Guidelines: by 5J3LR8

VIEWS: 79 PAGES: 38

									INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS:
DEVELOPING A ROADMAP FOR GENDER AND MINING

Blue Pearl Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
June 15th and 16th, 2010




                                                                        Prepared By:

                                                                        Jennifer Hinton
                                                                         Susan Wagner


                                                                       Submitted To:

                                        World Bank, Oil, Gas and Mining Policy Division
                                       Tanzanian Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM)


                                                                      July 30th, 2010
                                                International Workshop Proceedings:
                                          Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining


                                                      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Real development requires that the full potential of both women and men be realized and their human
rights are respected. Accordingly, most governments do recognize gender equity as a cross-cutting
development priority and, through their poverty reduction strategies, they call upon key stakeholders –
government, private sector and civil society – in all sectors to take action to promote gender equity
through their activities. As a major player in local and national development of many countries, the
minerals sector is well positioned to increase their sustainable development contributions through gender
responsive policies and programs.

In recognition of this, the Tanzanian Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM) in partnership with the World
Bank and German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) supported for the
International Workshop: Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining held in Dar es
                                 th       th
Salaam, Tanzania on June 15 and 16 , 2010. By bringing together women and men from artisanal
mining, mining companies, civil society, government, development partners and others from more than
ten countries, the Workshop captured diverse views and experiences in order to forge a shared vision of
gender equity in the mineral sector.

Through participatory dialogue and sharing of knowledge and experience from Tanzanians and those
representing a host of countries, specific action items and solutions were put forward, laying the
groundwork for a viable plan of action to support objectives of Tanzania‟s Mineral Policy (2009) and other
national poverty reduction strategies.

Among notable conclusions, it was emphasized that:
          Women and men involved in mining, either directly and indirectly, face similar and different
           challenges and constraints. Furthermore, men generally receive the greater proportion of
           benefits from mining, while women face a disproportionate number of its negative impacts.
          Understanding and effectively responding to gender-differentiated constraints and opportunities
           is crucial to ensuring that mining policies, programmes and interventions actually serve to
           support development and address (rather than worsen) gender inequalities.
          Although equal access and participation is important, it does not necessarily result in equal
           benefits. Additional efforts are needed in terms of, not only mobilization, but in designing,
           implementing and providing services and assistance at the local level.
          The Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM) has demonstrated sincere commitment to take a
           lead in promoting gender equity in mining. Through SMMRP activities and those ongoing with
           MEM, they are very well positioned to set an international standard for others to follow.

The Workshop culminated in a clear roadmap to gender equity in the minerals sector. Turning this
framework into a plan of action is a critical next step for change to be realized on the ground. Although
the Roadmap represents hallmark outcome, follow-up action is critical. This should include:
          Engendering the Mineral Policy Implementation Strategy. Fully engendering the Mineral Policy
           and its implementation plan as well as activities supported under the SMMRP, the foundation can
           be laid for long-term progress towards gender equity in the Tanzanian Minerals Sector.
          Development of a Gender Action Plan. The recommendations and action items, as well as
           responsible parties, specified during the workshop should be turned into a time-bound action
           plan for dissemination to stakeholders and affirmation of commitments to action.
          Implementation and Evaluation of Responses to Practical and Strategic Gender Needs.
           Mobilization and dedication of human and financial resources are needed to turn commitments
           into action. Monitoring and evaluation of these efforts will serve to inform changes and
           improvements to the Action Plan.

As stated by Mr. David Jairo, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, “mere
formulation of policies does not mean much if each person, as individuals, does nothing to address
gender inequalities in their daily lives.” Whether an individual, community, government agency or any
organization, taking these words to heart and turning them into action is a step in the right direction – a
step towards fulfilment of human rights and real progress towards sustainable development.




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                                                International Workshop Proceedings:
                                          Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining



                                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                                                          2
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                          3
ACRONYMS                                                                                                   4
1    INTRODUCTION                                                                                          5
     1.1         Objectives                                                                                5
     1.2         Agenda                                                                                    5
2    PROCEEDINGS                                                                                           7
     2.1         Official Opening Session                                                                  7
                 2.1.1        Official Opening, Mr. David K. Jairo, Permanent Secretary, MEM               7
                 2.1.2        Mainstreaming Gender in the SMMRP, Mr. John Nayopa, Project Coordinator      8
     2.2         Breakout Sessions: The Gender Dimension of Critical Issues                               11
     2.3         Sharing International Experiences                                                        14
                 2.3.1        Engaging with Community Women to Improve Development Outcomes in PNG        15
                 2.3.2        Gender and Gemstones in Afghanistan                                         16
                 2.3.3        Gender and ASM in Tanzania: The Merelani Tanzanite Mines                    18
                 2.3.4        Gender and ASM in Mozambique: The Manica Gold Mines                         19
                 2.3.5        Gender and ASM in Lao PDR: The Phathen Valley Tin Mines                     20
     2.4         Keynote Address: Tanzania’s Gender Policy and National Gender Strategy                   21
     2.5         Panel: Towards Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women                              22
                 2.5.1        Tanzania Women Miners‟ Association (TAWOMA)                                  23
                 2.5.2        Gender Perspectives on Community Development: African Barrick Gold Ltd.      23
                 2.5.3        Gender Equity Approaches: Uganda Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development 24
                 2.5.4        Financing Opportunities for Micro- and Small Enterprises in Tanzania         25
                 2.5.5        Meeting Community Health Needs: A Gender Perspective from Ministry of Health 26
     2.6         Breakout Sessions: Towards a Roadmap                                                     27
                 2.6.1        Engendering the Implementation Strategy for the National Mineral Policy     27
                 2.6.2        Gender-Responsive Outreach and Extension Services to Mining Communities     28
                 2.6.3        Engendering Partnerships to Address Health and Development Needs            30
                 2.6.4        Building Gender-Responsive Organizations in Mining Communities              31
     2.7         Closing Session: A Roadmap Towards Gender Equity in Mining                               32
                 2.7.1        Towards a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining                               32
                 2.7.2        Official Closing, Mr. Hamis Komba, Deputy Commissioner for Minerals, MEM    33
3    CONCLUSIONS                                                                                          34
                 3.7.1        Critical Next Steps                                                         34
ANNEX ONE: LIST OF PARTICIPANTS                                                                           36




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                                          Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining

ACRONYMS
    ABG                    African Barrick Gold Limited
    ASM                    Artisanal and Small Scale Mining
    BGR                    Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources
    CBO                    Community Based Organizations
    CSR                    Cooperate Social Responsibility
    EIA                    Environmental Impact Assessment
    GDP                    Growth Domestic Product
    GST                    Geological Survey of Tanzania
    HIV/AIDS               Human Immune Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
    IDA                    International Development Agency
    LGA                    Local Government Authority
    LSM                    Large Scale Mining
    MCDGC                  Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children
    MDF                    Mineral Development Fund
    MEM                    Ministry of Energy and Minerals
    MLEYD                  Ministry of Labour, Employment and Youth Development
    MOFEA                  Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs
    NGO                    Non-Governmental Organization
    PMO                    Prime Minister‟s Office
    PMU                    Project Management Unit
    PS                     Permanent Secretary
    PSIA                   Participatory Social Impact Assessment
    REMAS                  Regional Mines Associations
    RMO                    Resident Mines Office
    RS                     Regional Secretariat
    SACCOS                 Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies
    SIDO                   Small Scale Industries Development Organization
    SMMRP                  Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources
    STDs                   Sexually Transmitted Diseases
    TACC                   Training and Awareness Campaign Committee
    TAWOMA                 Tanzania Women Miners‟ Association
    TCM                    Tanzania Chamber of Mines
    UN                     United Nations
    UNDP                   United Nation Development Program
    UPATU                  Revolving Group Savings and Credit Schemes
    VICOBA                 Village Cooperative Banks
    WB                     World Bank
    ZMO                    Zonal Mines Office



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                                                International Workshop Proceedings:
                                          Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining


1     INTRODUCTION
Real development requires that the full potential of both women and men be realized and their
human rights are respected. Accordingly, most governments do recognize gender equity as a
cross-cutting development priority and, through their poverty reduction strategies, call upon key
stakeholders – government, private sector and civil society – in all sectors to take action to
promote gender equity through their activities. As a major player in local and national
development of many countries, the minerals sector is well positioned to increase their
sustainable development contributions through gender responsive policies and programs.

In recognition of this, the Tanzanian Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM) in partnership with
the World Bank and German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR)
provided support for an International Workshop: Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity
in Mining held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania on June 15th and 16th, 2010. By bringing together
women and men from artisanal mining, mining companies, civil society, government,
development partners and others from more than ten countries, the Workshop captured diverse
views and experiences in order to forge a shared vision of gender equity in the mineral sector.

1.1 Objectives
The main objectives of the International Workshop were to:
          Identify and understand critical gender issues and different constraints and opportunities
           for women and men in artisanal, small and large scale mining;
          Share international experiences related to gender and mining with the intent of
           identifying viable strategies to mainstream gender and promote gender equality in
           communities, companies and government; and
          Develop a Roadmap and national platform for action founded on viable strategies to
           address gender inequalities through policy, partnerships and interventions;

In addition, the event created an invaluable opportunity for women and men miners, mining
companies, civil society, government, development partners and other stakeholders to develop
essential partnerships and collaborations to jointly promote gender equity.


1.2 Agenda
The interactive, multi-stakeholder workshop built upon the diverse knowledge, attitudes and
experiences of all participants through the format outlined in Fig. 1 and detailed in Table 1.



  Official Opening            Gender Dimension                   International         Models of            Roadmap for
                               of Critical Issues                Experiences           Excellence           Gender Equity
                                  Participatory              Presentations and      Presentations and        Participatory
 Introduction to key            Breakout Groups:                                   Plenary Discussions:    Breakout Groups:
                                                            Plenary Discussions:
issues in gender and
       mining                 Mining claims                   Papua New Guinea     Barrick Ltd.         Mining Policy
                              Entrepreneurialism              Tanzania             Govt of Uganda       Outreach and
     Tanzanian                Socio-economic                                        Business
                                                               Mozambique                                  Extension
    Government                                                                                             Partnerships
                                impacts & benefits             Afghanistan           Development
  commitments to              Organizations                                         TAWOMA               Organizations
                                                               Lao PDR
   Promotion of
  Gender Equity in             Issues, Constraints                                   Main Lessons &         Action Items &
                                                             Main Lessons &
      Mining                    and Opportunities                                   Recommendations        Recommendations
                                                            Recommendations
    Day One                                                                         Day Two
                             TOWARDS A ROADMAP                                                              COMMITMENT
                                                                                                             TO ACTION

                      Figure One: International Workshop Agenda – Towards a Roadmap


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                                          Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining

