     addition to data on educational attainment, we present
                     data on school enrollment. Rapid changes in school
                     enrollment can cause problems that are difficult to deal
                     with. Additional educational data is available in the
                     Situation & Trends report for Jackson County.


PREPRIMARY SCHOOL
ENROLLMENT

Source               The Census Bureau considers persons enrolled in school if
U.S. Census Bureau   they reported attending a public or private school or
                     college at anytime between February 1 of the year the
                     Census was conducted and their completion of the Census
2000                 questionnaire. Preprimary school students are those
High                 enrolled in nursery school and kindergarten.
Johnson 18,396
                     Between 1990 and 2000, preprimary school enrollment in
Low                  Kansas grew 82.3% to 90,376. In part, this growth reflects
Greeley 43           an increased emphasis during the 1990s on early head
                     start and other programs for 3 and 4 year olds. Enrollment
                     in the average Kansas county increased 75.1% from 472
1990 – 2000          students to 861. Only 4 Kansas counties saw a decline in
High                 preprimary enrollment between 1990 and 2000 (Greeley,
Morton    297.5%     Ness, Phillips, Woodson). In each case, the decline
                     represented a change of less than 25 students. In
Low                  Jackson County, preprimary enrollment grew 120.5% from
Ness   20.0%         220 students in 1990 to 485 in 2000.



ELEMENTARY AND
HIGH SCHOOL
ENROLLMENT

Source               Elementary and high school enrollees have completed at
U.S. Census Bureau   least kindergarten but not high school. Most of elementary
                     and high school students in Kansas attend schools
                     supported by local public school districts (90% in 2000).




34
2000                   Rapid changes in elementary and high school enrollment
High                   can have a variety of short-term impacts on local school
Sedgwick 85,449        districts. Increases may lead to overcrowding, boost class
                       sizes, and create the need for new buildings and other
Low                    infrastructure. Declining school enrollment may make it
Comanche 299           impossible to offer a full range of courses and activities
                       and, eventually, lead to school closures or consolidation.

1990 – 2000            Elementary and high school students in Kansas numbered
High                   just over 490,000 in 2000, an increase of 13.5% from
Hamilton    40.1%      1990. The number enrolled in the average Kansas county
                       increased 5.3% over the same period from 4,111 to 4,668.
Low                    Enrollment also increased in Jackson County from 2,217 in
Comanche       25.3%   1990 to 2,494 in 2000. This was an increase of 12.5%.


COLLEGE
ENROLLMENT

Source                 The Census Bureau defines college students as those
U.S. Census Bureau     persons enrolled in schooling which leads to a college
                       degree, whether bachelor’s, graduate, or professional.

2000                   In 2000, 176,453 Kansans were enrolled in college. This
High                   represented a 5.7% decrease from 187,130 in 1990. The
Sedgwick 27,503        number of college enrollees in the average Kansas county
                       fell 17.1% over the same period from 1,782 to 1,681.
Low                    College students numbered 305 in Jackson County in
Greeley 19             2000. This was down 27.7% from 422 in 1990. As the
                       number of college enrollees is small in many Kansas
                       counties, a small change in the number of students
1990 – 2000            enrolled may result in a large percentage change.
High
Rice    61.1%

Low
Greeley      75.0%


PROPORTION AGE 25
AND OVER WITH AT
LEAST A HIGH SCHOOL
DIPLOMA

Source                 Long-term economic competitiveness is directly linked to
U.S. Census Bureau     the skill and education level of an area’s labor force.
                       Educational attainment is one of the best measures of
                       these attributes available.




                                                                                  35
At Least High School            In 2000, 86.0% of Kansans age 25 and over had at least a
Diploma, continued              high school diploma. This was an increase of 5.8% from
                                81.3% of persons 25 and over in 1990. This continues an
2000                            upward trend and suggests that today’s youth are
High                            obtaining higher levels of education than their parents and
Johnson 94.9%                   grandparents did.

Low                             Between 1990 and 2000, the proportion receiving at least
Seward 63.7%                    a high school diploma in the average Kansas county grew
                                8.2% from 77.7% to 83.9%. Over the same period,
                                persons in Jackson County with at least a high school
1990 – 2000                     diploma grew from 80.8% of the population age 25 and
High                            over to 87.7%. This was an increase of 8.6%. Only six
Elk   18.9%                     Kansas counties reported declines in the proportion with at
                                least a high school diploma between 1990 and 2000
Low                             (Finney, Ford, Grant, Haskell, Lyon, and Seward). Five of
Seward       11.8%              the six are located in southwest Kansas where population
                                growth has been particularly strong in recent years (See
                                page 6 of the Situation & Trends report for Jackson
                                County).

                                Table 12 presents additional data on educational
                                attainment for Jackson County and the average Kansas
                                county.


