# Sideling Hill Road Cut by changcheng2

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```									                                Sideling Hill

Sideling Hill is a
SYNCLINAL RIDGE

350 million years
to form!

When driving through the road cut… Think AFRICA!
AFRICA?!!!
SIDELING

AFRICA

This is hard to understand using a current world map –
but what if we could go back 200 million years?
200 million years ago
(Jurassic)

100 million years ago
(Cretaceous)

Record observations:
Current
200 million years ago, Africa                                  (Holocene)
and North America were next to one
another! This is an HISTORIC example
of a convergent plate boundary.

relative positions of North America
and Africa over the past 200 years?
What type of plate movement is this?
The continental
collision of North
America and Africa
resulted in the
formation of the
Appalachian
Mountains and
portions of the Atlas
mountains.

A current example of
continental collision:
Appalachians
Atlas       The Himalayas
When Africa and North America collided 350 million years
ago, the sedimentary rocks of our region folded!

1. Initial arrangement    2. Compression     3.After collision:
of sedimentary rocks

Folding animation
In animation, select ductile deformation with compression.
Click on action button below for a review of Rock Stress.

To Rock Stress review                       To Move On
Rock Stress
= sedimentary rock layers

Compression

Tension

When rock is subjected to stress,
brittle rocks would break (faulting)
and ductile rocks would bend (folding).            Shear

Exploring Earth example
Rock Stress
= sedimentary rock layers

Compression

Tension

Assuming we are dealing with ductile rocks,
draw three diagrams to hypothesize what
Shear
would happen to these horizontal rock strata
if subjected to these types of stress.

Exploring Earth example
Select ductile deformation to review
Rock Stress
= sedimentary rock layers

Compression

Tension

Assuming we are dealing with brittle rocks,
draw three diagrams to hypothesize what
Shear
would happen to these horizontal rock strata
if subjected to these types of stress.

Exploring Earth example
Select brittle deformation to review
• A SYNCLINE is a U-
shaped downfold.
Synclines initially
form valleys. (smile)

• An ANTICLINE is an
A-shaped upfold.
Anticlines initially
form ridges. (frown)
What is Sideling Hill?

Anticline OR Syncline?

Ridge OR Valley?

Does this relationship make sense? How you explain a SYNCLINAL RIDGE?
Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of rock
strata within Sideling Hill.
Highlight the meta-anthracite coal layer (the black layer)

• Your diagram should look something like this:
When a syncline initially forms it is a valley with anticlines
on either side.
Extend the rock strata in your diagram to create two anticlines on either
side of Sideling Hill.
Hint: Sideling Hill will now be the lowest point of your diagram.

Your diagram should look something like this:
Dashed lines represent

Congratulations! You have just recreated the last 200 million years!
Erosion of Folds
Initial folding:

Following erosion:
• What is the view from
the top of Sideling
Hill?
• What would the view
have been like 200
million years ago?
Is this the whole story?
The black layer (highlighted on your diagrams) is
meta-anthracite coal.

• This is the eastern-most
coal in the U.S.
• For meta-anthracite coal
to form at least 7000 feet
of rock must be above
this layer.
• How does this information