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					  Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

 Introduction to MEMS & NEMS
                   (So What? Big Deal…)

Phys 4340, Summer, 2007
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS


      What is MEMS?       Or NEMS?   Or SEMs?

      Who cares?       (& why)

      A few applications

      How do you make these things?

      Where’s it going in future (NEMS & SEMs).
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

 What is MEMS?        (And the others?)

 MEMS – Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems

 micro – prefix meaning 1 millionth of a metric unit
 micrometer = micron = 1 µm = 1 millionth of a meter

 ―typical‖ human hair ~ 100 µm

 generically… MicroSystems Technology (MST)

 NEMS – Nano-ElectroMechanical Systems
 nano – prefix meaning one-billionth of a metric unit
 nanometer = nm = 1 billionth of a meter (~ 5–10 atoms)
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

  These both refer to artificial devices constructed with
  many techniques (IC, chemistry, biology, …) that can
  do useful work or special tasks.

  Specifically, if built at the micrometer size scale...
    microsensors (physical, chemical & biological)
    microrobotics (walkers/swimmers/flyers microrobots)
    microactuators (micro/nano assembly)
    micromanipulators (mirrors, optical aligners)
    microfluidics (micropumps, valves)

 Or if made at the nanometer size scale or with nano-sized
 structures or ―nano-complexity‖:
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

                              Micromachine on
                              a 1998 penny
                              (torsion oscillator)
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

Who cares?
 Can you make a living in MEMS or NanoTech?

 1. $ 1.2 B investment funds to optical switch companies in 2000.

 2. RF MEMS (telecommunications) produced $130 M in FY 2000

 3. Projections for FY 2005 are $ 3.65 B for RF MEMS alone.

 4. MEMS as a whole      FY 2000    $ 3B
                         FY 2005    $ 12 B (projected)

 5. NEMS technology:     potentially huge (rivals major industries)
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS
              Top 30 MEMS Manufacturers in 2006
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS
                Top 10 MEMS Foundries in 2006
   Introduction to MEMS & NEMS
                                       Current MEMS Job Listings

MEMS Design Engineer                                                                                                      Jul 19, 2007
Boston, Massachusetts
                                                                                                                 Send Job to a Friend
An established MEMS company in the Boston area is looking for a MEMS Design Engineer who will conduct product feasibility
studies, diagnostic chip development and analysis as well as root cause problem solving. The projects will encompass near term
product feasibilities to reduce product development risks as well as long term product and process development to support strategic
objectives. The MEMS Design Engineer will fulfill simulation and analysis responsibilities and will be required to characterize and
validate the models or the MEMS device behavior. The characterization part of the job requires experience with wafer probe and test
equipment. A strong background in statistical data analysis tools is also necessary. Finally, the individual will be required to lead
small focused teams as well as cross-functional root cause problem solving teams. Strong team leadership skills are required as well
as a strong technical background in Integrated Circuit (IC) technology with experience in MEMS manufacturing.

Required Skills

•M.S. in Electrical, Mechanical, Chemical Engineering or Material Science.
•5+ years of experience in MEMS modeling and characterization.
•Experience with ANSYS, CoventorWare, MATLAB/Simulink, MathCad and Labview.
•Experience focused on problem solving/root cause analysis in a development environment is preferred.
    Introduction to MEMS & NEMS
Senior MEMS Process Engineer                 Current MEMS Job Listings                                                                   May 30, 2007
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                  Send Job to a Friend
A venture capital backed company in the Pittsburgh area is looking for a Process Engineer to be responsible for development, production transfer,
and yield/cost management of foundry partner processes for a MEMS product line. This individual will work closely with (and possibly lead)
cross-functional teams to ensure process performance and boost yield to reduce cost, while maintaining highest quality. This individual will also
be involved with characterization of new processes and to assist the design teams by providing foundry feedback to ensure product/process
compatibility in the current (and future) manufacturing lines.

·   Managing wafer foundry interactions from design completion to manufacturing transfer.
·   Characterization of process performance to assure products meet customer performance, quality and reliability requirements and cost.
·   Assuring processes and foundries meet or beat targeted yield requirements.
·   Executing and managing project schedules that meet customer expectations.
·   Quickly identifying problems and implementing solutions to minimize project impact.
·   Providing input in development meetings and regular product reviews.
·   Perform statistical analysis to identify trends and performance correlations.
·   Understanding customer requirements and translating them into tangible action plans.