     Table 12. Highest Level of Education Attained, Jackson County
     and Kansas County Average, 1990 and 2000
                                                Jackson             County Average

                                            1990        2000        1990         2000
     Population Age 25 & Over:             7,389       8,228       14,914       16,202
     Less Than 9th Grade:                    688         329       1,152          839
                         % of Population   9.3%        4.0%         7.7%         5.2%
     9th -12th Grade, No Diploma:            731         682       1,641        1,425
                         % of Population   9.9%        8.3%        11.0%         8.8%
     High School Diploma:                  3,606       3,774       4,897        4,834
                         % of Population   48.8%       45.9%       32.8%        29.8%
     Some College, No Degree:              1,300       1,879       3,266        3,978
                         % of Population   17.6%       22.8%       21.9%        24.6%
     Associate Degree:                       296         295         811          944
                         % of Population   4.0%        3.6%         5.4%         5.8%
     Bachelor's Degree:                      534         905       2,105        2,764
                         % of Population   7.2%        11.0%       14.1%        17.1%
     Graduate or Professional Degree:        234         364       1,042        1,416
                         % of Population   3.2%        4.4%         7.0%         8.7%




36
                           SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
                           The housing and education indicators presented earlier in
                           the report provide some insight into Jackson County’s
                           social situation. Here, we present additional indicators
                           related to the county’s social environment.


PROPORTION MARRIED

Source                     In 2000, 59.3% of Kansans age 15 and over were married.
U.S. Census Bureau         This represented a 4.0% decline from 1990 when 61.7%
                           were married. A slightly higher proportion (63.0%) was
                           married in the average Kansas county in 2000. Again, this
2000                       was down from 1990 when 65.8% were married. Married
High                       persons increased as a proportion of persons age 15 and
Haskell 70.6%              over in only 6 Kansas counties between 1990 and 2000
                           (Chautauqua, Kiowa, Norton, Pawnee, Thomas, and
Low                        Wallace). Over the period, married persons fell from
Riley 44.3%                67.3% of the population age 15 and over in Jackson
                           County to 64.1%. This was a decrease of 4.8%. In part,
                           the decline in the proportion married in most Kansas
1990-2000                  counties may reflect broader societal changes such as
High                       persons waiting longer to marry and rising divorce rates.
Pawnee    16.2%
                           Additional data on marital status is presented in Table 13.
Low
Chase    11.6%


  Table 13. Population Age 15 and Over by Marital Status, Jackson
  County and Kansas County Average, 1990 and 2000
                                       Jackson               County Average
                                  1990        2000           1990      2000
  Population Age 15 and Over:     8,720      9,750          18,227    20,006
  Married:                        5,870      6,246          11,255    11,859
               Spouse Present     5,783      5,987          10,738    11,105
                Spouse Absent       87         259            517       754
  Unmarried:                      2,850      3,504          6,972      8,147
                 Never Married    1,513      1,868          4,050      4,814
                      Divorced     524         857          1,541      2,016
                      Widowed      813         779          1,382      1,317




                                                                                     37
PROPORTION
SPEAKING A
LANGUAGE OTHER
THAN ENGLISH

Source               The population speaking a language other than English
U.S. Census Bureau   includes only those who sometimes or always speak
                     another language at home. It does not include those who
                     speak a language other than English only at school or
2000                 work, or those who were limited to only a few expressions
High                 or slang of the other language.
Seward 41.2%
                     Nearly 9 percent of Kansans spoke a language other than
Low                  English at home in 2000. This represented a 52.1%
Comanche 1.6%        increase from the proportion doing so in 1990. Over the
                     same period, the proportion speaking a language other
                     than English grew 32.9% in the average Kansas county to
1990-2000            6.8% of the population. In Jackson County, the proportion
High                 grew from 2.4% of the population in 1990 to 2.5% in 2000.
Hamilton  202.9%     This was an increase of 2.7%.

Low                  More than 25% of the population spoke a language other
Logan   55.6%        than English at home in four Kansas counties (Finney,
                     Ford, Grant, and Seward). All are located in southwest
                     Kansas.

                     Spanish was the most common non-English language
                     spoken at home. Nearly 63% of Kansans speaking
                     another language at home spoke Spanish in 2000. This
                     compared to 58.3% of those speaking a language other
                     than English at home in the average Kansas county and
                     51.0% in Jackson County.

                     While most people who speak a language other than
                     English at home also speak English, many report that they
                     either do not speak English well or at all. In 2000, 24.1%
                     of persons speaking a language other than English at
                     home in Kansas, 16.7% of those in the average Kansas
                     county, and 6.2% of those in Jackson County indicated
                     that they spoke English “not well” or “not at all”. It is
                     important to recognize that this data reflects the
                     respondent’s own perception of their ability to speak
                     English and may not reflect that of others.




38
SUMMARY
Data for Jackson County is summarized on the following
pages in a data summary table and relative situation chart.
These figures allow the reader to get a quick overall picture
of where the county stands relative to other counties and
the average Kansas county. For more information on a
specific indicator, refer to the discussion of that indicator
earlier in the report. See the table of contents for a
complete listing of indicators.