                                                  Table One: Workshop Agenda
       TIME                                            TOPIC/ACTIVITY                    PRESENTER / FACILITATOR
Tuesday, June 16th
Morning Session                                                                 Chair: Christopher Sheldon, World Bank
          9:00 - 9:45 am             Introductory Session: Basic Gender Concepts         J. Hinton / S. Wagner,
                                                                                         World Bank Consultants
             9:45 - 10:00 am         Conference Programme and Objectives                 C. Sheldon, World Bank
             10:00-10:20 am          Official Opening                                    Mr. D.K. Jairo
                                                                                         Permanent Secretary, MEM
             10:20-10:40 am          Presentation: Mainstreaming Gender in MEM‟s         Project Coordinator, SMMRP,
                                     Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources         MEM
                                     Project (SMMRP)
             10:40-11:00 am          Tea Break
             11:00 - 1:00 pm         The Gender Dimension of Critical Issues. Breakout sessions on:
                                     Group 1: Mining claims and operation - access, control and ownership
                                     Group 2: Entrepreneurialism and Upstream, lateral and downstream activities
                                     Group 3: Socio-economic impacts and benefits of mining.
                                     Group 4: Organization of ASM and communities around large mines
          1:00 - 2:00 pm             Lunch
Afternoon Session                                                                           Chair: John Nayopa, SMMRP
          2:00 - 3:00 pm             Reporting back key lessons, opportunities,         J. Hinton, World Bank Consultant
                                     constraints and recommendations for action.
               3:00 - 4:45 pm        Panel: Sharing international experiences
                                        Engaging Women to Improve Development           A. Eftimie, World Bank
                                        Outcomes in Mining Sector, Papua New Guinea
                                        Merelani Tanzanite Mines, Tanzania              S. Wagner, World Bank Consultant
                                        Manica Gold Mines, Mozambique                   N. Mutemeri, World Bank Consultant
                                        Phathen Valley Tin Mines, Lao PDR               S. Insouvanh World Bank Consultant
                                        Adding Value to Gemstones , Afghanistan         S. Swire, Consultant
              4:45 - 5:00 pm         Plenary Wrap Up: Informing the Roadmap             K. Heller, World Bank Consultant
             7:00 - 10:00 pm         Conference Banquet                                 Mr. A. Ndyalusa, Rep. of Permanent
                                     Keynote Address: Tanzania’s Gender Policy          Secretary, Ministry of Community
                                     and National Gender Strategy                       Development, Gender and Children
Wednesday, June 16th
Morning Session                                                                                  Chair: Rogers Ssezinga
         9:00 - 10:30 am             Panel: Towards Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women
                                       Tanzania Women Miners Association, TAWOMA E. Negele, TAWOMA
                                       Barrick Community Development Program             F. Kyesi, Africa Barrick Gold Ltd.
                                       Financing Opportunities for Micro- and small-     W. S. Ndolezi, Small Industries
                                       Enterprises                                       Development Organization (SIDO)
                                       Ugandan Ministry of Energy and Mineral            J. Hinton, World Bank Consultant
                                       Development: Promotion of Gender Equity
                                       through Projects, Policy and Programmes
                                       Meeting Community Health Needs                    S. Mnaliwa, Ministry of Health
                10:30-10:50          Tea Break
             11:00 - 1:00 pm         Mainstreaming Gender in Critical Areas. Breakout Groups on:
                                     Group 1: Mining Policy and Legislation
                                     Group 2: Outreach and extension services to mining communities
                                     Group 3: Partnerships to address essential health and development needs.
                                     Group 4: Engagement in organizations (companies, associations, cooperatives, etc)
12:30 - 1:30 pm                      Lunch
Afternoon Session                                                                    Chair: Adriana Eftimie, World Bank
1:30 - 2:30 pm                       Reporting back key lessons, opportunities,          J. Hinton, World Bank Consultant
                                     constraints and recommendations for action.
3:00 - 4:30 pm                       A National Roadmap: Plenary Discussion              A. Eftimie, World Bank
4:30 - 4:45 pm                       Official Closing                                    The Permanent Secretary, MEM


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2      PROCEEDINGS
The two-day intensive workshop was highlighted by engaging presentations, insightful dialogue,
peer-to-peer learning and participatory discussions with the central objective of informing
development of a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining.


2.1 Official Opening Session
Chaired by Mr. Christopher Sheldon of the World Bank, the opening workshop session rapidly
brought the importance of the gender dimension of mining to the forefront, providing an
invaluable foundation for subsequent deliberations. The session further illustrated high levels of
commitment on the part of the Government of Tanzania and, in particular, the Ministry of
Energy and Minerals (MEM) and affirmed that Tanzania is likely to become a prominent
international example for promotion of gender equity in the minerals sector.

2.1.1 Official Opening, Mr. David K. Jairo, Permanent Secretary, MEM
Expressing his sincere appreciation to World Bank and BGR, Mr. Jairo stated his pride that this
workshop was the first of its kind to be held in Tanzania and perhaps Africa. Mr. Jairo stressed
that “women’s participation in mining sector is becoming more critical than before” given intense
growth over the past decade, not only in terms of large scale operations but in terms of
artisanal and small scale mine development also.

Tanzania‟s mineral endowments include a significant number of economic ore deposits of gold;
nickel; copper; coal; iron ore; a variety of gemstones (including diamonds and tanzanite); and
strategic industrial minerals such as gypsum and limestone. Mining is an important source of
foreign exchange revenues and its proper management has become of paramount significance
for the Government of Tanzania.

Increased benefits from mining to the people of Tanzania are directly supported by the new
Mineral Policy (2009) and Mining Act (2010) that advance opportunities such as:
          Creation of sector linkages to other sectors of the economy;
          Small scale mining development;
          Creation of value addition;
          Capacity building and skills development;
          Improvement of investment environment; etc.

To strengthen the management of the mineral sector further, the government is currently
                                       implementing the Sustainable Management of
                                       Mineral Resources Project (SMMRP), an
                                       important component of which relates to
                                       improved environmental and social management.

                                                                Despite much progress, Mr. Jairo elaborated that
                                                                the minerals sector is still marked by severe
                                                                gender imbalances. He elaborated that gender
                                                                refers to the socially constructed roles,
                                                                behaviour, activities and attributes that a
                                                                particular society considers appropriate for men
                                                                and women. These distinct roles, behaviours and
     Photo One: Christopher Sheldon of the World
                                                                beliefs may give rise to gender inequalities in
         Bank and MEM Permanent Secretary,                      both status and access to mineral rights as well
    Mr. David Jairo at the Official Workshop Opening            as benefits accruing from the mineral sector.

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                                          Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining

In Tanzania and around the globe, mining is still characterized by the following:
      Mining-related benefits, such as employment and income, are largely captured by men
       whereas environmental and social risks tend to fall mainly upon women;
      Inequality of employment rates for women in mining communities;
      Increase in dependency and unethical and risky undertakings like prostitution by
       females to compensate loss in productive land or traditional livelihoods. This can lead to
       direct and indirect health risks for women, including STDs and HIV/AIDS.
      Increase in domestic and social violence due to changed family roles, income levels and
       social stress.

Tanzania is now experiencing a paradigm shift in terms of gender. The Government is affording
special consideration to women in mining activities, which is further supported by a new Mineral
Policy. “We all understand the economic benefits associated with distributing equally the
mineral wealth between both men and women”. A woman takes care of every member of the
family and “if you educate a woman; you have educated the whole family.” Mr. Jairo recognized
that the mere formulation of policies does not mean much if each person, as an individual, does
nothing to address gender inequalities in their daily lives.

Mr. Jairo closed by stating that MEM, acting on behalf of Government, commits itself to support
all necessary initiatives to improve gender equity in mining activities in Tanzania. He expressed
confidence that the Workshop will culminate in a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining and
stressed that addressing gender issues are of utmost importance, not only to the mineral sector
in Tanzania, but to every endeavour that we undertake.

2.1.2 Mainstreaming Gender in the SMMRP, Mr. John Nayopa, Project Coordinator
The Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources Project (SMMRP) is a 5-year technical
assistance project (2009-2014) financed by an IDA credit of US$ 50 million and the
Government of Tanzania (US$ 5 million). The project is coordinated by the Ministry of Energy
and Minerals (MEM) through the Minerals Division of the Geological Survey of Tanzania (GST).
Main objectives of the SMMRP are to:
          Strengthen the Government‟s capacity to manage the mineral sector
          Improve the Socio-economic impacts of large and small scale mining
          Enhance private local and foreign investment in the mineral sector

The SMMRP consists of four main components: (i) Improve the Benefits of the Mineral Sector
of Tanzania; (ii) Strengthen Governance and Transparency in Mining; (iii) Stimulate Mineral
Sector Investment; and (iv) Project Coordination, Management, Monitoring and Evaluation.
Through a range of activities, the SMMRP seeks to increase income levels in selected ASM
communities, increase community participation in local economic development strategic
planning, increase capacity to streamline mining activities and increase investment.

Mr. Nayopa elaborated the importance of gender in achieving SMMRP objectives. He
recognized that men generally capture most mining benefits, such as employment and income,
while women face a disproportionate amount of environmental and social risks (dislocation from
agriculture lands, pressure on water supply etc).

He stated that men‟s participation in mining can increase domestic and social violence due to
changed income levels, social stress and increased alcohol abuse while women bear the brunt
of domestic and social violence and experience increased pressure due to changing family
roles. Although men are primarily the ones migrating to mining areas, the impacts of this can be
seen throughout families and communities, notably among the most vulnerable and
marginalized members of the community, mainly women, the elderly and children. Furthermore,


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men make up the majority of mine owners, workers, suppliers and management while women
have few employment opportunities in industrial mining operations.




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                                                                The Mineral Policy (2009) fundamentally
                                                                promotes women‟s participation and prohibition
                                                                of child labor in mining activities by clearly
                                                                stipulating the following policy objectives:
                                                                        To promote participation of women in
                                                                         mining activities;
                                                                        To ensure programmes related to mining
                                                                         are based on gender equality and equity;
                                                                         and,
                                                                        To collaborate with the stakeholders to
                                                                         strengthen monitoring and enforcement
                                                                         of laws and regulations on child labor in
                                                                         mining activities.

                                                                The SMMRP will promote inclusion, enhance
                                                                social accountability and governance with a view
                                                                to achieving increased productivity and better
    Photo Two: Mr. John Nayopa emphasizes how                   development outcomes in mining areas.
    SMMRP will promote gender equity in mining.
                                               The SMMRP will include training on how to
better engage community groups, redress gender inequalities and provide more direct and
indirect employment opportunities for men and women. By developing a consultation strategy, a
social accountability plan and gender-sensitive policy reforms, the project will foster sustainable
and gender-sensitive benefit sharing in community programs as well as good practice in public-
private partnerships in mining areas.

Other key components where gender is mainstreamed in the SMMRP include:
          Baseline Studies: Artisanal and small scale mining (ASM) baselines and large-scale
           mining benefits studies at the project‟s start will seek to capture the gender dimension of
           the minerals sector. These assessments will be replicated at Project completion to
           assess progress towards gender-sensitive socio-economic impacts and benefits.
          Extension Services: Zonal Mines Officers and Resident Mines Officers will provide
           assistance on issues such as mining, processing technology, financial management,
           environment and health, community consultation, gender, organization and formalization
           of artisanal mining activities.
           Approaches shall be holistic, incorporating cross-cutting issues such as gender,
           environment, HIV/AIDS and vulnerable groups (e.g. albinos).
          Environmental and Social Programs: The Participatory Social Impact Assessment
           (PSIA) will be used to develop governance and social accountability indicators and
           recommend measures to mitigate any potentially adverse impacts.
           Best practice Environmental and social guidelines and codes of practice shall be
           prepared for issues such as mine closure, small-scale mining and mercury, consultation
           and gender.
          Awareness and Communication Efforts: Ongoing communication with and improved
           awareness of key stakeholders is fundamental. This shall target a range of government
           ministries and local authorities, academic and financial institutions, development
           partners, private sector, local NGOs and civil society as well as the media and
           international bodies and institutions.

Gender issues will also be included in the Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy at various levels
and using a range of methods. In summary:


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           Level                                      Gender Issues                          Methods/Tools
 Community Level: Village                       Gender participation, HIV/AIDs     Community Meetings; Inspection
 Committee and Leaders,                             Education/Promotion            observation discussions, application
 CBO members and SPs.                                                              form, FMP RMO/ZMO reports FSP &
                                                                                   TSP reports
 LGA Level:                                     Community response to Local        FSP, TSP progress reports, Field
 DSC, Councilors SPs                            Economic Planning in terms of      visits, Application forms, SWOT
                                                organization, trust building and   reports & Minutes, District strategic
                                                         participation             economic plan
 Ministry of Energy and                             Beneficiary Assessments        RS performance reports LGA
 Minerals                                                                          Quarterly Progress reports, (physical
                                                                                   and financial) District W&S plans,
                                                                                   field visits Mission Reports.

