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SCH3U – Solutions and Solubility Review 1) Explain each of the following: a) Salt dissolves in water but not in non-polar trifluorotrichloroethane (TTE) whereas iodine does not dissolve in water but does dissolve in TTE. b) Hydrochloric acid is a good conductor of electricity but concentrated acetic acid is a poor conductor. c) When sufficient salt is added to water the solution becomes saturated and no more salt will dissolve. 2) How would you prepare a 0.50 M solution of sodium hydroxide? 3) What is the general word equation for any neutralization reaction? 4) Write a chemical equation representing the neutralization of iron (III) hydroxide and nitric acid. 5) Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of H2SO4 and KOH. a) Write the total ionic equation and the net ionic equation for the above reaction. b) Circle the spectators. 6) Explain or discuss the dissociation that occurs when sodium chloride is placed in water. What is one physical property ionic solutions demonstrate that ionic solids do not? 7) Write the balanced ionic and net-ionic equations, and circle the spectator ions for each of the following reactions: a) Na3PO4(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) NaOH(aq) + Ca3(PO4)2(s) i) ionic: ii) net-ionic: 8) Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s) i) ionic: ii) net-ionic: 9) Give an example of a solution consisting of a solid in a solid. 10) A crystal of solute is added to an aqueous solution of the same solute. After some time it is noted that the crystal has not changed in mass. Is the solution unsaturated, saturated or supersaturated? How do you know? 11) A clear colourless liquid with density of 1.4 g/mL was boiled. The initial boiling point was 101°C and successive boiling points noted were 103°C, 105°C and 107°C. After cooling, the density was found to be 2.0 g/mL. Was the original colourless liquid a pure substance or a solution? Explain. 12) If a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved in a relatively large amount of solvent, the solution is said to be _________________ 13) A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is known as a(n) ________________ 14) A saturated solution of potassium nitrate may be made unsaturated by: _____________________________________________________________________ 15) If much more solute can be dissolved in a solution without altering the temperature, the solution is said to be ____________________ 16) Chlorate (HClO3) is dissolved in enough water to make 1.00 L of chloric acid. What is the molar concentration of this acid? 17) 13. 8.00 g of NaOH is dissolved in sufficient water to make 200.0 mL of solution. What is the molar concentration of the solution? o 18) At 20 C, a saturated solution of CaCl2 has a concentration of 0.0250 mol/L. A student takes 50 mL of this solution and evaporates it. What mass of the salt, in grams, is left in the dish? 19) What is the difference between a saturated, a supersaturated and an unsaturated solution? How would you differentiate between them experimentally or through observation? 20) Table 1 – Properties of some unknown substances: Unknown Colour pH Conductivity Litmus 1 Colourless 13 High Blue 2 Colourless 1 High Red 3 Colourless 7 Low No change 4 Colourless 7 High No change 5 Blue 7 High No change The possible substances are HCl, NaOH, NaCl, CuBr2, CH3OH. Identify unknowns 1 – 5 and briefly explain your reasoning.
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