Diplomatic and Consular Affairs by KeithAnthonyBalbin



 Etymology:
 Is derived from the French protocole which stems
  from the Latin – protocollum and from the Greek
  words protos, meaning first, and kolla, meaning to
 Protocollum – originally referring to the rolls on
  which agreements between city-states, and later
  between nations, were recorded, was used
  subsequently to refer to agreements themselves.
 Later, as a document more or less supplementary to
  a principal agreement or treaty.
              Presently, it denotes ...

 “An international agreement itself, though usually
  one of supplementary nature or of a less formal or
  important character than a treaty.”
 - the documents on which the rights, obligations,
  privileges and immunities of diplomats were put
 It is now referred, to “those very rights and privileges
  of diplomats.”
         Protocol has been defined as...

 “The body of ceremonial rules to be observed in all
  written or personal official intercourse between the
  heads of different states or their ministers. It lays
  down the styles and titles of states, their heads and
  public ministers, and indicates the forms and
  customary courtesies, to be observed in all
  international acts.”
 In French: protocole diplomatique or protocole de
  chancelleries “it is” says P. Pradier-Fodere, “the code
  of international politeness.”
               Importance of Protocol

 Protocol is as old as society.
 1. observance of fair share/distribution of goods
 2. elementary rules of good breeding and mutual respect
 3. hastens agreements in the international relations:
 Peace Congress of Westphalia – the first international
  conference which gave impetus to modern diplomacy
  (congress convened in 1642; meetings began in 1645;
  peace treaty was signed in 1648)
 4. The use of protocol therefore saves time and effort
               Sources of Protocol

 1. Local customs, laws and regulations
 2. international agreements, such as the Peace of
  Westphalia, 1648; Peace Treaty of Utrecht, 1713; the
  Congress of Vienna, 1815; Aix-la Chapelle, 1818
 3. Tradition
 4. Treatises
 All Foreign Offices the world over have a department
  or division which acts as a liaison body between the
  Diplomatic Corps and the Department of Foreign
  Affairs. This headed by the Chief of Protocol.
               Agreation, Agrement

 The process of determining whether or not a
  diplomat is acceptable is called agreation, while the
  agreement to the accreditation of a diplomatic
  representative is commonly referred to as the
 The courtesy of the port – consists of the privilege to
  enter or leave the Philippines without delay, without
  being asked further questions other than those
  necessary to establish what are the personal effects
  not subject to tax and, with regard to the matter,
  without further examination.
 Free entry – refers to the entry, free of customs duty
  and other taxes, of goods which would normally be
  subject to taxation.
 Facilities of the port – means that the person entitled
  to this privilege is to be given priority over others in
  the examination and release of his effects and the
  inspection of his travel documents.
      Persons entitled to Port Courtesies

 1. The President
 2. ambassadors extraordinary and plenipotentiary
 3. Permanent and special representatives and
  delegates and commissioners with the rank of
 4. envoys extraordinary and ministers
 5. permanent and special representatives or
  delegates and commissioners with the rank of envoy
  extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary.
         Who May Request Port Courtesies

 E.g. Laissez-passer:
 To the Chief officer of Customs at Manila or any
 other port of entry:
    The ................................. of the Republic of the Philippines at
     ......................... Presents his compliments to the Chief Officer
     of Customs at the port of disembarkation and hereby
     recommends to his good offices ......................... bearer of the
     present letter, for the granting of all such facilities as may be
     consistent with regulations in force.

                                             Signature of Chief of Mission
     (Seal of Mission)
       The Diplomatic and Consular List

 - This contains the names of all diplomatic officers
  from the rank of chief of mission down to third
  secretary or assistant attache.
 The wives and unmarried daughters of the
  diplomatic officers, living with them, as well as their
  addresses and telephone numbers are likewise listed.
 The order of precedence among the chiefs of mission
  is printed at the beginning of the List. The missions
  are then listed in the alphabetical order in which
  their countries are arranged.
 In the consular list, only officers from the rank of
  consul general down to vice consul are listed. Their
  wives and unmarried daughters above eighteen years
  of age, when living with them, are likewise included
  in the List.
 Consular offices are listed in alphabetical order of
  the names of the countries they represent.
            Congratulatory Messages

 It is the practice of the Department of Foreign Affairs
 to prepare a congratulatory message from the
 President to the head of the celebrating state, on the
 occasion of independence anniversaries, principal
 national holidays, and birthdays of monarchs.
 Felicitations are likewise sent on days of great
 rejoicing or celebration.
Fifth Anniversary of the Republic of Indonesia

   The officials of the Department join me in extending to you and to
    the members of your staff my best wishes on this happy occasion.