Mr. Nayopa concluded by stating that gender issues were mainstreamed throughout the
SMMRP implementation plan and this workshop provides the best opportunity for stakeholder
input on the issue of gender, thereby enriching the activities already planned under SMMRP.

2.2 Breakout Sessions: The Gender Dimension of Critical Issues
Participants were divided into four separate groups charged with identifying key issues, specific
recommendations and responsibilities in response to four separate core questions:
     1. What needs to happen to promote gender equity in participation, access, control and
        ownership of mining claims?
     2. How can the empowerment of women be promoted through entrepreneurialism and
        upstream, downstream and lateral activities to mining?
     3. Are the socio-economic benefits of mining (at any scale) equitably distributed between
        women and men? What specifically should happen to reduce any gender inequalities?
     4. What roles can and should local organizations play in ASM and in communities around
        larger mines? How can they promote gender equality?

Substantive issues derived from these breakout groups are presented in Table Two.

               Table Two: Gender Dimension of Critical Issues – Breakout Group Findings
              Key Issues                                   Recommendations                       Comments
Group One: Promoting Gender Equity in Participation, Access, Control and
Ownership of Mining Claims
Lack of knowledge              Capacity building with special     MEM via the ACSSM Unit and
(value of minerals, methods,   emphasis on women:                 other Development Partners
business skills, how to get a  small business training            should provide extension
license etc).                  geology and mining; mineral        services and make sure both
                               identification and valuation;      women and men benefit from
                               marketing and price information    them.
Lack of appropriate mining and Establish credit schemes for       MEM working with Development
processing equipments.         ASM.                               partners, Financial institutions
Inability to access credits                                       and NGOs to develop programs
Lack of business information   Make necessary information         Key implementers include: MEM,
                               available using websites, posters, Ministry of Industries, Media,
                               flyers, SMS through mobile         NGOs, Mining Associations,
                               phones, TVs, radio and             Religious leaders and Village
                               newspapers                         leaders
Lack of social services and    Ensure basic social/infrastructure Ministry of Health with MEM,
infrastructure                 services in mining centers.        Ministry of Infrastructure, Local
                               Promote mobile social welfare      Government Authority and
                               centers in mining rush areas       Private operators


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              Key Issues                                   Recommendations                       Comments
Group Two: Promoting empowerment of women through entrepreneurialism and upstream,
downstream and lateral activities to mining.
Summary Comments from Participants:
          Women have trouble convincing the husband/man to allow them to do business. They are not
           “free” in the household to participate.
          To get finance, borrowing needs collateral and women have to beg and plead with their
           husbands and get consent to work. Women are under the husbands.
          Married women are not free (even to determine number of children) while single women and
           even widows are their own heads of households (“I am the boss, I decide what to do”).
          Single women are somehow free but widows have same and different needs and can suffer
           rejection and confidence issues. Widows should form groups to get government support.
          Men should allow their wives to participate in business. Men need education and seminars to
           change their attitudes. Women also need this sensitization and training.
Cross cutting issues:                             Education of men and women           MEM, CSOs, FBOs NGOs and
   Disintegration of family                      through gender training to           associations should do this
                                                  empower women and change             education.
   Social cultural attitudes                     attitudes in the household,
   Married women are not free                    community and at the mine site.
   Mindset                                       Ensure policies/laws promote
                                                  women‟s participation and
   Women are not united
                                                  leadership
                                                  Run slogan campaign,
                                                  Highlight women‟s success
                                                  stories, especially in mining and
                                                  mining communities (by MEM)
Availability and access to                        Government must understand           MEM, Small Scale Industrial
equipments and start up costs.                    special consideration in financing   Development Organization
Small mine production is variable                 small scale mining.                  (SIDO) and NGOs.
and can take a long time to
produce.
Skills training management                        Government to conduct special        MEM including GST as well as
business                                          outreach to women.                   mining companies

Women     need     access     to                  Training extension services          MEM GST and zonal/regional
equipment, financing, collateral                  Special outreach to women            offices.
and freedom.
                                                  Different levels of support should
Don‟t know how/why/who for                        be given to goods and service
technical assessments                             providers compared to miners
(feasibility studies) so can‟t get
funding.

Available areas for licenses:                     Government to provide                MEM GST and zonal/regional
   Artisanal miners were there                   Geological Data (where to mine),     offices.
     first but were chased off.                   as well as Technical Training and
                                                  Business skills (particularly to     Mining and exploration
   Don‟t have geology                            women in mining areas)               companies
     information on good areas
   Huge areas are already                        Maximum license areas per
     covered by big companies.                    company.
     There aren‟t really areas
     available for ASM licensing.                 Companies should share
                                                  information (e.g. about suitable
                                                  deposits for ASM) and
                                                  government should bring it to
                                                  women miners‟ groups

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              Key Issues                                   Recommendations                          Comments
Group Three: Ensuring that socio-economic benefits of mining (at any scale) are equitably
distributed between women and men
Summary Comments from Participants:
          Men’s Roles in Home/Community include watching TV/World Cup, playing cards, boozing,
           socializing with friends at pubs (kijiweni), taking about politics, looking for new friends (girls and
           men), mobilizing money for food and making decisions and decision making guidelines
          Women’s Roles in Home/Community include service giving, family caring, preparing food,
           fetching water, serving food, caring for sick, childbearing, talking about family issues, receiving
           decisions from men.
          Women and Men have similar roles in agriculture (production, harvesting, storage, hauling to
           market) but men also have the role of supervising money from farming.
          Men’s Roles in Mining include miners/owners, sellers, managers and they work long hours.
          Women’s Roles in Mining include service providers and miners. Few are owners or marketers
           (sellers). They also work long hours. They are kept from working in some areas (e.g.
           underground) and have limited access to credit and limited security.
          Benefits from Mining: Some benefits are equal (if sourced from government) but most are not
           equal, especially in case of land. Men have more chances of professional employment but have
           higher expenditures. Women have less money and authority and have to play double roles (in
           household and work).

Socio-economic Benefits and                         Need Policies towards gender        Mineral Policy is there but the
Impacts generally unequal                             equality. Put in place a gender    mining community is not yet
                                                      sensitive legal framework and      supplied with manuscript
                                                      implement it
                                                                                         Need to Change the altitude and
                                                    Enough resources need to be         start working together.
                                                      allocated for translating policy
                                                      into action                        Leaders should do their
                                                    Make affirmative action to          responsibilities since they
                                                      empower both men and               represent others in policy making
                                                      women within the mining
                                                      industry so as to ensure equal
                                                      opportunity
                                                    Give access to credit to
                                                      women
                                                    Link up with investors from
                                                      other countries to show case
                                                      Tanzania products.

Children do not go to school                       Put in law whereby the
when involved in mining                             community at large will stop
                                                    children from mining activities
                                                   A serious sensitization to the
                                                    community on child labour
                                                   Sensitize community to move
                                                     with their family (when men
                                                     migrate) to the mining centers
Women impacted by                                 Make environmental                        Safeguards
environment degradation more                      conservation and management
than men.                                         regulations and enforce it to             Mining process
                                                  ensure inclusion of women                 Safety/Security
                                                                                            Police force
                                                                                            Community militia
                                                                                            Community safety system.


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              Key Issues                                   Recommendations                   Comments
    Group Four: Creating strong, effective and gender responsive organizations in mining areas
Need to increase voices of       Form united strong effective       MEM should develop a
vulnerable men and women         associations and affiliate to       gender policy in mining and
through organizations            chamber of mines (small             implement it
                                 organizations within the mining
                                                                    Ministry of Education should
                                 company)
                                                                     encourage females to take
                                                                     studies related to the mining
                                 Conduct demonstration to
                                                                     sector by providing special
                                 address the issues.
                                                                     bursary for females
                                 Provide knowledge and              Women organizations should
                                 information sharing through         support women to take up
                                 publications media, e-mails         studies related to the mining
                                 telephones study tours              sector
                                 networking                         Big mining companies, as
Making organizations effective    Formulate deliberate              part of their corporate social
and gender responsive               policies/ratifications/          responsibility (CSR)
                                    constitutions                    programs, should encourage
                                                                     and support women to take
                                  Sensitizing women to be           up work in the mining sector
                                    confident and assertive
                                    Introduce the quarter system    UNDP and other donors to
                                    for female intake in mining      also do the above
                                    education                       Local organization and
                                                                     miners associations should
                                  Introduce special
                                                                     encourage and support
                                    scholarship/bursary
                                                                     female education in mining
                                    programme for females for
                                                                     related courses.
                                    mining related courses
                                                                    The local community should
                                  Give equal access to              change mindset on gender
                                    opportunities and resources      issues
                                  Sensitize men to see women       Influential and knowledgeable
                                    as equal partners                people (e.g. traditional chiefs)
                                                                     should play an important role
                                                                     in supporting gender issues
                                                                    Members of Parliament from
                                                                     mining regions should be
                                                                     involved in supporting gender
                                                                     issues in mining
                                                                    Religious leaders should be
                                                                     involved in supporting gender
                                                                     issues in mining
                                                                    People living abroad should
                                                                     be involved in supporting
                                                                     gender issues
                                                                    Tanzania Chamber Of Mines
                                                                     (TCM) should encourage and
                                                                     support gender
                                                                     mainstreaming


2.3 Sharing International Experiences
Compared to large scale, industrial mining (LSM), women typically play a much greater direct
role in mineral production in artisanal and small scale mining (ASM). ASM is largely informal,
un-mechanized and characterized by many serious health and environmental risks.
International experiences from Afghanistan, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Tanzania, Mozambique
and Lao PDR provide insight into the nature of gender issues in both LSM and ASM and
potential value added opportunities for women, in particular.

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2.3.1 Engaging with Community Women to Improve Development Outcomes in PNG
Ms. Adriana Eftimie of the World Bank‟s Oil, Gas and Mining Policy Division gave a
presentation on how development outcomes in the mining sector have significantly improved in
Papua New Guinea (PNG) through specific strategies and efforts to engage women in
communities around mines. These activities were undertaken through the “Papua New Guinea
Women and Mining Initiative”, which was prompted by a 2001 Sustainable Mining Conference
in Madang, PNG. During the event in PNG, it became clearly evident that, of the 150
participants from government, industry and 10 mining communities, women‟s voices were
notably silent, an outcome attributed to cultural restrictions on women speaking in men‟s
meetings.

In the 2003 “Women in Mining Conference” in Madang, PNG, women from mining areas from
around the country were brought together to examine the positive and negative impacts of
mining on women. With a theme of “Giving Community Women a Voice”, it emerged that most
benefits of mining (employment and income) accrue to men, while women bear the brunt of
risks or harm. Furthermore, it became clear that even where there was increased income due
to mining, increased income did not necessarily equal to improved quality of life. Direct impacts
of mining identified by participants included loss of gardens and subsistence agriculture as well
as environmental damage (such as reduced water quality); indirect impacts identified included
family abuse, violence, alcoholism, prostitution, social disruption, STDs, and cultural harm.
Participants noted that most of these disproportionately impacted women. Specifically, “men
were the winners and women were the losers.”

Lessons learned from the PNG event resulted in strategies to support economic and social
empowerment of women and improved wellbeing related to health, education, safety and
security. Actions for mining companies, governments and communities themselves were
identified by female participants. The event clearly demonstrated that, given an opportunity and
formal process to do so, women could come up with their own strategies to improve their lives.

