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									              Research priorities on malaria and agriculture
                   in West and Central Africa (WCA)
           Workshop documentation of the SIMA WCA stakeholder consultation,
                       IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria 18-20 March 2002

                             Final version 19 August 2002

                     Eveline Klinkenberg and Eline Boelee, editors


Organizing Committee

Overall coordination:            Clifford Mutero (SIMA Coordinator , IWMI)
Workshop documentation:          Eline Boelee and Eveline Klinkenberg (IWMI)
Coordination at IITA:            Dyno Keatinge (IITA)
Logistical arrangements:         Victor Manyong (IITA)
Committee Member:                Frank Abamu (WARDA)
Committee Member:                Matt Lynch (USAID)
Facilitator:                     Reid Whitlock (DANIDA)
Press coverage:                  David Mowbray (IITA)
The SIMA Document Series contains contributions from participants in the SIMA Network and is intended to
stimulate discussion among people interested in Malaria and Agriculture. The views expressed are those of the
authors of each contribution and do not necessarily represent the consensus of SIMA. Comments on this document
are most welcome and should be sent to the editors or to the SIMA coordinator:

Dr. Clifford Mutero
SIMA c/o International Water Management Institute
Private Bag X813, Silverton 0127, South Africa
E-mail: c.mutero@cgiar.org




SIMA Documents
   1. Eveline Klinkenberg and Eline Boelee, editors. 2002. Research priorities on malaria and agriculture in
      West and Central Africa (WCA). Workshop documentation of the SIMA WCA stakeholder consultation,
      IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria 18-20 March 2002. SIMA Document 1. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water
      Management Institute.
   2. Eline Boelee, Flemming Konradsen and Wim van der Hoek, editors, 2002. Malaria in irrigated
      agriculture. Papers and Abstracts for the SIMA Special Seminar at the ICID 18th International
      Congress on Irrigation and Drainage, Montreal, 23 July 2002. IWMI Working Paper 47. SIMA
      Document 2. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute.




                                                      2
Table of Contents

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ....................................................................................................................4

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................................5

WELCOME ADDRESS ..............................................................................................................................................6

SIMA BACKGROUND ..............................................................................................................................................7

WCA REGION SITUATION PAPERS ....................................................................................................................8

STATE-OF-THE-ART PAPERS (CG/OTHERS) .................................................................................................. 18

IDENTIFICATION OF REGIONAL PRIORITIES.............................................................................................. 18

SIMA PROJECTS ..................................................................................................................................................... 23

RESEARCH QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 23

CONCEPT NOTES ................................................................................................................................................... 26

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ......................................................................................................................................... 27

APPENDIX 1: SIMA SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................... 28

APPENDIX 2: SIMA STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATION PROCESS ............................................................. 30

APPENDIX 3: LIST OF PARTICIPANTS ............................................................................................................. 31

APPENDIX 4: THE CGIAR SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 34

APPENDIX 5: SUMMARY OF EXPECTATIONS AND EVALUATION .......................................................... 35

APPENDIX 6: WORKSHOP AGENDA ................................................................................................................. 36




                                                                                  3
Abbreviations and acronyms


AWDI        Alternate Wet and Dry Irrigation (of rice)
CGIAR       Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
DANIDA      Danish International Development Agency
DBL         Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory
EHP         USAID-Environmental Health Project
ESA         East and Southern Africa
FAO         Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GIS         Geographic Information System
ICRAF       International Center for Research in Agroforestry
IDRC        International Development Research Center
IEC         Information et Education Communautaire
IFAD        International Fund for Agricultural Development
IITA        International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
ILRI        International Livestock Research Institute
IPGRI       International Plant Genetic Resources Institute
IPM         Integrated Pest Management
ISNAR       International Service for National Agricultural Research
ITN         Insecticide-Treated Nets
IWMI        International Water Management Institute
KCCR        Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine
NGO         Non-Governmental Organization
NISER       Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research
PEEM        Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control
RBM         Roll Back Malaria
RITAM       Research Initiative on Traditional Antimalarial Methods
SIMA        CGIAR Systemwide Initiative on Malaria and Agriculture
SIUPA       CGIAR Systemwide Initiative on Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture
SSA         Sub-Saharan Africa
USAID       United States Agency for International Development
WARDA       West Africa Rice Development Association
WHE         Water, Health and Environment research theme at IWMI
WHO         World Health Organization
WCA         West and Central Africa




                                                4
Introduction

This working paper contains the proceedings of the SIMA stakeholder consultation for West and Central Africa
(WCA) that was hosted by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Ibadan, Nigeria from 18-20
March 2002. This was the second regional stakeholder consultation organized by SIMA, the CGIAR System-wide
Initiative on Malaria and Agriculture. Appendix 1 provides a summary of SIMA. In May 2001, a stakeholder
consultation for East and Southern Africa (ESA) was held at the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry
(ICRAF) in Nairobi, Kenya. In Appendix 2, an overview is presented of the process of SIMA stakeholder
consultation (more information on www.iwmi.org/sima.htm). The purpose of this SIMA stakeholder consultation
was to contribute to the identification of opportunities for minimizing malaria risk through agriculture-based
interventions in West and Central Africa. The specific objectives of the WCA consultation were:

   To review past and ongoing research on different aspects of the relationship between malaria and agriculture in
    West and Central Africa;

   To identify regional research priorities on the topic of malaria and agriculture;

   To build partnerships and develop common concept notes (outlines for project proposals) for exploring support
    through SIMA.