                                                          39
                         Data Summary for Jackson County, Kansas
                                                     Most Recent Value                                 % Change

                                             Year        County         KS County        From         County         KS County
                                                                         Average         Year                         Average

Population
Urban Population                             2000          3,284           18,286         1990            N.A.             N.A.
Rural Population                             2000          9,373            7,317         1990            N.A.             N.A.
% Rural                                      2000         74.1%            67.8%          1990            N.A.             N.A.
% Farm                                       2000         13.2%             9.3%          1990            N.A.             N.A.
% Lived in County 5 Years Prior              2000         79.6%            78.7%          1990          -4.5%            -1.8%

Income
Median Household Income                      1999       $40,451           $34,838         1989         24.5%            17.9%
Median Family Income                         1999       $46,520           $42,253         1989         18.9%            17.8%
Median Nonfamily Income                      1999       $20,729           $19,320         1989         56.9%            27.9%
Poverty Rate                                 1999         8.8%             10.9%          1989        -26.8%           -13.3%
Childhood Poverty Rate                       1999        12.8%             13.8%          1989          2.7%            -5.4%
Elderly Poverty Rate                         1999         9.2%              9.1%          1989        -47.7%           -32.7%

Economy
% Work                                       1999         72.8%            70.1%          1989          2.1%            -0.3%
Full-Time, Year Round Workers                1999          4,308            8,607         1989         19.4%             8.1%
Private Wage & Salary Workers                2000          4,224            9,571         1990         23.7%            12.4%
Government Workers                           2000          1,290            1,942         1990         26.8%             6.7%
Self-Employed Workers                        2000            595              975         1990        -19.2%           -12.7%
Unpaid Family Workers                        2000             31               48         1990        -62.7%            14.7%
% Work Outside County                        2000         47.3%            23.9%          1990         -6.8%            36.7%
% Work at Home                               2000          4.8%             6.0%          1990        -27.9%            -9.2%
% Drive to Work                              2000         91.9%            89.0%          1990          3.5%             3.8%

Housing
Average Rooms Per Unit                       2000           5.9               5.9         1990          3.0%             3.7%
Median Gross Rent                            2000          $453              $387         1990         44.9%            10.4%
Median Gross Rent as a % of Income           2000        21.0%             20.9%          1990        -20.8%            -4.9%
Median Owner Costs -- Mortgaged              2000          $767              $687         1990         27.8%            14.6%
Median Owner Costs -- Not Mortgaged          2000          $263              $254         1990         29.3%            18.1%
Units Built in Last 10 Years                 2000           802             1,468         1990         44.2%           -17.7%
Median Housing Value                         2000       $70,200           $57,129         1990         58.8%            30.2%

Education
Preprimary Enrollment                        2000            485              861         1990        120.5%            75.1%
Elementary & High School Enrollment          2000          2,494            4,668         1990         12.5%             5.3%
College Enrollment                           2000            305            1,681         1990        -27.7%           -17.1%
% With at Least a High School Diploma        2000         87.7%            83.9%          1990          8.6%             8.2%

Social Environment
% Married                                    2000         64.1%            63.0%          1990          -4.8%           -4.3%
% Speak Non-English at Home                  2000          2.5%             6.8%          1990           2.7%           32.9%



N.A. -- Not applicable due to changes in Census Bureau definitions of urban and rural. See page 2 for additional information.




    40
                               Relative Situation for Jackson County, Kansas
                                                                 Kansas
                                                                 County
                                                                 Average

                         Urban Population, 2000

Kansas County Range       Rural Population, 2000
 ♦ County Value
                                   % Farm, 2000

           % Lived in County 5 Years Prior, 2000

             Median Household Income, 1989-99

                  Median Family Income, 1989-99

             Median Nonfamily Income, 1989-99

                              Poverty Rate, 1999

                    Childhood Poverty Rate, 1999

                       Elderly Poverty Rate, 1999

                                   % Work, 1999

        Full-Time, Year Round Workers, 1989-99

        Private Wage & Salary Workers, 1990-00

                   Government Workers, 1990-00

                Self-Employed Workers, 1990-00

                   % Work Outside County, 2000

                          % Work at Home, 2000

                          % Drive to Work, 2000

                     Median Gross Rent, 1990-00

      Median Owner Costs -- Mortgaged, 1990-00

  Median Owner Costs -- Not Mortgaged, 1990-00

                  Median Housing Value, 1990-00

                  Preprimary Enrollment, 1990-00

   Elementary & High School Enrollment, 1990-00

                     College Enrollment, 1990-00

    % With at Least a High School Diploma, 2000

                                % Married, 2000

            % Speak Non-English at Home, 2000

            % Speak Non-English at Home, 2000
                                          Below county average             Above county average

                                                                                        41
Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service,
Manhattan, Kansas
It is the policy of Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service that all
persons shall have equal opportunity and access to its educational programs, services, activities, and materials
without regard to race, color, religion, national origin, sex, age or disability. Kansas State University is an equal
opportunity organization.
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, as amended. Kansas State
University, County Extension Councils, Extension Districts, and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating,
Marc. A. Johnson, Director.

				
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