Over the two years following this event, the initiative worked with Mine Women‟s Associations
(MWAs), who expanded their activities and membership and engaged with mining companies.
Working with MWAs, the companies:
           Appointed gender officers to address women‟s issues in the workforce and community;
           Provided funding for the development of women‟s skills and businesses;
           Provided training in literacy, hygiene, nutrition and food handling; and
           Initiated an HIV/AIDS awareness campaign.

A crucial lesson learned was that the “mining companies can be the key agents of gender
improvements in the community” and they actually derived greater development benefits from
their community programs by making special efforts to consult women and support their
activities and priorities!

                                                                A 2005 follow-up conference highlighted the
                                                                progress of companies, but the relative inaction of
                                                                government, culminating in a National Women in
                                                                Mining (WIM) Action Plan, inclusive of five-year
                                                                action plans for each of the mining communities,
                                                                which have been approved by PNG cabinet. The
                                                                2005 event also affirmed that empowerment of
                                                                women‟s groups can be achieved through genuine
                                                                engagement,      building      their     trust and
                                                                responsiveness to self-identified priorities



      Photo Three: Adriana Eftimie highlights the
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Follow-up activities include JSDF Grants for “Self-reliance Programs for Women in Mining and
Petroleum Areas”; Training-of-Trainers, capacity building for women‟s associations and groups
and outreach programs. Furthermore, a 2010 Women in Mining and Petroleum Conference
included almost 400 participants, mainly from women‟s associations and groups, as well as
including approximately 30% men from mining communities, the private sector and
government. Local level action plans were developed, inclusive of programs to be undertaken
for the community benefit. Next steps include a $2 million USD component under a second
Technical Assistance Project to PNG to support implementation of the National WIM Action
Plan as well as a small grants scheme for business development.

A major lesson from the previous decade was that continuation of a dedicated project team
helped grow and improve the program and resulted in long-lasting development impacts,
particularly with respect to the improved lives of mining community women. This included:
          Increased women‟s businesses (through training and support including micro credit)
          Better working conditions and more mine employment for women (through affirmative
           action programs)
          Greater voice for women in community affairs and how company community funds are
           spent
          More women‟s community projects funded
          Improved well being (health, education, safety, security)
          Improved literacy for community women
          Help and counselling for women victims of abuse

The lessons learned from PNG are a remarkable example for Tanzania and any country
seeking to promote gender equity through responsible mineral development.

2.3.2 Gender and Gemstones in Afghanistan
Ms. Sophia Swire, Senior Gemstones Advisor in Afghanistan, gave a presentation providing an
insightful model of how women‟s employment in the gemstone and jewellery sectors can be
increased in Afghanistan as one way to increase the benefits from women from mining. In
areas close to Afghanistan's gemstone mines, the Rupani Foundation, Aga Khan Foundation
and GTZ are now teaching local men and women how to cut, polish and facet gemstones and
set them in simple jewellery. However, the quality of workmanship is still below international
standards.

Recognizing that skills enhancement, design input and product development are needed to
prepare Afghan women jewelers for the export market, the World Bank and Afghanistan‟s
Ministry of Mines are implementing a project with the following priorities:
          To provide better training to semi-skilled female gem-cutters and jewelers through an
           apprenticeship program in Jaipur (to be implemented in near future).
          To make legislative changes to remove unnecessary impediments to sector growth
           (export streamlining, legalization etc) - for both women and men – as soon as possible
          To Support women in accessing micro-loans and credit and ongoing business
           development skills training (within the next 6 months)
          To establish a Women‟s Gem-Cutting and Jeweler Association (within 6 months)
          To establish the Kabul Lapidary and Gem-Cutting school, Kabul Rock School, with
           women-only courses, production unit and retail space. This will take 12-18 months to
           establish, including new buildings, from the start of the project



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          To coordinate with NGO's and private sector companies to ensure maximum use of
           knowledge and resources by establishing a Gemstone Sector Working Group with
           quarterly meeting at the Ministry of Mines, Project Management Unit (PMU) as soon as
           possible and ongoing.




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The Ministry of Mines plans to work in co-operation with NGO's to establish successful, long-
term programs to develop women‟s vocational skills in jewellery and gem-cutting. Important
aspects include intensive follow-up and a realistic understanding that, due to cultural
constraints, only a small percentage of women can participate in these programs, and only at
specific points in the value chain. Further training and skills enhancement is required and
should be targeted to women from families that are already active in the gemstone sector.
Successful entrepreneurs have a vested interest in their businesses success and are less likely
to force women to drop out of the sector once their trainings are complete.

Where women are capable of producing good quality already, (such as students at Turquoise
Mountain School), the international community can help by matching established jewellery
designers with Afghan women manufacturers and by buying women-made, Afghan handicrafts.

The Ministry of Mines is also in the process of supporting and coordinating with existing
enterprise development initiatives, like Turquoise Mountain, the Rupani Foundation, Afghan
Luminous Sun, Women for Women, Sultan Razia Gem-Cutting Company and other women-
focused jewellery initiatives.

Progress shall be made by earmarking funds for women in the gemstone sector and creating
strong monitoring systems to ensure funds are used appropriately. At all stages in the
development program local communities, men and women, must be educated about the
program and invited to consult and participate in decision-making processes.

2.3.3 Gender and ASM in Tanzania: The Merelani Tanzanite Mines
World Bank Gender Consultant Susan Wagner provided a revealing overview of gender issues
in the Merelani Tanzanite Mines in Manyara Region, Simanjiro District. With history of tanzanite
production spanning decades, Merelani Township‟s population of 48,889 strongly relies on
tanzanite production, both directly and indirectly. Specifically, the economic performance of a
large number of hotels, shops, salons and markets – and employment opportunities, goods and
services these provide – fluctuate with tanzanite production and market prices.

Mineral production has also had a substantial impact on the indigenous Maasai people, who
traditionally relied solely on the pastoral economy. Currently, many Maasai men are engaged
directly in mining while women play roles in re-working mine tailings in search of low-grade
tanzanite and selling goods to miners. These changes have enabled Maasai men to increase
the number of cattle and buy motorcycles while women typically use revenues to educate their
children and meet other household needs.

The majority of the mining area workforce, however, consists of nearly 10,000 mostly older
boys and young men who come from across Tanzania in search of a means to escape abject
poverty. Working long shifts in exchange for daily food and a promised share of tanzanite
revenues (10% shared amongst the work group), the work conditions are harsh. Personal
protective equipment (e.g. hard hats, shoes, headlamps) is virtually non-existent and most
sleep on the ground. In many cases, hitting a tanzanite pocket can take months and even
years, relegating many workers to smuggling small and sporadic stones as they find them
underground. Given low numbers of women in the mining area, many workers promptly hand
over stones to their girlfriends who handpick through waste as they wait for the end-of-shift at
the gate. Many women have multiple “suitors”, undoubtedly increasing the risk of HIV/AIDS and
other STDs in the area dramatically.

Tanzanite production is primarily semi-mechanized underground mining, inclusive of blasting
with explosives, followed by hand picking. Out of 437 licensed areas, less than 10% (40) are
owned by women. A number of prominent women and men have been well served with
revenues from Tanzanite, setting up businesses within Merelani as well as nearby Arusha and


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other cities. The majority of workers, however, face serious challenges in improving their
situation.

While extraction (mining) is almost solely done by men, women play a role in re-working mine
“waste” together with work in food vending, gemstone trading and service provision. Many
women would like the opportunity to work underground but, although the Mining Law does not
officially prohibit women from working underground, beliefs about the law and cultural norms
have kept them from doing so. In the camp area, women reported numerous cases of
harassment, such as men kicking dirt on them, physically and verbally abusing them. The 7 km
desolate daily walk to and from Merelani Township poses even greater hazards of rape,
physical violence and theft. Women cannot use land as collateral for bank loans without
permission from their spouses, and, with lesser skills and experience in valuation, pricing and
negotiation, many report being cheated on tanzanite prices.

Although low levels of education, skills, freedom and access to information and credit is
pervasive amongst women in the mining area, many of the young men and boys face similar
vulnerability challenges. Assistance from MEM, through its zonal and regional offices, in the
form of training (legal, technical and business) is needed with a focus on women and vulnerable
young men. Partnerships with other financial institutions, cooperatives and NGOs can also help
enable access to credit and support improvements in organization, solidarity and team work.

2.3.4 Gender and ASM in Mozambique: The Manica Gold Mines
Dr. Nellie Mutemeri, a Gender Consultant to the World Bank, gave an insightful presentation on
gender issues in gold mining in the Village of Nhamashato, under Mukudu Chiefdom (Regulo),
in Manica Province. Within the gold mines, of the six Miners‟ Association (total membership
~1300) only 10% of members are women. Not surprisingly, women‟s voices are not heard,
despite 30% women representation on District Consultative Council and Government efforts to
promote women‟s “associacoes” (mostly in industrial minerals and matriarchal communities).

Both women and men in Nhamashato are engaged in gold mining however women generally
have less control of, and benefits from, minerals and other resources. Although women
continue to work long hours in gold processing and service provision, a distinct time disparity
resulting from the women‟s double bind (i.e. daily obligations to reproductive and productive
roles) was observed. Despite unfettered capacity to perform hard labour in other activities,
women are excluded from digging activities in the belief that it is too strenuous for them. With
fewer skills in mining, coupled with lower literacy rates and cultural traditions favoring men,
women also have far fewer opportunities to own mining ventures and establish other
enterprises.

                                                                        Some differences in use of revenues from
                                                                        mining were noted. Women invest their
                                                                        proceeds in other livelihoods and
                                                                        education for their children while men
                                                                        invests in capital goods like bicycles, TVs
                                                                        and radios. Although both men and
                                                                        women undertake mercury amalgamation
                                                                        and burning during processing, the
                                                                        vulnerability of women of child-bearing
                                                                        age and children poses a serious risk.

                                                                        The Government of Mozambique is
                                                                        currently    instituting     a      Mineral
    Photo Four: Sharing International Experiences - Women               Development Fund (MDF) that focuses on
      gemstone, gold and industrial mineral miners from                 financing and facilitating market access to
                Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.                            ASM. With no formal gender equity policy

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and somewhat ad hoc implementation, coupled with the reality that women lack the necessary
documents to apply for mining licenses (e.g. identity documents) and comparatively lower
knowledge and skills, they are generally less likely to benefit from the program.

The MDF was cited as an opportunity to formalize ASM while improving gender inequities.
Facilitating access to finance through training, providing appropriate financial products for
women and better information dissemination by financial institutions will help enable women to
participate as entrepreneurs. Critical needs also identified by Dr. Mutemeri include training to
improve skills in ASM and alternative livelihoods, appropriate equipment and technology for
women, awareness building of health and safety issues (including those related to mercury
misuse), and information and services to optimise benefits from ASM.

Furthermore, she stated that broader and deeper consultation and participation is needed in
review and development of policies, laws, programs. Women must be empowered to effectively
participation in “associacoes” and consultative forums in order to advocate for change and
equitable access to capacity building programs. These forums can provide a platform for review
of traditions, cultural norms and community practices. Gender analysis is also needed for
programs and interventions as they are designed and before they are implemented while cross-
cutting measures such improved literacy, understanding of the law and awareness of benefits
of empowering women would also serve to redress gender inequalities and increase
development benefits from mining.