Required Skills

·     BSEE with 5+ years of semiconductor and/or MEMS experience (design, product engineering, manufacturing engineering, etc.).
·     Excellent understanding of semiconductor manufacturing processes (front end through final test).
·     Proficient in statistical data analysis using JMP (or Minitab, Statgraphics), including process control (SPC), DOE and multivariate
regression analysis; Proficiency in MS Office tools.
·     Demonstrated excellent organizational, time and project management skills.
·     Must possess a comprehensive understanding of process characterization.
·     Must possess excellent interpersonal skills, capable of interfacing within all levels of the organization; proficient language skills, written and
·     Ability to prosper in a fast-paced, high-energy environment, able to feel comfortable and remain calm in the face of rapid change and
aggressive deadlines.
·     Must have excellent customer service skills, with the ability to work in a team environment.
  Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

Who is involved?

Big Players
       TI, IBM, Lucent, Agere, Ford, Honeywell,
       Freescale, Intel, HP, Analog Devices, Saab, ...

Government Interest

Smaller Players (partial list, out of 100’s)
Aiwa                        R&D MEMS thin film services
Cronos Integrated Microsystems optical/wireless MEMS telecom
Hana Microdisplay       MEMS microdisplays
InLight Communications Inc MEMS optical switches
Microsensors Inc        micromachined sensors
Onix Microsystems       telecom optical switching
Optical Micro-Machining     MEMS all-optical switching
Silicon Sense Inc       MEMS, ASIC, CMOS foundry
Standard Microsystems Corp       MOS/VLSI MEMS
 Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

Some existing (or near-term) applications of MEMS devices:

Automotive devices
     pressure sensors
     fuel mixture and exhaust gas management

Medical technology
      minimal invasive therapy
      implantable or automated drug delivery
      implantable biosensors for monitoring bio-parameters

Consumer electronics
     DMD high definition displays
     tele-communications (RF, optical switches)
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

  MEMS devices may be either passive in operation or
  active with moving and electrically energized
  articulated structures.

 Cantilever array for parallel   Setting a size scale for MEMS devices.
 imaging, reading & writing,
 or fabrication.
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

 Some examples of simple MEMS devices:

             microgears        electrostatic micromotor
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

 More electrostatic micromotors and possible size
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

Surface micromachining-microshutter example; can be
used for optical switch of light signals.
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

 Some examples of simple MEMS devices:

 TI deformable mirror device (DMD)
           high definition projection display

     addressing two mirrors   Use of DMD for high definition TV
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

  Some examples of MEMS devices:                 video

          slow speed                         accelerating

                       Sandia rotary motor
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

  Some examples of MEMS devices:        video

            slow speed                 high speed

            micromachine wedge indexing motor
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

                World’s smallest steam engine
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

 Surface micromachining-electrostatic micromotor
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

                Electromagnetic micromotor

                                             Windings completed
                                             by wire bonds
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

Surface micromachining-sacrificial layer method
  Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

   Bulk micromachining —
         uses both wet chemical etching or ODE
         plasma etching

Si 110

Si 100
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

Articulated microstructures as a basis for micromachines
and microsensors.
                                    Micromachines can be
                                    created by using these
                                    a. the position & flexing of a
                                    movable member may be
                                    sensed for accelerometer
                                    b. the surface conduction
                                    may be designed to change
                                    when a particular chemical
                                    or molecule attaches to it;
                                    c. the flexible membrane
                                    may be forced to move to
                                    accomplish a switching
                                    operation under different
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

Micromachine using micromirrors that can
be controlled and directed can be used for
either high-definition displays (like the TI
DMD seen earlier)
or for optical communications and
switching, like the optical cross-connect
seen here.
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

 System on a Chip (SOC) = MEMS + IC
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

 System on a Chip
Introduction to MEMS & NEMS
 Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

Medical nanobot:

One of the Grand Challenges of NEMS

The Idea:

A. build a robot that is small enough to reach anywhere
   in the body

B. Have enough capability to perform a medically useful
  Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

 Requirements:             1. Size – no larger than a blood corpuscle
                           2. Propulsion (?) & guidance (definitely)
                           3. Enough nanoscale complexity to do
                              something useful upon arrival at target.

Artist’s conception of a
medical nanobot.
  Introduction to MEMS & NEMS

Where to find more information on MEMS:
http://...           US Dept of Commerce MEMS project         Sandia National Lab MEMS information      UC Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center       Cal Tech Micromachining Lab       U Colorado at Boulder, RF, OE MEMS         U Cincinnati Center for Microelectronic
                        Sensors & MEMS       lists opportunities for MEMS in defense
                        systems (Institute for Defense Analyses, DARPA)              information on Canadian MEMS information on European MEMS

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