Almost forty participants attended the consultation in Ibadan, representing CGIAR centers, malaria control
programs, national agricultural research institutes, universities, non-governmental organizations, and donors. More
than 25 presentation were given by the participants, which are summarized in this document. Details and affiliations
of all participants are presented in Appendix 3, while more information on the CGIAR can be found in Appendix 4.
Appendix 5 holds a summary of the participants‟ expectations of the workshop and to what extent these were met.

The consultation consisted of presentations of past or on-going research relevant to SIMA and extensive plenary and
group discussions on research priorities. After formulating research questions, basic concept notes were developed
in small interdisciplinary groups as outlines of future project proposals. The regional priorities (p.18), research
questions (p.23) and concept notes (p.26) comprise the most important outputs of this workshop. The concept notes
will be developed into regional proposals to be submitted for funding. These proceedings contain a summary of the
presentations and discussions. A detailed program of the workshop can be found in Appendix 6.




                                                           5
Welcome Address
Dr. Robert Booth, Deputy Director General (IITA)

Welcome fellow malaria sufferers and others like Dyno Keatinge who have yet to experience malaria. We hope that none of you
contract malaria during your stay with us, but do take care.
           On behalf of the Director-General of IMWI, Professor Frank Rijsberman and the Director General of IITA Dr. Peter
Hartmann allow me to welcome all delegates to the West and Central African Stakeholders meeting of the CGIAR Systemwide
Initiative on Malaria and Agriculture. It is with considerable professional interest that IITA is hosting this unique meeting of
agricultural, medical and entomological practitioners and I am sure the outcome will be extremely positive and forward-looking
from this new type of multidisciplinary consortium.
           It is clear to us here at IITA that the effect of ill health on agriculture is a vicious circle which must be broken if
poverty is to be truly eliminated and food security put into place in Africa. Clearly, the situation of endemic malaria in west and
central Africa is one of the most potent influences on poor agricultural production. However, IITA recognizes that other health
conditions and particularly HIV/AIDS and food/feed contamination from toxins such as aflatoxin are also having severe
complimentary effects to malaria on ill health’s negative effects on agriculture. We feel that such things are perhaps best tackled
together.
           IITA is increasingly interested in the linkages between agriculture, nutrition and human health. Let me give you a brief
glimpse at some of the areas in which we are active:

IITA currently hosts, here on the Ibadan campus, the coordinating office of APIN (Aids Prevention Initiative in Nigeria). This is a
project financed by the Gates Foundation and implemented by the Harvard School of Public Health. During its initial phase this
project has focused primarily on an awareness campaign and on putting some partners in place here in Nigeria. In the next
phase we anticipate that more funds will be available for R&D activities and IITA hopes to be involved in activities on the effects
of HIV/AIDS on the social availability of labor and on the influence of nutrition on the rates of HIV development.

IITA also works on aflatoxin contamination with financial support from BMZ/Germany and Rotary International. In this project
we collaborate with the University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin), Ministries of Health in Benin and Togo and Leeds Medical School
(UK). Results indicate that 5-57% of maize samples taken across 4 agro-ecological zones in Benin and Togo were contaminated.
From a survey done by our colleagues from Benin (Dr Hounsa), out of just under 500 children between 1 and 5 years old, 15
percent had very high levels of aflatoxin, 33% were stunted and 29% underweight and exposure was significantly associated with
impaired growth.
We recognize that ill health causes significant losses in overall labor availability for agriculture and in particular at key periods
of demand such as cultivation, sowing, weed control and harvesting. Moreover, this includes substantial additional losses of
female labor (critical to agriculture in west and central Africa) due to additional responsibilities to care for sick children and
adult health needs.

In a recent labor survey in an experiment in the forest margins of Cameroon the indications were that between 15 and 20% of all
laborers employed admitted to having experienced a bout of malaria in the last 2 weeks. Moreover, in IITA Ibadan’s own clinic
our doctors treat about 4,000-6,000 cases of severe malaria a year (out of a total of about 20,000 cases) at a cost of
approximately USD 100,000 for diagnosis and treatment.

Further to the actual losses of labor time and working efficiency it is evident that ill health is a major consumer of capital
resources in agricultural communities for health care, additional labor hire and for funeral expenses. All such cash costs
mitigate against investment in agricultural inputs. Such investments are urgently needed to ensure increased productivity.
          IITA feels that it is necessary to quantify such labor and capital losses to the agriculture sector to ensure that
government investments in human health schemes are sufficient and take such additional losses in agricultural productivity into
the planning equation.

IITA is also working on three complimentary areas to mitigate the effects of loss of labor:
a) by improving resistance to disease by bolstering general family nutrition by providing protein and micronutrient rich crops
     to supplement starchy staples such as plantain, cassava and maize;



                                                                 6
b)    IPM systems to reduce the impact of insect damage to standing and stored crops and to reduce the health risks from
      improper and excessive use of pesticides;
c) by investigating opportunities to substitute small scale machinery for current human labor. This includes the introduction of
      sprayer technology for weed control, small-scale powered cultivation and a range of multi-purpose post harvest threshing
      machinery.
All three areas are major consumers of labor during the agricultural production season.

          We look forward from this meeting to seeing an emerging consensus on what are the most urgent tasks that need to be
tackled regarding the interaction of ill health, specifically malaria induced, with agriculture and we stand by to make our
agricultural expertise and substantial data bases of agricultural information from west and central Africa available to be part of
what I expect will be an important forward looking consortium that will have the capacity to really tackle such a difficult and
intransigent problem as malaria. We have much brainpower assembled in this room let us use it effectively over the next three
days to achieve a positive result at the launching of SIMA’s activities in west and central Africa.