2.3.5 Gender and ASM in Lao PDR: The Phathen Valley Tin Mines
World Bank Gender Consultant, Dr. Chansouk Insouvanh undertook in-depth research in the tin
mining communities of Phathen Valley of Laos where highly manual and rudimentary methods
have been used to mine tin since the early 1900‟s. Although the nearly 2,000 local residents
are legally allowed to reside on an area leased to a number of companies (the majority of which
is held by the Lao-Korea Tin Mining Company), none possess a legal right to mine.

The Company concession area covers 20,000 ha and includes land which traditional „belonged‟
to local communities. As a result of conflicts in 1996-7, the Company provides basic
infrastructure in selected villages and permits community members to mine on the provision
that tin products must only sold back to Company. Employment with the Company is almost
solely left to men.

Dr. Insouvanh outlined specific working conditions in the villages of Ban Nahi and Ban Muang
Khay. In terms of dedicated, year- round activities, although mining is undertaken in family units
of 5-8 people, women undertake artisanal mining about 10 months of the year compared to a
few months for men. Consequently, women constitute about 70% of the workforce and are
highly regarded for their well developed skills and expertise in finding deposits and processing.
Unlike many other ASM areas, women and children are engaged in all steps in mineral
production, including digging, bagging, hauling, washing and selling while men refrain from
manual washing and selling.

Methods are primarily manual (pounding, panning) and yield daily production averaging 0.5-1.5
kg. With a concentrate selling price between 15,000 kip per kilogram (30% tin) and 50,000 kip
(60% tin) with per day, the average daily income of a miner is 6,000-45,000 kip per person.
Slightly mechanized small scale mines, which are dominated by men, produce between 7-20 kg
per day giving an income of ~250,000 kip per person per day.

Both women and men miners often take on multiple livelihoods simultaneously and, in some
cases, even women hire male labourers to undertake the work. This coping strategy helps
families and individuals mitigate seasonal vulnerabilities and changes in tin price, among other
vulnerabilities.


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Recommendations put forward relate to development of ASM policies and laws to enable local
miners to obtain licenses, provide gender-responsive extension services to miners (training,
equipment access), introduce savings programmes and increase women‟s access and control
of resources, increase the participation of women in local decision-making processes and
establish a monitoring system of ASM. The Government and Company are best positioned to
support these improvements, while the Company, even in the short-term could contribute
through creation of equal employment opportunities for women.

2.4 Keynote Address: Tanzania’s Gender Policy and National Gender Strategy
The International Workshop banquet was highlighted by an informative and affirming address
given by Mr. Achellis Rugaiganisa Ndyalusa, the representative of the Permanent Secretary,
Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children (MCDGC). After expressing his
appreciation to the World Bank, MEM and BGR for making this workshop possible, he noted
the great enthusiasm of MCDGC towards the Workshop objectives.

Investing in women, and ensuring that they are empowered and have economic and social
opportunities can significantly improve not only their own conditions, but that of their families
and communities as well. And with the mining sector, there are a tremendous opportunity for
growth, and an opportunity to equal women‟s access to this potential. The Government of
Tanzania has put in place a number of policies and programs aimed at improving women‟s
economic and social empowerment. The Government is signatory to numerous UN conventions
assuring women‟s rights and protections, and has incorporated women‟s empowerment and
gender mainstreaming into the national development strategy for 2025. There is also a National
Gender Policy and Strategic Plan on Gender – the key objective of this policy is to help ensure
that gender is mainstreamed across all sectors and institutions, with the goals of poverty
eradication, gender equality and equity, and equal opportunities for both men and women.

The MCDGC is continuously striving to improve the situation for women in Tanzania, although
the government still hampered by its capacity to provide institutional support to the mining
sector to enable attainment of its mission with gender responsiveness. Challenges include:
          Empowerment of both women and men equally in the mining industry on the basis of
           merit.
          Ensuring the mining Legal Framework is gender sensitive.
          Strengthening mining Institutional mechanism within a gender perspective.
          Ensuring sustainable gender based partnerships and collaboration.
          Ensuring adequate resources are available to address gender inequalities in mining.

Citing the diverse range of stakeholders present - representatives of mining communities,
industry, government, donors and civil society organizations - he expressed a high degree of
hope that many lasting benefits through multi-stakeholder commitment shall be derived from
the workshop. The mineral industry/sector has always been considered a „men‟s domain.‟
Globally, and in Tanzania, women often have decreased access to jobs in mines, to decision-
making regarding large and small-scale mining, and to the use of resources related to mining.
Not only do women often face decreased access to employment in the mining sector, but due
to their social roles in communities, they are often faced with more of the risks related to mining
– including in the economic, social, and environmental spheres.

However, the mining sector is an important source of wealth and employment. Women must
also have opportunities in this sector, for their own rights, but also for the sustainable
development and growth of the country. Some international evidence demonstrates that women
may even be better employees for certain tasks in mines. Ensuring that women can engage in
mining itself, as well as in related industries – such as catering, uniform production,
administration and other small businesses - can create key opportunities.

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Priority actions may include improving women‟s
capacity to become mine owners and operators,
addressing cultural factors that restrict their
participation, improving women‟s access to the
offices and resources that would allow them to be
more formally engaged, for instance.

Such activities could lead not only to increased
employment for women but also to an increase in
skilled human capital. Other activities include
business training, small business loans and grants,
involving women in consultations and decision-                                         Photo Five: The Representative of the
making related to mining. By empowering women to                                    Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Community
be involved in multiple dimensions, they, and the                                       Development, Gender and Children.
whole country, will all benefit.

It is important that policies across sectors, from MEM to MCDGC, all work together to support
women in mining communities. Mr. Ndyalusa closed by stating: “I am very grateful to the
Ministry for Energy and Minerals for demonstrating such a commitment to this issue, and to all
of the participants here for coming together to further our goals for gender equity in the mining
sector. We are committed to work together with the MEM to develop and put in place an action
plan to address the gender issues into the mining sector. The mining sector is pioneering this
approach and I am convinced that other sectors will follow their example.”


2.5 Panel: Towards Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women
Day two of the Workshop was introduced by Katherine Heller of the World Bank, who reviewed
results of the previous day‟s survey of participants. An extensive number of benefits and risks
of mining as well as priority actions were identified and are summarized in Table Three.

                           Table Three: Key Issues identified by Workshop Participants
         Main Benefits of Mining                                                 Main Risks from Mining
     Income generation and employment                            Environmental degradation,  Unequal wealth distribution
     Women‟s economic empowerment                                 deforestation                  Changing norms and
     Broader social benefits like improved                       Negative health impacts –       values, threats to traditional
      infrastructure, education, and social                        HIV/AIDS, STDs, water and       norms and values
      empowerment                                                  respiratory related illnesses  Security concerns
                                                                  Child labour (ASM)
                                                                Priority Actions
 Central and Local Government coordination                               Local Government
 Improved transparency                                                    Improve dissemination of laws and policies
 Improved availability of data (incl policy/laws)                         Local outreach and work with NGOs on
 Support investment and value addition.                                    community support and education programs
 Improved policy and legislation and improved                             Entrepreneurship training
  implementation – policies should include specific                        Decentralized gender focal points
  references to gender and women                                          Mining Companies
 Central and local government trainings should                            Support community development programs
  include gender awareness and sensitivity                                 Implement EIAs
                                                                           Establish/liaise with social services and
                                                                            infrastructure authorities and CSOs.
                                                                           Create employment opportunities
                                                                           Improve engagement in decision-making
                                                                           Disseminate mining policy and laws
                                                                           Aid in establishment of cooperatives


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With a notable shift in mind set towards identifying specific actions for positive change, the
Workshop shifted focus towards opportunities and lessons learned from government, the
private sector and civil society organizations.

2.5.1 Tanzania Women Miners’ Association (TAWOMA)
Mrs. Eunice Negele, representative of the Tanzania Women Miners‟ Association (TAWOMA),
provided an informative example of how broad representation and coverage, coupled with a
well structured umbrella organization, can serve to represent the interests of miners, both
women and men. TAWOMA is an NGO serving the interest of women and children in
Tanzanian mining communities. TAWOMA was formed in 1997 with 350 active members
(miners, mineral brokers and dealers, service providers and mine workers). With headquarters
in Dar es Salaam, TAWOMA operates through 16 regional branches and 15 local branches
office, representing all of the major mining areas.

Since 2008, TAWOMA has been working to improve and protect the livelihoods of women and
children in mining communities. It also plays a role in advocating for small scale miners by
giving input into legal reforms and provides a platform for networking and information and
knowledge sharing, in part through an annual miners‟ day event every 5th of May.

2.5.2 Gender Perspectives on Community Development: African Barrick Gold Ltd.
Ms. Frida Kyesi of African Barrick Gold Ltd. (ABG) provided an honest and insightful overview
of key gender challenges in mining and how ABG is trying to address them through their
community development programs.

An important barrier to women‟s equitable participation in mining relates to cultural beliefs and
perception concerning the appropriateness of work in the mines for women. Most physical jobs
are regarded as “male only” and related training programs predominantly attract only men.
Furthermore, while men are able to leave their families for months on end with few
repercussions, women are culturally barred from doing so, taking on child and family care
responsibilities at an early age. This also presents a additional barrier to shift work and,
together with negative attitudes and perceptions of women in mining, are barriers to equal
participation. Issues such as sexual harassment, the ease with which “submissive” and
unaware women can be exploited (both as cheap artisanal labour and in terms of selling prices)
and criminality of ASM also prevents women‟s equal access, control and benefits from artisanal
mining activities.

Issues also include poor access to capital for women, unfriendly financial institutions and laws
that do not explicitly encourage women underground. Historically, women were denied
education for various reasons and, although this is changing, numbers of girls in science
subjects are still low, limiting their participation in engineering or geology professions. With
widespread poverty and inequitable wealth distribution, women are left to contend with day-to-
day, hand-to-mouth subsistence activities (e.g. farming, artisanal mining) while men seek
formal employment. The situation leaves comparatively little opportunity for women to own
mining licenses while even land ownership is still overwhelmingly regarded as a male privilege.

ABG‟s frank recognition of these issues has led to a number of positive approaches to mitigate
gender inequities both internally and externally. These range from equal access to scholarships
for employees and recognition of equal opportunities in their employment policy to clear sexual
harassment policies and equal opportunities to all service providers.

Ms. Kyesi identified critical responses that can help redress gender inequities including
motivation of girls and women to study science subjects, providing education and awareness on
importance of girls education, special efforts to involve women in community projects,



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establishment of legal and easily accessible mineral trade vehicles to eliminate exploitation and
implementation of deliberate action plans to affect the above solutions.



2.5.3      Gender Equity Approaches: Uganda Ministry of Energy and Mineral
           Development
Ms. Jennifer Hinton, a Small Scale Mining Consultant, outlined work undertaken by the
Ugandan Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development, Dept. of Geological Survey and Mines
(DGSM) through the Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources Project (SMMRP)
between 2005 and 2010. With almost 50% of Uganda‟s ASM workforce comprised of women,
gender was recognized as a key issue in the early stages of SMMRP ASM support activities.