   Accept , Excellency, the renewed assurances of my highest

                                       CARLOS P. ROMULO
                                     Secretary of Foreign Affairs

    His Excellency
      Alexander A. Maramis
        Ambassador of the Republic of Indonesia
                  HEADS OF STATES

 For ceremonial purposes, the head of state is treated as if he
  were the state itself.
 By usage and law, the power over foreign affairs is vested in
  the head of state.
 The head of state may take any title conferred on him by the
  law of his country.
Titles of Heads of States:
 The President of a republic – “Excellency” or “Mr. President”
 Kings and Emperors – “Majesty” or “Imperial Majesty”
 Grand Dukes – “Royal Highness
 Dukes – “Highness”; other princes – “Serene Highness”
 Pope – “His Holiness”
  Correspondence Between Heads of States

 Letters of credence, congratulatory messages on the
  occasion of national holidays or birthdays of a
  sovereign; messages of condolence on the death of a
  close member of the latter’s family.
 When the head of state assumes his post for the first
  time, he often informs in writing other heads of
  states which have recognized his country.
     On the Occasion on Accession to the Throne
           Because of Death or Abdication

            • Name and Title of Sovereign
   To (Name and Title of the Head of State)
        (Address)
   Great Good Friend:
        Called by the death (abdication) of my Father and by
    the order of succession to the throne of (name of country), I
    fulfil the duty of announcing to you my succession. I trust
    that my reign will always find support in your sentiments
    and I wish to assure you that on my part it will be a
    pleasure to maintain and to cultivate the friendly relations
    and goodwill which happily exist between our two countries

     I express the hope that you will lend me your valuable
  cooperation with a view to attaining this result, which is for
  the greater good of the peoples whose destinies have been
  confided in us. It is with this sentiment that I avail myself of
  this opportunity to convey to you my sincere wishes for the
  prosperity of (name of state and address) as well as for your
  personal happiness.
                                   Your Good Friend,
                             Signature of the Sovereign

 Signature of Foreign Secretary
 Place and date of signing of letter
    On the Occasion of Election to the Presidency

        Name and Title of Head of State
 To (Name and Title of head of State)
     (Address)

 Great Good Friend:
      I have the honor to inform you that I have taken on this
  day my oath of office as President of (name of state), to
  serve as such for a period of six years.
      In conveying this information, I wish to assure you that
  it shall be my constant endeavor to maintain and
  strengthen the friendly relations that happily exist between

 our two countries at present time. I trust that in the
  attainment of this objective, you will lend me your
      I avail myself of this opportunity to express to Your
  (Excellency/Majesty) my sincere wishes for the prosperity
  of (name of state), as well as your personal happiness.
                                  Your Good Friend,
                              Signature of Head of State

 Signature of Foreign Secretary
 Place and date of signing of letter
             The reply may be as follows:

         Name and Title of Head of State
 To (Name and Title of Head of State)
    (Address)

 Great Good Friend:
       I have the honor to acknowledge your letter of (date),
    announcing your (accession, election) to the (Throne,
    Presidency). It is my hope that under your benign (wise)
    rule (leadership), the bonds of friendship that bind our two
    countries will be maintained and further strengthened.
    Please be assured that, on my part, I shall endeavor to work
    for the realization of this end.

