TETRACHLOROETHENE (PERC) Use Prioritization Considerations

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					Toxics Use Reduction Institute

         Use Prioritization Considerations
                       Toxics Use Reduction Institute
                              Jason Marshall
                               Heidi Wilcox
                 PERC Basics
• CAS # 127-18-4
• Synonyms:
 ethylene tetrachloride;
 perc; carbon dichloride;
 carbon bichloride;
 PERK; 1,1,2,2-
 perchlor; PCE
                            MSDS - Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc.
         PERC Physical & Chemical
• Appearance                     • Boiling Point
   – Clear, colorless liquid        – 121C (250F)
• Odor                           • Melting Point
   – Ethereal odor                  – -19C (-2F)
• Solubility                     • Vapor Density (Air=1)
   – 0.015 g in 100 g of water      – 5.7
• Specific Gravity               • Vapor Pressure (mm Hg)
   – 1.62 @ 20C/4C                  – 18 @ 25C (77F)
• pH                             • Evaporation Rate (BuAc=1)
   – N/A                            – 0.33 (trichloroethylene = 1)
• % Volatiles by volume @
  21C (70F)
   – 100
         PERC Potential Health Effects
•   Inhalation:
     –   Irritating to the upper respiratory tract.
     –   Giddiness, headache, intoxication, nausea and vomiting may follow the inhalation of
         large amounts
     –   Massive amounts can cause breathing arrest, liver and kidney damage, and death
•   Ingestion:
     –   Not highly toxic by this route because of low water solubility
     –   Used as an oral dosage for hookworm (1 to 4 ml)
     –   Causes abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness
•   Skin Contact:
     –   Causes irritation to skin. Symptoms include redness, itching, and pain
     –   May be absorbed through the skin with possible systemic effects
•   Eye Contact:
     –   Causes irritation, redness, and pain
•   Chronic Exposure:
     –   May cause liver, kidney or central nervous system damage after repeated or prolonged
         exposures. Suspected cancer risk from animal studies.
•   Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions:
     –   Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems or impaired liver or kidney
         function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance
     –   The use of alcoholic beverages enhances the toxic effects
   PERC Potential Health Effects

• Airborne Exposure Limits:
• -OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit
  – 100 ppm (TWA), 200 ppm (ceiling),
  – 300 ppm/5min/3-hour (max)
• -ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV):
  – 25 ppm (TWA), 100 ppm (STEL); listed as
    A3, animal carcinogen
                PERC Health Effects
• Overexposure may cause central nervous system and liver
       • concentrations of 200 ppm or more have been associated with dizziness,
         confusion, headache, nausea, and irritation of the eyes and mucous
       • exposure to extremely high levels (>1,500 ppm) may lead to
         unconsciousness due to anesthesia and, in extreme cases, death from
         respiratory depression
• International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
   – classifies PERC in Group 2A, as a substance considered "probably
     carcinogenic to humans.“
• EPA’s Science Advisory Board
   – Concluded that the weight of the evidence for PERC does not
     support its classification as a probable human carcinogen under
     EPA’s 1986 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment.
• American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
   – Classifies PERC in its Category A3 ("animal carcinogen")
                              (Halogenated Solvents Industry Alliance, Inc.)
            PERC Production
• US Estimates:
  – U.S. demand for the chemical in 2004
    was estimated to be about 355 million
    pounds (Halogenated Solvents Industry Alliance,
     • Chemical intermediate - 66%
     • Drycleaning/textile processing - 12%
     • Automotive aerosols - 12%
     • Metal cleaning/degreasing - 8%
     • Miscellaneous – 2%
                  TURA Reporting
               2003 TURA Perchloroethylene Use (lbs)
                        Vapor Degreasing
  Plating Mask                6%

Dry Cleaning
                                             Aerosol Packaging

                                                                 Total Use
                                             Use                   (lbs)
                                             Aerosol Packaging     103,529
                                             Distributor           154,207
                                             Dry Cleaning           15,697
 Distributor                                 Plating Mask           11,184
    51%                                      Vapor Degreasing       19,600
                                                Total              304,217
                     TURI Recommended
                      Low Priority Uses
        Use/Application                               Use/Application
          Industrial                                    Consumer
Paint stripping - paint & varnish removers - Furniture polish/cleaners
consumer                                     household rug & upholstery cleaners
Adhesive formulations                         Non structural caulking
Printing inks                                 Oven cleaners
Solvent for de-inking paper                   Lubricating oils & greases
Paper coatings                                Laundry starch products
Insulating fluid in electrical transformers   Waterproofing compound Shoe polish
Silicones                                     Compounds & sealants
Process solvent for desulfurizing coal        Silver polish, spray
Heat-exchange fluid                           Rubber coatings
Remove soot from industrial boilers           Pesticides
                   Major Use Categories
                                      Used in MA
  Use/Application        In Products             In Mfg              Exp. Pot.
Dry Cleaning                              15,697 lbs report       Minor;
                                          2003 (1 company);       Occupation,
                                          ~980 facilities using   Environment
Automotive Aerosols       103,529 lbs Aerosol packaging           Moderate;
Metal Cleaning/                           19,600 lbs TURA         Moderate;
Degreasing                                reporting 2003          Occupation,
Chemical Maskant        11,184 lbs TURA                           Moderate;
Formulations            reporting 2003                            Occupation,
Chemical Intermediate   Refrigerant                               Occupation

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