Gender was mainstreamed through ASM activities under SMMRP through:
       Inclusion in baseline assessments in ASM communities, including use of gender balanced
        survey teams, collection of gender-disaggregated survey data, separate focus groups with
        women and men and gender-differentiated analysis of ASM impacts and benefits.
       Gender Training of DGSM Officers, to improve their gender responsiveness through their
        advisory support and regulation functions.
       Gender Mainstreaming in the ASM Training and Awareness Campaign Committee
        (TACC), including presence of a gender specialist on the multi-disciplinary, inter-
        ministerial training committee, regular gender audits of committee meetings and a gender
        review of training curriculum.
       Inclusion of Practical and Strategic Gender Needs in the “Small Scale Mining Handbook:
        Needs of women and men in various roles were addressed, frequently using basic text
        and pictorial instruction. In addition to issues related to geology and mining, the ten
        chapter Handbook also covers family involvement in budgeting (business skills),
        alcoholism, sexual and gender based violence (SGBV), forming gender-responsive
        organizations and step-by-step guidance to locally analyze gender issues.
       Gender Responsiveness in Training-of-Trainers (ToT) Workshops. Mixed methods
        suitable for different learning styles were used during two regional 12-day intensive
        workshops that trained almost 200. Topics included a separate module on gender-in-
        training, gender audits were undertaken daily by two different trainees (one man, one
        woman) and an gender-audit of the ToTs was done by the DGSM Social Development
        Officer. Special efforts were made to achieve gender parity of participants (e.g. assistance
        by local senior miners to convince husbands to permit their wives participation, funds
        were allocated to enable women trainers to bring their small children and a caregiver).
       Promoting Equal Benefits from Community-based Miners Training Workshops. Working
        via local trained trainers, specific directives for mobilizing women and men were instituted.
        Over 40% of 1030 trainees were women but this reached almost 70% in some ASM
        areas. Infants and small children were welcome to the training (which was held near to
        mine sites) and provided with on-site childcare, activities and lunch. Training teams were
        gender-balanced wherever possible.
        Training was run in local language or simultanously translated. Each of the 17 five-day
        training workshops was adapted to specific technical issues of the community and also
        covered conflict prevention and resolution (including domestic conflicts), priority health
        issues (ranging from malaria, sanitation related diseases and domestic violence) and
        formation of gender-responsive organizations.
       Community-Based Gender Consultations and Training. Additional training and
        consultations were held with 150 women and 150 men miners in five regions. Additional
        time was spent visiting ASM sites in advance to ensure gender parity in participation,
        small children were again welcomed to the near-site venues and most workshop activities
        were based on small groups of women and men. Facilitators consisted of one woman and

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          one man who addressed human, mining and land rights, gender roles, access, control
          and ownership of resources and their benefits and prompted recommendations to address
          practical and strategic gender needs.
         National Strategy for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Mining. All earlier work
          culminated in a national multi-stakeholder strategic planning workshop to prioritize
          findings and recommendations derived from earlier studies and consultations. Numerous
          recommendations were put forward for mining policy reform as well as measures to
          address strategic gender needs, particularly with respect to access to information and
          training and building key partnerships to address cross-cutting health, education, labour
          and other issues.

Almost 200,000 Ugandan women and men are engaged in ASM, which, when indirect and
induced labour as well as dependency ratios are considered, results in more than 4.2 million
Ugandans reliant on the subsector. As most ASM is unlicensed, its contributions are largely
invisible. Although not formally captured, they are nevertheless substantial, equating to more
than $340 million USD injected into local economies annually, constituting 3.5% of the GDP
and being the 3rd highest foreign exchange earner.

To maximize individual, local and national benefits from ASM, engendered approaches are
clearly needed. Ms. Hinton emphasized that equal participation is not the same as equal
benefits and special measures must be taken to redress gender inequalities, not only in terms
of mobilization but also with respect to planning, design and implementation of ASM support
activities.


2.5.4 Financing Opportunities for Micro- and Small Enterprises in Tanzania
Both women and men miners and those in mining communities need access to capital and
business development assistance, while women generally face additional cultural, educational,
legal barriers and other constraints. Mr. W.S. Ndolezi of the Small Scale Industries
Development Organization (SIDO) took the unique opportunity presented by the Workshop to
share opportunities for small scale entrepreneurs, both women and men, in Tanzania through
SIDO‟s activities.

SIDO was recently established with a mission to promote the development of small scale
industries in Tanzania. Recently, however, in direct response to growing demand from clients,
donors and Government, SIDO has progressively engaged itself in supporting micro
businesses particularly in the informal sector. SIDO's new mission is to develop create, promote
and sustain, indigenous entrepreneurial base in the small scale industries and micro
businesses.

Main functions of SIDO are to:
          Promote the development of small industries as well as to plan and coordinate their
           activities.
          Provide technical assistance, management and consultancy services to small industry
           enterprises in Tanzania.
          Provide and promote training facilities for persons engaged in or employed or to be
           employed in small industries and to assist and coordinate activities of other institutions
           engaged in such training.

SIDO has regional offices throughout Tanzania and are well prepared to provide guidance,
advice and assistance to even the most marginalized individuals and groups.




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2.5.5 Meeting Community Health Needs: A Gender Perspective from Ministry of Health
Ms. Sabina Mnaliwa of Ministry of Health described the challenges faced by the Ministry of
Health such as communicable diseases including the HIV/AIDs and STDs and water born
diseases in the country and in mine industries. Ms. Mnaliwa highlighted the roles and
responsibilities of the Ministry of Health, including their central role in formulating policy,
standards and guideline to lead other stakeholders on health issues.




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Main challenges faced by the Ministry include:
                Water supply and sanitation is not sufficient or safe. This contributes to pandemics
                 and water borne diseases including in mining communities. The issue of availability
                 of safe and clean water is the responsibility of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation.
                Occupational Hazards, Pollutions, Environmental issues in mining areas need a
                 collective effort of the Ministry with Local Government, Mining Companies, Miners
                 and NGOs.
                Gender violence in mining areas.
                STDs and HIV/AIDs. There is a need of collective and holistic approach on how to
                 deal with these health issues in mining areas.

Ultimately, the Ministry of Health cannot do it alone. Crucial partners include Local Government,
Private Sector (including Mining Companies), local and international NGOs, CBOs and
Religious Institutions.



2.6 Breakout Sessions: Towards a Roadmap
With preceding discussions laying a strong foundation for discussion of opportunities for gender
equity in mining, the subsequent session sought to identify a specific recommendations and
action items, providing a backbone for a National Roadmap. Key outcomes are presented
below.

2.6.1 Engendering the Implementation Strategy for the National Mineral Policy
Policies, laws and regulations often claim to be “gender neutral”; however, this can actually
serve to exacerbate gender inequalities rather than redress them. MEM is currently in the
process of developing an implementation strategy for the new Mineral Policy (2009) and was
enthusiastic to take this unique opportunity for dialogue as to how strategic and practical
gender needs can be addressed through its implementation.

The animated group discussion suggested that the entire Mineral Policy be reviewed in order to
identify gaps with respect to gender. Although women are mentioned (page 30), it appears to
                                            be an “add on”. Mainstreaming gender requires
                                            that women‟s visibility be increased throughout the
                                            document and gender be explicitly considered in
                                            its implementation. Experiences from other
                                            countries (and policies from more “engendered”
                                            sectors) can help inform this.

                                                                The discussion extended beyond the policy
                                                                document to suggest that the legal framework as a
                                                                whole (including policy, laws and regulations)
                                                                should be more explicit about the gender
                                                                dimension in different areas and activities. Given
   Photo Six: Participants identify specific ways to            the engagement of key MEM representatives in
     mainstream gender in Tanzania‟s Mineral                    the event, this clear recommendation will
          Policy Implementation Strategy.                       undoubtedly be taken to heart.

The group recommended that the policy implementation strategy should include:
    Sensitization and training of women and men for full and equal participation in the
       mining sector (by Government and Development Partners, Mining Companies and
       NGOs).


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          Gender Focal Points should be identified and networked with other government
           agencies (in Government and Local Government Authorities).
          Services should be effectively decentralized to Zonal Mines Offices and Resident Mines
           Offices.
          A Strategy should be developed in order to make workplaces (both in ASM and
           companies) more women-friendly and supportive of gender equity in the workplace in
           ASM (by Local Government Authority and Mines Companies)
          Provisions are needed to support gender equity in allocation of mineral rights in
           demarcated areas (Government and Ministry of Energy and Minerals).
          Provision of social services (schools hospitals etc) to new ASM areas (Government
           Mines Companies Local Government Authority and Communities (Civil Society
           Organizations)
          A pipeline of women professional should be created for structures that implement
           Government policies (Government)
          Gender analysis of benefit sharing is needed for intervention and CSR projects
           (Government, Local Government Authority Mines Companies Civil Society
           Organizations, and Developmental Partners).
          Monitoring and evaluation of CSR commitments of Mines Company to ensure gender
           equality. (Government Mines company Civil Society Organization Local Government
           Authority and communities).
          The Strategy must ensure gender equality in the leadership of mining communities
           (Local Government Authority, Community Civil Society Organization and Government)

These insightful and useful contributions are expected to be taken to heart as the Mineral Policy
Implementation Strategy is developed and put into action.

2.6.2 Gender-Responsive Outreach and Extension Services to Mining Communities
Both women and men miners (not just license holders but those involved in rock breaking,
pounding/grinding, panning/hand picking, hauling water and ore) as well as service providers
(food, tools etc) and women and men in communities around large mining areas need
extension services to build the capacity needed to take steps-up the ladder of poverty. With
respect to ASM, women and men miners also need assistance to identify new and available
areas for licensing, how to get a license, determine
how much ore is in the ground and how to obtain
financial assistance, among many other things.

Extension services refer to a broad range of activities
that ultimately seek to generate positive change.
Although commonly interpreted as solely training
workshops, they include provision of information and
published material in ways that people understand
them, one-on-one advice or guidance, hands-on
coaching and sensitization campaigns among others.
                                                                               Photo Seven: One of the breakout groups
The group recognized that, although both women and                                   identifies strategic solutions.
men need extension services, women face additional
barriers in obtaining extension services because:
          Missing time from work (in the household, at the mine, etc) – even for one day – can
           be very difficult for women (because of their domestic and commercial workload) and
           it can cause conflicts in the family. Some women even need permission from their
           husbands to travel to an office or participate in training workshops.


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         They usually don‟t control the money, so paying for transport to government offices or
          training sites is difficult. Men also usually have control and ownership of transport
          (bicycles, cars).
         Language or literacy barriers and fears of dealing with government officers
          (particularly when they are all men) are additional barriers.
         Women do not receive information in the same ways as men (radios, newspapers,
          local networking) and are less likely to hear about training.

Furthermore, equal participation is not the same as equal benefits. Even if women can
participate, extension services are not always properly designed and offered to meet the
different needs of women. Building on a discussion of these points, the comprehensive list of
women‟s and men‟s extension service needs (Table Four) will need special considerations as
to how these can be delivered so that women and men benefit from them more equally.

                     Table Four: Outreach and Extension Service Needs in Mining Areas
Outreach and Extension Service Needs                                                         Responsible Parties
Capacity building:                                                                           MEM
     Training before involvement in ASM;                                                    Ministry of Labour
     Training about mining activities (exploration, mining methods                          Mining Companies
        processing and marketing of minerals);
     Training about occupational safety and health issues
     Training in crosscutting issues such as HIV/AIDS, child labour,
        behaviour of miners and communities (e.g. drugs and alcohol abuse,
        abusive language and prostitution)
     Provision of mass media for wide outreach (radio, websites, SMS e.g.
        of price information or coming events).
Infrastructure:                                                                              Responsible line
     Water                                                                                  Ministries and NGOs
     Roads
     Electricity (solar etc)
     Telephone services
Social Services:                                                                             Responsible line
     Schools                                                                                Ministries, Mining
     Health centers                                                                         Companies and
                                                                                             NGOs
     Recreational facilities (stadiums, music halls, game centers etc)
     Churches, mosques and markets places
Financial Services:                                                                          Responsible line
     Business development and business plan write up services                               Ministries, NGOs,
     Mobile banks, bank branches                                                            Financial Institutions,
                                                                                             SIDO
     SACCOS, VICOBA establishment
     Loan guarantees
Security Services:                                                                           Responsible ministries
     Police stations, police posts                                                          NGOs regional
     Social security fund, services, pension programs                                       authorities
     Insurance
     Courts
     Immigration offices
Mining Equipment:                                                                            MEM and regional
     Advice on equipment selection and procurement.                                         authorities, private
     Loans and subsidies for mining equipment                                               companies, NGOs
                                                                                             and organizations
     Mining equipment hiring services (ME hiring centers need to be
                                                                                             such as SIDO
        established)


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2.6.3 Engendering Partnerships to Address Health and Development Needs
In addition to the risks common to rural and peri-urban communities in developing countries,
the nature of mining can put men and women, adults, youth and children at even greater risk for
many diseases, illnesses, injuries and abuses that impede development.