                                                                      Opening of the workshop

                                                                      Left to right: Clifford Mutero,
                                                                      Robert Booth and Dyno Keatinge




SIMA Background
Dr. Clifford Mutero, coordinator (SIMA)

First, Dr. Mutero increased the audience‟s awareness of the seriousness of malaria with a challenging quiz on facts
and myths of malaria:
 Did you know that recent research showed that 60% of families affected by malaria cultivate less land than
     healthy families?
 Did you know that for every US$ spend on HIV-AIDS research only 0.001 US$ is spend on malaria research?
 Did you know it is a myth that integrated vector control is not feasible in Africa?

The quiz was followed by an animation, showing what happens as the sun sets in the African village, how the
mosquito cycle proceeds and what challenges there are in Integrated Vector Management (IVM). This was followed
by an overview of SIMA and the set up and objectives of this stakeholder consultation for West and Central Africa.




                                                                7
WCA Region Situation Papers


MALI

1.   Impact de la riziculture irriguée sur la transmission du paludisme à Niono, Mali (Impact of irrigated rice
     cultivation on malaria transmission in Niono, Mali)
     Y Touré, Yaya Coulibaly

2.   L’impact des supports imprégnés d’insecticide et de l’IEC sur l’épidémiologie et le poids du paludisme en
     zone de riziculture irriguée (Impact of impregnated bednets and education, information, and communication
     on the epidemiology of malaria in an irrigated rice zone)
     Yaya Coulibaly, Adama Dao, and Sidibe Daouda

Discussion1
Q: How would the team like to promote the use of bednets and increase the availability of nets? A: The problem is
access. We want to use a participatory approach – first get to know the habits and customs of a community in the
region, to know how to proceed, at which level we would need to address the community as a whole, but also the
different groups in these communities. If the number of people that can buy bednets is low, bednets will be donated
to carry out the study.
Q: If you prefer a participatory approach, could you use the local knowledge for malaria control? How would you
go about that? A: Additionally information on local knowledge for malaria control and personal protection will be
included through anthropological studies.
Q: How would you measure a reduction in the biting of mosquitoes? A: This would be accessed by infection rates
obtained through spray catches.



BURKINA FASO

Malaria in Burkina Faso: synopsis of studies carried out and new challenges (Le paludisme au Burkina Faso:
synopsis des études réalisées et des nouveaux défis)
Dennis Ouedrago

Discussion
Comment: Please be careful not to confuse herbicides and fertilizer with insecticides.
A: In the presentation, studies were quoted, showing that in cotton growing areas resistance is a problem, even if the
used products are not exactly the ones likely to create resistance. It is complicated and the exact relations are not
well known, this should be studied.
Comment: CG-centers need to maintain the link with wider agriculture, that is our comparative advantage. E.g.
herbicides and herbicide-resistance in cotton may be important, as farmers may have to resort to more aggressive
products. We should keep in focus that whatever we are doing agriculture can have an influence on health, there are
agricultural practices that may or may not be linked to adverse health affects. It is important to investigate these
links.




                                                          8
BENIN

Contribution of agriculture to malaria control and poverty reduction in rural West Africa: Benin case (La
contribution de l‟agriculture au contrôle du paludisme et à la réduction de la pauvreté en Afrique de l‟Ouest rurale)
Assomption Hounsa, Omer Mensah, Sylvian Dossa and Kerstin Hell

This presentation was an overview of the experiences that were gathered in working sessions with the Ministry of
Health, Universities and other organizations.

Discussion
Comment: The key in the relation to agriculture is the mosquito, therefore we need to keep an eye on all agro-
chemicals, as we will also need them in control.
Q: Could you clarify the different infection rates of children in the different seasons. A: Health centers are invaded
by cases in the rainy season. The Ministry of Health realized that once the rainy season is over, children continue to
be infected and may develop malaria. This could be related to the state of malnutrition, but the exact reasons are
unknown. There is also increased exposure in adults, sometimes adults harvest half-naked, and they remain
undressed in the evenings, which could influence exposure. We need to carry out a cross sectional study over the
year to clarify these things.
Comment: In Nigeria there are seasonal variations, in the northern Sahel region the period for transmission is
different from that in the southern areas. Sometimes outbreaks are reported but these need to be confirmed. We
urgently need to study these variations. We know that the variations are not related to vectors, but this is not well
understood and it has been a long time since detailed studies have been done on vectors in Nigeria. The effect of
malaria on farmers is tremendous, with an impact on local immunity. Some plants are being used as repellent.


CÔTE D’IVOIRE

1. Paludisme à Bouaké (Malaria in Bouaké)
Ouattara Bourhaima and Emmanuel Tia

Discussion
Q: Are you reporting here on urban agriculture? A: We did not focus on urban agriculture but we are planning some
studies.
Q: Is your sample size big enough to say something about malaria in age groups? A: No - the sample was random,
but there were not enough children in sample.
Q: Is the increased prevalence in the inland valleys related to wetlands or irrigated rice? A: We think so, but it has
not been studied. We do know that transplanting of rice creates permanent standing water, which could increase
prevalence.
Q: Why are bednets not widely spread? A: Television was an important medium in the campaigns and extension
activities, but this was not sufficient because not all people have television. Therefore we need to organize additional
campaigns in the communities.
Comment: The perception of malaria is also important in this. For example in Benin people do not always know the
relation between malaria and mosquitoes, so they may not use bednets. Even if they use bednets, they will not do so
in the hot season. People are not aware that this increases their risk. We need to conduct more information and


1
    Q: question from the floor; A: answer from the presenter.



                                                                9
education research and should also focus on the perception of malaria in communities.