      I avail myself of this opportunity to convey to
    Your (Majesty, Excellency) my sincere wishes for the
    prosperity of (name of state of addressee), as well as
    your well-being and happiness

                              Your Good Friend
                          Signature of Head of State

 Signature of Foreign Secretary
 Place and date of signing of letter
Privileges and Immunities of Head of States

 The general practice is for the head of state not to visit
    another country in his official capacity unless invited. When
    so invited, his expenses as well as those of his entourage are
    borne by the host state.
   The head of state, when in a foreign country, is accorded
    ceremonial honors and is addressed by his usual title.
   He enjoys personal inviolability.
   The head of state is exempt from taxation, as well as from
    civil jurisdiction.
   The head of state may not claim immunity while travelling
         Inauguration of Heads of States

 The inauguration or oath-taking of a head of state is always
  a formal event. In most monarchical states it is an elaborate
 Special missions sent are headed by an ambassador
  extraordinary and plenipotentiary.
 It is not customary in the Philippines to receive or to send
  special missions to the inauguration of a head of state.
Example of invitation to the inauguration of a
        head of state is as follows:

         (Seal of the Republic of the Philippines)
                The Inaugural Committee
           Requests the honor of your presence
                       at Ceremonies
              Attending the Inauguration of
                Simeon Benigno C. Aquino
              as President of the Philippines
                       Jejomar Binay
           as Vice-President of the Philippines
        on Wednesday morning, June the thirtieth
                   two thousand and ten
                      at twelve o’clock
               At the Luneta, City of Manila
              Invitation of Heads of States

 An invitation from a head of state is a command. It is never refused,
  except for reasons of illness, physical impossibility or bereavement.
 Different forms of invitations:
 A).
                               The President
                  requests the pleasure of your company
                               at a Reception
                                 in honor of
                           The Diplomatic Corps
               on Thursday evening, November twenty-four
                          two thousand and eleven
                               at nine o’clock

 B.)
          In representation of the President
                  The Vice President
        requests the pleasure of your company
                    at a Reception
         on Saturday morning, July the fourth
                     At ten o’clock

 C)
                          In honor of
       His Excellency the President of the United States
               of America and Madame Obama
               The President of the Philippines
           requests the pleasure of the company of
                   Mr. Manny V. Pangilinan
       on Saturday evening, November the twenty-sixth
                   Two thousand and eleven
                    At 19:00 – 20:30 hours
                     At Makati Shangrila
              Toasts of the Head of States

 In any function or reception given by a foreign diplomatic
    or consular officer in the Philippines, he may or may not
    toast the President.
   Flag and Seal of Heads of States:
   Heads of state usually have a standard indicative of their
    high office. In all official correspondence and documents,
    however, the only seal used is that containing the national
    coat of arms.
   Death of Heads of States:
   On the death of a head of state, a formal notification is
    made to all chiefs of mission accredited to the country of
    the deceased.
               Example of such notification

                                                 FOREIGN OFFICE, _____
 Sir:
       It is with the deepest sorrow that I have the honor to announce to you
    that it has pleased Almighty God to call to his rest His Most Gracious
    Majesty George VI, King of the United Kingdoms of Great Britain and
    Northern Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas.
        The Mournful intelligence of his Majesty’s by death is being conveyed
    to your Government by His Majesty’s Diplomatic Representative at your
    country’s capital.
                                    I have the honor to be,
                                   With the highest consideration
                                            Sir,
                                     Your Obedient Servant,
                                        ANTHONY EDEN
 The diplomatic representatives abroad of the mourning country notify
    the Foreign Office of the country to which they are accredited, of the
    death of their head of state, more or less as follows:
    Excellency:
        It is with deep regret that I fulfill the sad task of informing you of
    the death of the Honorable Manuel Roxas, President of the Philippines,
    on April 15, 1948.
        A visitor’s book is provided at the Chancery of the Embassy, for
    those who may wish to pay calls of condolence, and will be open daily
    from eigth to twelve o’clock in the morning and from two to four o’clock
    in the afternoon, until the day of the funeral.
        Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of my highest
                                                Signature of Chief of Mission
   (Name and address
   of Foreign Minister)
 Within one week after the closing of the visitor’s book, the
  chief mission sends a card of thanks to all those who have
  expressed their condolences.
              The Ambassador of the Philippines
                   gratefully acknowledges
                      your expression of
                  sympathy on the occasion
                        of the death of
                The Honorable Manuel Roxas
                 President of the Philippines
 Burial of Head State:
 The death of a head of state always involves a state funeral.
 Conducts of Diplomats on Death of Head of State:
 The flag is flown at half-staff daily for one month. All
  Filipino missions and offices abroad do likewise.
 Officers observe the usual symbols of morning, which may
  consist of a black arm-band, black tie, or other appropriate
 During the period of official morning, black-edged
  stationery envelopes should be used (3/8 inch wide).

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