As the needs of communities in mining areas generally extend beyond the mandate of mining
authorities, essential partnerships to address critical health and development challenges were
intensively discussed by this breakout group.

The different needs of individual men and women, the households, the community and mine
site were discussed with issues, responsibilities and approaches summarized in Table 5.

      Table Five: Responding to Critical Health and Development Challenges in Mining Areas

                                     Issues and Discussion Topics
General Challenges:                                 Mine sites
     Household challenges:                              Capital
     Water related diseases                             Technology skills
     Nutritional related diseases                       Poor equipment
     Airborne diseases                                  High taxation (mining equipments)
     STDs                                               Access to market (local and international)
     Community challenges                               Knowledge           (geological     business
                                                            management)
Poverty                                                  Infrastructure proper inspection
     Poor access to education                           Mines sites and accidents, illness and
     Child labor                                           injuries (particularly those common to
                                                            informal miners)
     Food availability
                                                         Environmental health hazards associated
     Capital
                                                            with the type of mining (including mercury
                                                            and cyanide in gold mining)
Community
     Poverty
     Poor infrastructure
     Access to market (local and International)
Approaches                                          Responsibility
Sensitization (Radio, Newspaper, drama,             Health, MEM, Environmental Prime Minister Office
brochures, village religious leaders                Regional Administration and local government
                                                    (PMO-RALG) Local Government , NGOs/CBOs
Health education                                                   Health PMO-RALG
Provision of health services                                       Health PMO-RALG
Provision of water and sanitation services                         PMO-RALG, Private sector
Law re-enforcement                                                 PMO-RALG
Establish Mechanism for information sharing                        MEM, Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs
(market, capital, geological)                                      (MOFEA)
Promote ASM (exemption of tax to mining
equipments improvement of infrastructure, access
to market
Capacity needs assessments (based on gender                        MEM




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2.6.4 Building Gender-Responsive Organizations in Mining Communities
Effective organizations are an excellent vehicle through which support can be channeled,
strengths and resources of members can be combined and individual, household and
community needs can be met. This group discussion focused on the roles that local
organizations can and should play in ASM and communities around large mines, particularly
with respect to promotion of gender equality.

Key existing organizations active in mining areas, some of their characteristics and proposed
actions put forward by the group include:

Revolving Group Savings and Credit Schemes (UPATU)
          Increase capital for service provision 90% women
          No direct relation with Large Scale Mines (LSM) to date
          Should encourage women to participate

Village Cooperative Banks (VICOBA)
          Education, health mining related activities 80% women
          No direct relation with LSM to date.
          Create awareness of women on the benefits
          Easy of operation
          Acceptable by financial institutions

Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOS)
          To increase capital for service provision in mining activities
          Target 65% women
          No direct relation with LSM to date.
          To sensitize more women to join SACCOS

Regional Mines Associations (REMAS)
          To link the miners with the government and other organizations
          Currently not active. Estimated that membership is about 90% men
          To encourage formalization of mining activities
                                                                      To encourage members to start business
                                                                       brokers mineral dealers etc.
                                                                      Moderate relations with LSM
                                                                      Now provides little assistance in community
                                                                       development projects


                                                                The government, especially MEM, and the private
                                                                sector (large scale mining companies) has a critical
                                                                role to play in sensitizing and encouraging more
                                                                women to join REMAS and work to actively educate
    Photo Eight: Pauline Mondia of Zambia‟s
  Federation of Small Scale Mining Associations                 politicians and local leaders about ASM and miners
    reports back recommendations from her                       associations about the importance of gender equity.
                 Breakout Group.


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2.7 Closing Session: A Roadmap Towards Gender Equity in Mining
With critical gender issues identified and well understood by participants and specific
opportunities and recommendations put forward, a framework for action rapidly emerged from
the proceedings.

2.7.1 Towards a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining
Ms. Adriana Eftimie of the World Bank succinctly synthesised the key findings from the
Workshop in the closing session of the event.

Critical elements of the Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining include (Fig. 2):
          Supportive Policy, Laws and Regulations: that respond directly to practical and
           strategic gender needs, increase the visibility and responsiveness of the legal
           framework to women and provide the mandate for action by key partners, stakeholders
           and “change agents”.
          The “Machinery” for Action: including the government agencies, civil society
           organizations, private sector and community representatives needed to implement
           gender responsive programs. This will require:
                Strengthening Organizations and Institutions (particularly MEM) in order to improve
                 their understanding and responsiveness to gender issues. Training and sensitization
                 in gender will support equitable outcomes from much-needed services provided to
                 women and men miners and communities in mining areas.
                Building Essential Partnerships to optimize resources and increase coordination and
                 commitment to respond to the diverse needs of women and men in mining areas.
          Gender Responsive Support Services such as training, information and advisory
           support in technical areas as well as in financing ASM and micro- and small-enterprises
           in mining areas. These should be provided with full recognition that equal access does
           not necessarily mean equal benefits. The way in which extension and financial services
           are designed, offered and implemented must explicitly recognize and address the
           additional challenges faced by women and vulnerable groups.




                Figure 2: Framework supporting the Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining

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Building upon this framework with the specific issues and action items identified throughout the
Workshop, as well as those derived from best practice in other countries, is a logical next step.
An Action Plan is needed to concretize commitments and take the necessary, time-bound
measures in order to make real progress towards gender equity in mining. These next steps are
discussed further in Section 3.1: Way Forward.

2.7.2 Official Closing, Mr. Hamis Komba, Deputy Commissioner for Minerals, MEM
The Deputy Commissioner for Minerals (MEM), Mr. Hamis M. Komba, commenced his closing
remarks with sincere congratulations to the sponsors and organizers of the International
Workshop: Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining. His hope was that the event
provided an opportunity to deliberate and establish networks for gender mainstreaming in the
minerals sector presentations and group work focusing on the following:
          Identifying and understanding critical gender issues and different constraints and
           opportunities for women and men in artisanal, small and large scale mining;
          Sharing international experiences related to gender and mining with the intent of
           identifying viable strategies to mainstream gender and promote gender equality in
           communities, companies and government
          Providing recommendations for a World Bank supported “Toolkit for Assessment of
           Gender in Artisanal Mining”; for a possible use under SMMRP; and
          Developing a Roadmap and national platform for action founded on viable strategies to
           address gender inequalities through policy, partnerships and interventions;

The Sustainable Management of Mineral Resource Project, which is being implemented under
the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, has mainstreamed gender issues in the project
implementation plan. Mr. Komba stressed the importance of this in ensuring that the Ministry
effectively identify and address gender issues through SMMRP activities. He further stressed
his belief that the gender toolkit developed as one outcome of this workshop will create a body
of knowledge for creating awareness on gender and on problems that affect access to mining
benefits to women.

Mr. Komba strongly emphasized that if they can manage to promote gender equity, they shall
realize higher benefits, as spelt out in the Mineral Policy of Tanzania. In particular:
          Creating prosperous and viable communities which can continue with economic
           activities.
          Fighting the vicious cycle of poverty and increase the level of education and skills in the
           community.

The forum has been an excellent opportunity for developing partnerships and for developing a
shared vision for gender equality in the mineral sector. Mr. Komba assured participants that the
Ministry of Energy and Minerals is committed to spearhead gender equity in mining. However,
this cannot be done solely by the Ministry. All stakeholders must continue to work together to
ensure the promotion of gender equity after this workshop.

In the same spirit, the Deputy Commissioner expects more forums and dialogues on all of the
cross-cutting issues that continue to challenge the responsible development of the mineral
sector. He commended all stakeholders for taking time to share these important aspects of life
and contributing to the success of the event. With these closing remarks, the International
Workshop: Towards a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining was officially closed.




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                                                International Workshop Proceedings:
                                          Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining



3     CONCLUSIONS
The International Workshop: Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining represented a
hallmark event in Tanzania and exemplary commitment towards promotion of gender equity
through mining sector activities. Through participatory dialogue and sharing of knowledge and
experience from Tanzanians and those representing a host of countries, specific action items
and solutions were put forward, laying the groundwork for a viable plan of action to support
objectives of Tanzania‟s Mineral Policy (2009) and other national poverty reduction strategies.

Among notable conclusions, it should be emphasized that:
    Women and men involved in mining, either directly and indirectly, face similar and
     different challenges and constraints. Furthermore, men generally realize the greater
     proportion of benefits from mining, while women receive a disproportionate amount of its
     negative impacts.
          Understanding and effectively responding to gender-differentiated constraints and
           opportunities is crucial to ensuring that mining policies, programmes and interventions
           actually serve to support development and address (rather than worsen) gender
           inequalities.
          Although equal access and participation is important, it does not necessarily result in
           equal benefits to women and men. Additional efforts are needed in terms of, not only
           mobilization, but in designing, implementing and providing services and assistance at
           the local level.
          Development outcomes achieved through mineral development can be substantially
           improved by instituting strategies and specific measures to engage women in
           communities around mines and implementing activities to redress gender inequalities
           and empower women.

The Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM) has demonstrated sincere commitment to take a
lead in promoting gender equity in mining. Through SMMRP activities and those ongoing with
MEM, in partnership with Mining Companies and government and non-government partners,
Tanzania is very well positioned to set an international standard for others to follow.

The Workshop has culminated in a clear framework for a roadmap to gender equity in the
minerals sector. Turning this framework into a plan of action is a critical next step for change to
be realized on the ground.

3.7.1 Critical Next Steps
Numerous specific recommendations have been put forward to help articulate a detailed
Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining in Tanzania. Supporting activities should include:
          Engendering the Mineral Policy Implementation Strategy. A gender analysis of the
           Mineral Policy and ensuring its implementation plan is fully engendered will serve to turn
           MEM commitments into action. Buttressed by gender-responsive SMMRP-supported
           activities, the foundation for long-term progress towards gender equity can become a
           reality in Tanzania. Each activity undertaken through MEM and SMMRP can make a
           significant contribution to gender equity.
          Development of a Gender Action Plan. The recommendations and action items, as well
           as responsible parties, specified during the workshop should be turned into a time-
           bound action plan that can be disseminated to stakeholders for finalization and to affirm
           commitments to action.
          Implement Responses to Practical and Strategic Gender Needs. Mobilization and
           dedication of human and financial resources are needed to turn commitments into
           action. Monitoring and evaluation of these efforts will serve to inform changes and
           improvements to the Action Plan.

United Republic of Tanzania, Ministry of Energy and Minerals/                                      34
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                                                International Workshop Proceedings:
                                          Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining

As stated by Mr. David Jairo, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Energy and Minerals,
“mere formulation of policies does not mean much if each person, as individuals, does nothing
to address gender inequalities in their daily lives.” Whether an individual, community,
government or any organization, taking these words to heart and turning them into action is a
step in the right direction.