2. Aménagements hydro agricoles et paludisme (Irrigation systems and malaria transmission)
Emmanuel Tia and Ouattara Bourhaima

Discussion
Q: Interesting results on vector prevalence in relation to different niches. Did you look at the relation between
mosquitoes and plant densities or inter-cropping? A: The production of larvae in rice fields depends on the growing
stage of the rice. As A. gambiae likes sunshine, the crop cover is determinant. In the initial stages of rice
development there is not enough shade, so indeed the density after transplanting in the field is important and has a
role in the activity of the vector, but we did not look at that.
Comment: This study is a good example of cross roads between CGIAR-research and the health sector and therefore
SIMA. We can contribute with specific agricultural knowledge on crops. Predators are also important.

3. Grass Roots Communication (Communication de base pour les communautés)
Mamadou Diamonde

DOMAINES D'INTERVENTION                                                   SOLUTION
   Agriculture
                                                                              Création de cellules d'Information, Education
                                                                               Communication (IEC) chargées de la sensibilisation
   Santé                                                                     Elaboration de plan de formation et de supports
                                                                               pédagogiques
   Lutte contre la pauvreté                                                  Formation de pairs éducateurs et de superviseurs
                                                                              Renforcement des capacités
                                                                              Création de réseaux de cellules de sensibilisation
                                                                              Pérennisation des programmes


ACTIVITES                                                                 SOLUTION
Etudes                                                                        Création de cellules d'Information, Education
Formation                                                                      Communication (IEC) chargées de la sensibilisation
Gestion de projets                                                            Elaboration de plan de formation et de supports
                                                                               pédagogiques
                                                                              Formation de pairs éducateurs et de superviseurs
OBJECTIFS                                                                     Renforcement des capacités
                                                                              Création de réseaux de cellules de sensibilisation
   Transfert de compétences                                                  Pérennisation des programmes
   Développement de compétences et d'expertises locales
   Amélioration des résultats et des impacts des projets
   Responsabilisation des communautés                                    METHODOLOGIE
   Appropriation des programmes                                              Implication des bénéficiaires tout le long du projet
   Renforcement des capacités de négociation                                 Exécution des programmes par les pairs éducateurs et les
   Renforcement des capacités de leadership communautaire                     superviseurs
                                                                              Organisation d'ateliers d'échanges entre les cellules de
                                                                               sensibilisation
                                                                              Suivi et évaluation (indicateurs de suivi, indicateurs
                                                                               d'impacts




APPROCHE                                                                  SITES

   Holistique (contribution de tous les acteurs et utilisation de        Plantations de palmiers à huile et de cannes à sucre dans les
    toutes les méthodes)                                                  régions du Sud-Ouest, Sud-Est et Nord de la Côte d'Ivoire,
   Participative (implication et contribution active et                  Abidjan et banlieue (voir carte)
    significative des bénéficiaires)
   Intégrée (complémentarité et synergie entre les
    composantes du programme




                                                                     10
RESULTATS ATTEINTS (1997-2000)                                     PARTENAIRES
                                                                      Internationaux
Pairs éducateurs                             Résultats                     ADRAO (WARDA)
                    Pairs éducateurs
                                                                           Africare
Sélectionnés                           139
                                                                           Population Services International (PSI)
Formés                                 127
                                                                           Groupe Santé Familiale et Prévention contre le SIDA
Recyclés                               78
                                                                            (SFPS)
                          Superviseurs
                                                                           Care Niger
Sélectionnés                           12
                                                                           FNUAP
Formés                                 12
Recyclés                               3                                   AIDSCAP/ FHI
Causeries éducatives réalisées         6644                                IMPACT
Animation de masse                     8                                   Cameroon Health Program (CHP)
                    Bénéficiaires touches                                  Academy for Educational and Development
Travailleurs de plantations            7762                                John Snow Inc.
Femmes                                 13431                               Trickle Up
Routiers                               16561                               Christian Lutheran Church
Visite de supervision et suivi         20
Spots publicitaires diffusés           271

INDICATEURS UTILISES                                                  Nationaux
              Suivi                       Impact                           Ruban Rouge
    Nombre de pairs                Changement de                         Communautés ghanéennes, nigériennes, maliennes
     éducateurs formés               comportement                           et burkinabé
    Nombre de superviseurs         Recours fréquent aux                  Associations de femmes commerçantes des dix
     formés                          centres de santé                       communes d'Abidjan
    Nombre de bénéficiaires        Adoption des                          Associations de jeunes agriculteurs de la région du
     touchés                         méthodes de                            centre de la Côte d'Ivoire
    Nombre de visites de            prévention et de                      Fédération des handicapés de Côte d'Ivoire
     supervision                     protection                            Groupes d'enfants en difficulté (enfants de la rue)
    Nombre de spots                Stabilité des cellules                Association des femmes libres
     publicitaires diffusés          de sensibilisation                    Groupement de femmes résidant dans les quartiers
    Nombre d'ateliers              Appropriation des                      précaires d'Abidjan
     organisés                       programmes                            Association de Bingerville
    Nombre de supports                                                
     pédagogiques distribués                                          Partenariat en cours d'établissement:
    Nombre de séances
     d'animation organisées                                               Fédération des Transporteurs de Côte d'Ivoire
                                                                          Fédération des hôteliers
                                                                          Association des jeunes de la commune d'Abidjan