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                                                  International Workshop Proceedings:
                                            Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining



 ANNEX ONE: LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
     Name/Position      Location/Organization                                     Telephone         E mail
INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATIVES
     Sambo Michael
1                       Mozambique                                                258 823 880 961   mgsjesc@gmail.com
     Godet
     Betty Adong
2                       Uganda                                                    077 776 2262
     Odongond
3    Jennifer Hinton    Uganda
                        Zambia (Federation of Small Scale Mining
4    Pauline Mondia                                                               260 977 849153    chipazuba@yahoo.com
                        Ass. In Zambia)
                        Ministry of Mines and Energy Ethiopia
5    Meaza Tamrat                                                                 0911 057989       tamratmeaza@yahoo.com
                        (Addis Ababa)
6    Chansouk Insouvanh Lao PDR
7    Sophia Swire       Afghanistan                                               447 973 348520    sophiaswire@gmail.com
                        Tanzania Gender & ASM National                                              susanwagnertz@yahoo.co
8    Susan Wagner                                                                 0784 218464
                        Consultant                                                                  m
9    Nellie Mutemeri    Mozambique Gender & ASM Consultant                        277 16061996      mutemerinellie@gmail.com
     Fatima Momade      Mozambique                                                258 21311227      fmomade@mem.gov.mz
SENIOR GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
                                                                                                    emeldateikwa@hotmail.co
10     Emelda Teikwa Adam            Vice President Office                        0713 524908
                                                                                                    m
11     Hamis M Komba      Minister, MEM – Official Opening                        0754 833375       hamiskomba@yahoo.co.uk
12     Greyson S. Mwase   MEM                                                     0784 435593       siegfredy@yahoo.com
13     Z Baghdellah       MITM                                                    0754 299146       zbaghdellah@yahoo.com
14     Semgayagi Peter    Ministy of Labor and Social Welfare                     0713 706570       psembuyaji@yahoo.com
15     Sabina Mnaliwa     Ministry of Health (MoH)                                0754 885432       smnaliwa@yahoo.com
                          Ministry of Community Development,
16   Achilles R. Ndyahusa                                                         0784 250610       ndyalusa@yahoo.co.uk
                          Gender and Children (MCDGC)
MEM OFFICIALS AND PERSONNEL
20   David K.Jairo        Permanent Secretary, MEM                                255 222112793
17   John Nayopa          Project Coordinator, SMMRP                              0784 341717       jonayopa@yahoo.com
18   Getty Massawe        MEM                                                     0784 753330
                                                                                                    ekayandabila@yahoo.co.u
19     Elias Kayandabila             MEM                                          737143236
                                                                                                    k
                                     Principal Geologist/MEM Gender
21     Dr. Lightness Mnzava                                                       0753 871300       nakijiru3@yahoo.com
                                     Counterpart
22     Ally Lukali                   Administrative Support Staff                 0754 853662
23     Athumani Kitojo               MEM                                          0715 846621
24     Kassim Kindamba               MEM                                          0715 337914
25     Mastala Mrembo                Administrative Support Staff                 0784 809815
                                     OTHER
26     Christopher Sheldon           World Bank                                   202 473 8953      csheldon@worldbank.0rg
                                                                                                    ncherevatova@worldbank.
27     Natasha Cherevatova           World Bank                                   202 4589880
                                                                                                    org
28     Adriana Eftimie               World Bank                                   1202 4585399      aeftimie@worldbank.org
29     Katherine Heller              World Bank                                   1202 4584777      kheller@worldbank.org
30     Justina Kajange               World Bank                                   0784 411199       jkajange@worldbank.org
       Chansouk                      World Bank (Social Development
31                                                                                                  souky15nov@hotmail.com
       Dnsouvann                     Consultant)
32     Abdul Omar                    World Bank                                                     abdulo@hotmail.com
33     Paul Van Srtyp                Free lance Rural Livelihood Consultant       856 58384918      p.v.STRIPY@gmail.com
CENTRAL ASSOCIATIONS, ORGANIZATIONS AND NGOs
34  Tina Mwasha        Tanzania Chamber of Mines                                  0754 035625       theo@chamberofmines.org
35  Shamsa Diwani      TAWOMA - Central Branch                                    0754 271649       shdiwani@yahoo.com
                       SIDO - Small Industry Development
36  Ndolezi W.S                                                                   0773 759759
                       Organization
37  Nickson Kwangano   TAWLA                                                      0716 801630       nickytamwa@yahoo.com
                                                                                                    mpanlechelela@yahoo.co
38     Sechelela Mpanoe              Agenda Participation                         0755 899049
                                                                                                    m
39     Catherine Lyombe              MISF                                         755996690         c_lyombe@yahoo.come
                                                                                                    mtwevesingwa@yahoo.co
40     Ahadi Mtweve                  AFWIMN - Africa Women in Mining Network      0754 365850
                                                                                                    m
41     Mary Mbeyela                  AFWIMN - Africa Women in Mining Network      0754 284072       afwimatz@yahoo.com
42     Daud Sudi                     Free Lance                                   0713 295346
43     Issa Omary                    Researcher                                   0717 182181


 United Republic of Tanzania, Ministry of Energy and Minerals/                                                             36
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                                                 International Workshop Proceedings:
                                           Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining

       Name/Position     Location/Organization                                   Telephone     E mail
44     Prisca Juma       FAWETA                                                  0717 128093
45     Basili Liheta     TIVEA                                                   712640113
                         TAMWA - Tanzania Media Women's
46   Catherine Nchimbi                                                           0713 425982   katenchimbi@yahoo.com
                         Association
47   Rogers Sezinga      TAN DISCOVERY (Managing Director)                       0754 280478   rsezinga@yahoo.com
48   Emanuel Zakaria     NMG                                                     0713 362525   abduz2000@yahoo.com
49   Elizaberth Seme     FAWETA                                                  0715 264545   lizzylois@yahoo.com
PRIVATE SECTOR – Mining Companies and Dealers
                         African Barrick Gold – Community
50   Frida Kyesi                                                                 0767 439888
                         Development Officer
51   Stella Shayo        Gemstones Miner-Merelani                                0759 960080
52   Zephania J. Mungaya MAREMA-Manyara                                          0782 944944   zepha@yahoo.com
53   Ahmed Mbarak Adam MWAREMA-Mwanza                                            0787 548930
54   Abia M. Nyabakari   Gemstone Miner-Sumbawanga                               0757 979727
55   Suleiman M. Tumaini RUREMA (Mpanda)                                         0773 736201
56   Eunice Negele       TAWOMA - CHAIRMAN                                       0784 486863   venicenegele@yahoo.com
     Robert Malando                                                                            malandorobert@yahoo.co
57                       SIREMA                                                  0786 659511
     Maywili                                                                                   m
58   Zahara Hamza        Salt Producer-Lindi                                     0784 435419   mariamlulida@hotmail.com
59   Brown Silwani       RUVUREMA                                                0757 673132   brownsilwani@yahoo.com
60   Clara Diami         Limestone/lime Producer-Mbeya rural                     0754 380812   hbp58@hotmail.com
                                                                                               bkalekwa2000@yahoo.co
61     Bahati Kalekwa                Diamonds Dealer -Kishapu                    0754 825826
                                                                                               m
62     Mwanaidi Ebrahim              Small Scale Miner                           0784 686708
                                     DISABLED AND VULNERABLE GROUP-
63     Ms. Hawa Kirenga                                                          0784 904876
                                     Mirerani
64     Peter Mwasandube              FAWETA                                      0713 343336   fawetatz@yahoo.com
65     Rebecca Mirengeri             TAWOMA - Mwanza Branch                      0787 812448
                                     Mwalazi Mining Co. Ltd. MWAMCO-
66     Jolly Digallu                                                             0713 424268   jolly5ma@yahoo.com
                                     Morogoro
                                     Mwalazi Mining Co. Ltd. MWAMCO-
67     Digalu Juma                                                               0719 339410
                                     Morogoro
Mining Zonal Officers (8)
      Benjamin                                                                                 benmchwampaka@yahoo.
68                                   Arusha Zone                                 0754 366968
      Mchwampaka                                                                               com
                                                                                               alfredmugyabuso@yahoo.
69     Alfred a. Mugyabuso           Mwanza Zone                                 0752 880953
                                                                                               com
70     Oforo Ngowi                   Shinyanga Zone                              0754 673721   ngowio@yahoo.com
71     Manase Mbasha                 Singida Zone                                0784 645227   zymbasha@yahoo.com
72     Sabai Nyansiri                Mtwara Zone                                 0756 247821   sabainyansiri@yahoo.com
73     Juma H. Sementa               Mbeya Zone                                  0755 450460   sementa555@yahoo.com
                                                                                               davidmulabwa@yahoo.co
74     David Mulabwa                 Mpanda Zone                                 0784 337212
                                                                                               m
75   John Bina Wambura               Singida Region                              0787 550702
MEDIA
76   Joyce Mwakalinga                Star TV                                     0716 661671   joycemwak@yahoo.com
77   Pierre Kyulule                  Star TV                                     0755 825798
78   Richard Makore                  Nipashe                                     0713 608317
79   Judica Tarimo                   IPP Media (ITV, Guardian etc)               0652 324488   judbenee@yahoo.com
80   Loretta Mugaragu                ITV/Radio One                               0715 138733
                                                                                               salomemwasamale@yaho
81     Salome Mwasamale              Radio Uhuru                                 0714 423362
                                                                                               o.com
82     Rose Mweko                    Mtanzania                                   0715 353549   zalugeze@yahoo.com
                                                                                               magdalenapaul@yahoo.co
83     Magdalena Paul                Rai                                         0713 286341
                                                                                               m
                                                                                               saleh-
84     Salehe Masoud                 Mlimani TV                                  0716 997332
                                                                                               masoud@yahoo.com
85     Noel Kapanda                  ITV                                         0713 443737
86     Ahmed Segule                  ITV                                         0655 023444   asegule@yahoo.com
87     Stelius Sane                  WAPO Radio                                  0712 137697   steliusane@yahoo.com
88     Sylvia Mwehozi                Mlimani TV                                  0713 634833   syiw@yahoo.com
89     Neema Mgonja                  Jambo Leo                                   0713 890325   neynizie@yahoo.com
                                                                                               janethshekunde@yahoo.co
90     Janeth Shekunde               New Habari                                  0756 004241
                                                                                               m
91     Steven Sadiq                  Star TV                                     0715 177172   click2steve@yahoo.com
92     Herrith Benny                 Mtanzania                                   0717 502898   bennyherrieth@yahoo.com
93     Chalila Kisunda               Tanzania Daima                              0653 416221   msangulla@yahoo.com


 United Republic of Tanzania, Ministry of Energy and Minerals/                                                      37
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                                                 International Workshop Proceedings:
                                           Developing a Roadmap for Gender Equity in Mining

       Name/Position                 Location/Organization                       Telephone     E mail
94     Isaac Longwe                  The African                                 0718 330743   isaaclongwe@yahoo.com
95     Uhuru/Mzalendo                Suleman Jongo                               0713 117177   suleijongo@yahoo.com
96     Blaya Moses                   Radio Free Africa                           0654 836665
97     Njonange Samwel               East Africa Television                      0776 514226   stewart_salim@yahoo.com
98     David Gumbo                   East Africa Television                      0754 395643   dgumbo2001@yahoo.com
99     Xavery Matikila               Times FM                                    0713 996557
10
       Rukwa                         Suleiman M. Tumaini                         0773 736201
0
10
       Morogoro                      Isa Ramadhani                               0785 784507
1
10
       TFP                           Miraji Msala                                0715 686575
2
10
       Deogratius Temba              Tafakari New paper                          0715 686575
3
10
       Jane Exaud                    Msema Kweli                                 657212475
4
10
       Job Ndomba                    MAJIRA                                      0716 787832
5
10
       Michael Haonga                The Business News                           0713 241950
6
10
       Hadasa Kasynsyni              PRIVATE                                     0719 164828
7




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