                                                                      Affiliations:
                                                                            COSCI : Collectif des ONGs de la Santé de Côte
                                                                             d'Ivoire
                                                                            CONGACI: Collectif des ONGs Actives de Côte
                                                                             d'Ivoire
                                                                            RIOF: Réseau Ivoirien des Organisations Féminines
                                                                            RIPS/AJ: Réseau Ivoirien pour la Promotion de la
                                                                             Santé Reproductive et Sexuelle des Adolescents et
                                                                             des Jeunes




Discussion
Q: This presentation showed a completely different angle but is very important. In the discussion around diseases, is
there a priority listing? A: it depends on what people bring up. We often discuss malaria and aids. Always we
emphasize care for the environment (around the houses). We work in micro-financing to help women improve their
living conditions. Often the women have no money to buy drugs and bednets as sometimes they do not even have
enough money to buy food.




                                                              11
Q: You reported on the creation of communication cells – why would you invent new structures and not build on
existing organizations? A: Our structure does not disrupt existing organizations, we only take care of the technical
side, supervise monthly and check if reports are correct. We profit from village workers already trained in a certain
domain. We also get feedback from field workers on how to address communities.



CAMEROON

1. Surveillance of P. falciparum sensitivity to antimalarials in an agricultural company (Hevecam)
(Surveillance de la sensibilité de P. falciparum aux médicaments anti-paludéens dans une exploitation agricole
(Hevecam))
Roger Moyou

The statistics of the MOPH of Cameroon indicate that malaria represents 50% of morbidity in children below 5 years of age, 30-
40% of deaths in health services, 30% of hospital admissions, 26% of working days lost, and 40% of family health expenses. The
situation is worse in agro- industrial companies where a high productivity is expected from each worker. The control of malaria
is a priority of the health authorities in Hevecam, a rubber plantation situated in the rain forest zone of Cameroon with a global
population of 30,000 inhabitants including workers and their dependants.

Several control measures were proposed including the use of ITN for vector control and proper malaria cases management. The
latter could be done only through a surveillance of P. falciparum sensitivity. In 2000, the results were as follows:
     the chloroquine resistance level was very high in plantations (61%)
     amodiaquine and pyronaridine resistance levels were low (17.6% and 10.5% respectively)
     3 isolates showed a decreased efficacy for quinine (80% efficacy)

The following recommendations were made to the health authorities of the plantation to help them improve malaria case
management and reduce the loss of working days of company workers:
    amodiaquine should replace chloroquine as first line treatment for malaria
    quinine should be used as 2nd line treatment and for complicated cases.


Discussion
Q: Which definitions of resistance did you use? A: Those proposed by WHO.
Q: Which product will you use in severe cases of malaria? A: Quinine.
Q: Were all drugs used in the same form (e.g. tablets) and were placebo‟s used? A: All products were used in the
form they are normally consumed. We did not use placebos. We only used tested drugs in in vivo studies.
Q: What is your experience with paludrine in your country? A: This is not available in Cameroon.

 2. Impact of rice cultivation on malaria transmission in an irrigated zone at the far north of Cameroon
(Impact de la riziculture sur la transmission du paludisme dans une zone irriguée de l‟extrême Nord du Cameroun)
Etjienne Fondjo

Discussion
Comment: In this presentation rice growing is shown to increase malaria, but swamps will still be there, providing
breeding sites for mosquitoes. Irrigation improved the socioeconomic situation and herewith health protection.
Comment: The same conclusion can be drawn for other countries, rice production increases mosquito breeding but
with higher income, people can buy bednets and medication. However, in the same villages there might also be a
low income group without these options. The income and purchasing power of different groups is a factor that
needs to be considered.



                                                               12
Q: Were data collected on ownership and the use of bednets? A: Accessibility to nets is no problem in this area, we
just need to encourage use of nets. More than 80% of the people use bednets. The Ministry of Health promotes their
impregnation. The first thing to do is to convince people to use the bednet, the second is to convince them to use an
impregnated one.



GHANA

1. Malaria situation and Roll Back Malaria initiative in Ghana (Paludisme : états des lieux et l‟initiative “faire
reculer le paludisme” au Ghana)
Agatha Bonney

Discussion
Q: Do you have any data on non-treated nets and its effect? A: 12.3% of the population in total use bednets, all
treated. Not much work has been done on bednets in general for Ghana, only some studies by Binka.
Comment: Recent work in the Gambia showed the effect of treated versus non-treated nets. This showed that a non-
treated net in good condition had only half the impact compared to a treated net.
Q: Have there been studies on impregnated window screens? A: People often use non-treated window screens, but
they are mainly found with wealthy families. Not much research has been done on the effectiveness. For example, if
the door opens, mosquitoes can come in and the measure fails.

2. Irrigation and health issues in Ghana (Les questions de l‟irrigation et de la santé au Ghana)
Sampson Agodzo

1. INTRODUCTION
    Ghana: 23.9 million ha; 18.5 million people; 13.1 million arable land; 6,400-10,000 ha irrigated land.
    Formal sector irrigation had until now little impact on Ghana’s food security.

2. IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN GHANA
Ghana Irrigation Development Authority established by a Supreme Military Council Decree (SMCD 85) in 1977 and given the
following functions to perform:
    To formulate plans for the development of irrigation in the country.
    To execute comprehensive programs for the effective use of irrigated land in cooperation with other agencies involved in
     providing extensive services to farmers.
    To carry out land use planning in areas earmarked for development in order to conserve the soil and water resources in
     those areas.
    To lay out the outline of each project area for housing purposes and for the provision of other social amenities.
    To cooperate with other agencies for safe-guarding the health and safety of all people living within and around irrigation
     project areas.
    To undertake such other activities as are incidental or conducive to the discharge of its functions under this decree.

3. HEALTH ISSUES IN IRRIGATION IN GHANA
   Impounded reservoirs and poor field water management provide breeding grounds for malaria.
   The state recognizes the need for health sector cooperation in irrigation.
   Engineering and agronomic aspects emphasized to the neglect of areas such as health.
   Among all the formal sector irrigation schemes developed in Ghana, only Bontanga Irrigation Scheme in the Tolon-
    Kunbumgu District of the Northern Region has a health center located in part of its office premises by the Ministry of
    Health. But even this did not happen as a conscientious cooperative effort between the irrigation authority and the health
    ministry.



                                                              13
    In general, hardly any health sector cooperation in irrigation development in Ghana.

4. CONCLUDING REMARKS
It is already known that there is a general link between health and work output but in Ghana, it is still difficult to establish a link
between irrigation development and water-related diseases as malaria. More knowledge of the extent of the problem will be
useful in the planning of general health delivery in the irrigated areas of Ghana.


3. KCCR and malaria in Ghana (KCCR et le paludisme au Ghana)
Thomas Kruppa

Discussion
Q: What is the explanation for variation of malaria prevalence from one year to the other, is there some pattern? A:
These are only preliminary results and cannot answer this question yet, we can hardly go beyond one season.
KCCR question: We would like assistance in finding mosquitoes for control for our PCR set up, who can help? A
Mali: we worked on the genetic composition of A. gambiae, we might be able to help you in this.

4. Preliminary investigations into possible insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae to 4 classes of
insecticides in 3 locations in the Ashanti Region of Ghana (Recherches préliminaires sur la résistance potentielle
de A. gambiae contre 4 classes d‟insecticide sur trois sites de la Région Ashanti au Ghana)
Kofi Owusu-Daako

Discussion
Q: Please use standard methodology, resistance studies should be executed on adult mosquitoes, using the
producer‟s dosage. A: Good comment, we will take it into consideration. This was just to show some initial work
done on the topic by students at the university and was intended to look at resistance of larval populations to
chemicals in the water.
Q: Why did you work on the 5th generation of mosquitoes? A: We used a standard protocol from the University of
Manchester. We preferred this „clean‟ collection of larvae instead of mixture fresh from the field. Fifth is just a
figure, we assume that genes are transmitted through 5 generations.

5. Impact of urban agriculture on the spread of malaria in West African cities (L‟impact de l‟agriculture
urbaine sur la propagation du paludisme dans les villes d‟Afrique de l‟Ouest)
Eveline Klinkenberg

Discussion
Q: Why do you not collaborate with appropriate organizations on the ground? A: We collaborate with more
organizations than listed and look for partners here to carry out studies in the other cities.
Q: Do you know the work we carried out in Bouaké, did you look at that? A: Not much material has been published,
I know one study from Bouaké but if you have additional documentation that would be very relevant. There are
some studies on peri-urban areas, most studies on urban malaria look at the rural urban radius along which malaria
decreases but there is little work done on the impact of urban agriculture on the urban malaria transmission.
Q: Do you link up with SIUPA? Would you include peri-urban dairy? If so, ILRI might be interested. As you go out
to collect insects, please use the opportunity to ask laborers how many days they miss out for malaria. A: We do
have contacts with SIUPA, also for other projects IWMI is doing on urban agriculture. Information on the number of
days lost due to malaria is included in a questionnaire at household level, as well as cost spent on health care.
Q: What is the protocol for measuring malaria? A: This is still being discussed, because many people carry malaria
parasites but are not ill. So we need better indicators, perhaps through questionnaires in hospitals. Literature also
shows a lot of controversy on this topic.


                                                                  14
Comment: Next month in Kampala there is a special seminar on larval control (part of the congress of African
Health Sciences), Christian Lengeler will be there who is setting up urban malaria work in Dar Es Salaam.
Comment: We really need good data on urban vectors in Nigeria. Earlier studies show that 10% of night catches in
Lagos are Anopheles. It would be good to include Lagos in the study.
Comment: We do too many questionnaires, bothering people with the same questions. Perhaps we can profit from
earlier studies and re-interpret data from other vaguer questions – we do not always know whether the loss in work
is caused by malaria.
Comment: We need a working definition for malaria, perhaps based on symptoms, or on a treatment applied.
Comment: We are working to save lives, we may not need hard core genetic proof of malaria, simple diagnosis may
be sufficient.



NIGERIA

1. Exploring perceptions about malaria in some rural communities in Kaduna State, Nigeria: A gender
perspective on agriculture and malaria (La perception du paludisme dans des villages ruraux de la province de
Kaduna, Nigeria: Une approche genre pour l‟étude de l‟agriculture et du paludisme)
John Dada

Discussion
Q: The goal is that 10% of the households use bednets. Did you link this to absence from school by children? A: We
have many family members per household, if 1 in 10 households would use bednets this would be a big
improvement compared to zero before. We want the families to use the only bednet they might have for the children.
This is also included in extension activities, we provide micro-finance to buy nets.
Q: If 1 out of 10 households has at least 1 net, how did you establish whether or not this net was treated, did you
collaborate with RBM or other organizations? A: We obtained bednets from the Health sector, we work in
collaboration with the local Council of Health.
Q: People have different perceptions and definitions of malaria, such as disease, parasitaemia, spleen index, and
symptoms. With this complex case definition of malaria it is not strange that people do not see the link between
mosquitoes and malaria. Do they see any link between mosquitoes and negative health impacts? Did you study how
the perception of malaria is linked to behavior? A: We compared understanding of the link malaria-mosquito to
understanding the link aids-sexual behavior. Understanding of the first is better, but people have a hard time
understanding that such a tiny insect can cause diseases. We want to discuss this with them around bednet use.
Comment: The scenario presented is not necessarily applicable to entire Nigeria.

2. Agricultural research at IAR (La recherche agricole à l‟IAR)
E. Iwuafor

Discussion
Q: What medical people are you working with? A: Currently with the Institute for Health in the University, but it
would be good to collaborate with the Community Health Department.
Comment: The State Ministry of Health would also be interested.
Q: What is status of agricultural extension in Nigeria and could this be used for the dissemination of health
messages? A: We do not know much about health education. In agriculture there is a national extension outfit with
provincial units. This is an interesting idea, we can explore how these provincial agricultural units could collaborate
with similar services in the Ministry of Health.




                                                          15
3. NISER and its potential to contribute to research on malaria and agriculture (La capacité du NISER à
participer à la recherche sur le paludisme et l‟agriculture)
S. O. Akande

4. Situation paper on the research activities of the malaria research group, college of medicine, University of
Ibadan (Les activités du groupe de recherche sur le paludisme de l‟école supérieure de médecine, Université
d‟Ibadan)
R. A. Sanusi and O. M. Bolaji

INTRODUCTION
   Malaria remains a major public health problem in many endemic areas of the world especially in Africa.
   The disease is responsible for 300-500 million clinical cases particularly children each year in the world.
   Treatment of malaria with conventional or traditional drugs and environmental control seem to be the only viable options
    for the management of the disease.
   The rising incidence and spread of chloroquine or drug resistant P. falciparum infections now constitute a huge impediment
    to effective and adequate chemotherapy of malaria.
   There is an urgent need to develop new anti-malaria drugs utilizing ethno-pharmacology and traditional uses of herbal
    remedies.
   There is also the need to device new strategies for the management of the disease based on the cultural background of the
    community.

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
In seeking better management and effective chemotherapy of malaria, the Malaria Research Group (MRG) of CM, University of
Ibadan has focused research on :
    Home management of childhood malaria.
    Identification and isolation of bioactive anti-malarials from the Nigerian phyto-medicine compendium.
    Inter-sectoral management of drug resistant malaria.
These research projects are sponsored by WHO/TDR funds.

RESULTS
Studies have shown that:
    Health providers for the management of malaria include orthodox health centers, patent medicine sellers and traditional
     healers.
    In rural areas, fathers (majority of whom are farmers) make the decision on the type of health care facility to be consulted
     by mothers of children with malaria. They also provide the funds for treatment.
    Agricultural activities especially processing of cassava could play a role in the transmission of malaria.
    Plants and plant products are used for the preparation of herbal remedies as anti-malarials.

PROPOSED AREAS OF COLLABORATION WITH SIMA
  Finding best practices for malaria control
  Developing anti-mosquito and anti-malaria plant products


Discussion
Q: The university discovered effective malaria treatment plants – are farmers using these? Can we stay close to how
the farmers apply these? A: We try to find the active compound, see if the plants are effective, but we use the same
way of application as farmers do.
Comment: Some of the plant species could be wiped out, CG-centers can jump in here to see how we can protect
these plants.



                                                               16
Comment: There is a very rich indigenous knowledge available locally on useful medicinal plants, even for the
treatment of aids. This is an important research area.
Comment: In Mali, the forestry department is working on medicinal plants and traditional knowledge of plants, one
aspect is on local medicinal plants for malaria. It is important to look at what is now being used and also what could
be used for malaria control. We would be interested in a joint project to find and develop anti-malaria and anti-
mosquito plants and products. It is important to survey in all countries plants of medicinal values.
Comment: Similar data are available for Senegal.
Q: Are you just monitoring the local way of applying traditional medication or will you intervene when people do
harmful things or if the medication is not working? A: If the medication is ineffective, we immediately intervene by
providing effective drugs.
Q: In similar studies we fear secondary effects. How long should we monitor to determine whether these effects
appear? A: In other studies we see toxicological effects of food (products) such as maize. We do eco-toxicological
studies to monitor these possible effects. We look at different parameters, but need long term studies. Many herbal
medicine have been used by communities for ages and it seems that long term toxicological effects have not
occurred. If adverse effects are found it should be communicated to the communities.
Q: Are there studies to understand the role of medicinal plants in agriculture? The plant should have a useful
agricultural application in order to be accepted by the farmers. A: Here we need collaboration with SIMA, to find
other uses for medicinal plants to ensure continuation of cultivation.
Q: Are you aware of anti-mosquito plants? A: Yes, we found those, and pharmacologists are now working on it. We
know that certain plants are being used as repellents around houses.
Q: Would there be more plants like that? In other countries? A: Often there is a lot of suspicion on the use of these
plants, especially with physicians. They are reluctant to accept plants, e.g. because of non-specificity. Herbalists do
not always document their findings very well. A lot of knowledge is available but not well documented and not
scientifically proven. Often the right dose is not known.
Q: In Ghana, plants are often effective against a broad range of diseases. How do we know that it is malaria that is
being cured? A: We have the same problem in Nigeria, but malaria is our focus. If malaria is included in the range
of disease it is proposed to cure, we take it to the lab and investigate if parasites react to it. If it works we keep it; if
not, we leave it.

5. Best practices in malaria control (Les bonnes pratiques pour lutter contre le paludisme)
M. E. Monsanya and C. N. Amadjo

Discussion
Q: There might be deficiencies e.g. G6PD in people, causing low tolerance for medication. We should be careful in
administring drugs to people without knowing this condition. How should we go about this? Editors’ comment:
G6PD deficiency is a problem when primaquine is used, which is a very uncommon drug in Africa.
Comment: If somebody comes in with an episode of malaria, a treatment will be applied, without knowing the blood
status. Especially in rural areas we do not always have the means or the time to carry out these types of analysis. We
just treat and see how it goes, especially since the deficiency condition is rare.
Q: I wonder if the availability of drugs is the problem – what about fake drugs, might this be much more serious? A:
We have looked at this. If you consider resistance, fake drugs should be taken into account. In the south they have
many fake drugs, which may be responsible for increased resistance. We are working on a warning campaign, to
show each day in the Nigerian papers, which drugs are real ones and which ones are fake. We also propose to
develop a specific sign for drug stores to indicate that they do not sell fake drugs.
Comment: WHO has a protocol for testing medication before it is made available on the market, including blood
slides. The figures quoted in resistance studies are real numbers when WHO protocols have been followed.




                                                             17
State-of-the-art papers (CG/Others)

The Johns Hopkins University Cameroon Program and its potential to contribute to research on malaria and
agriculture (Le programme Cameroun de l‟Université Johns Hopkins et ses atouts pour contribuer à la recherche
sur l‟agriculture et le paludisme)
Nathan Wolfe (Johns Hopkins University)

Malaria Research by the Health Consortium at WARDA (La recherche sur le paludisme par le Consortium de
Santé au WARDA)
Frank Abamu (WARDA)

EPHTA Benchmark areas and its potentials for SIMA activities (Sites de référence EPHTA et leurs atouts pour
les activités SIMA)
Victor Manyong and Dyno Keatinge (IITA)

Malaria research at IWMI (La recherche sur le paludisme à l‟IWMI)
Eline Boelee (IWMI)

The malaria program of USAID (Le programme paludisme de l‟USAID)
Matthew Lynch (USAID)




Identification of regional priorities
The participants were divided, according to their preferences, in four groups for each of the four SIMA themes. The
groups were asked to discuss and prioritize the research issues for the region within the specific SIMA theme. The
resulting priorities were presented in a plenary session and discussed with all participants.

Theme 1 Agriculture-Malaria Links
A thorough understanding of the nature and dynamics of agro-ecosystems in relation to malaria transmission is a prerequisite to
develop interventions for reducing malaria while increasing agricultural productivity. SIMA research will make use of the
knowledge already available on ecological and socio-economic determinants of malaria transmission, and link this with
established knowledge on agro-ecosystems. Detailed field based research will be needed to further quantify relationships. The
information generated on agro-ecological and socio-economic risk factors for malaria transmission will also support current
global efforts to establish malaria risk maps. The expertise within agricultural research centers on GIS, remote sensing and
modeling will greatly assist in analyses of spatial and temporal dynamics of malaria. In this way agro-ecological systems will be
characterized with respect to biophysical, social and economic determinants of malaria risk.


Group members
John Dada, Emmanuel Iwuafor, Roger Moyou, Nathan Wolfe, Kofi Owusu-Daaku, Etienne Fondjo, Adama Dao,
M. Tindo, O. Oyeleye, Y. Jussuf, Kerstin Hell, Eveline Klinkenberg, Frank Abamu

The group distinguished three main topics under which they defined research issues. These were prioritized by
numbers, other priorities discussed were noted.




                                                               18
LANDSCAPE CHANGES
1. Impact of land cover changes (habitat changes) on vector ecology, transmission and morbidity – causes of land
   cover change: deforestation, microclimate change, slash and burn, bush fires (forest/savanna) and
   environmental impact
2. Impact of urban/peri-urban agriculture on urban malaria transmission cycles

Other topics discussed:
urbanization – drainage systems, electrification; road building ; agro-ecology and malaria vectors ; plantations
around the house – which plants attract and which plants repel (is covered under Theme 4)

WATER MANAGEMENT
1. Creation of artificial water bodies (drainage, agro-processing (e.g. cassava), (sand) mining, fishing practices –
    ponds, small dams, livestock dams)
2. Irrigation
3. Household water management (rainwater harvesting)
Other topic discussed: Rain-fed agriculture

CROP/LIVESTOCK PRACTICES
1. Agricultural insecticide management (IPM, resistance, pest management systems) and impact on malaria, public
   health
2. Environmental management - increase/decrease of malaria (cropping patterns, cropping cycles, planting density,
   tillage, crop architecture, crop rotation, planting time)
3. Human behavioral patterns (living on farm /living in village, seasonality, seasonal workers, nomadic
   agriculture)
4. Crop/livestock integration (fishponds, zoo-prophylaxis)

Discussion
Q: When listing burning, caution is needed, using bush fire may be a threat to the environment. A: it was not
suggested as a control measure. We implied that in places where bush fires/savanna burning occurs, the environment
changes. What happens to the malaria vector, how are these zones different from a malaria point of view?
Comment: We should try to determine which agricultural practices impact positively or negatively to malaria
transmission.

Theme 2: Best Practices for Malaria Control
Agricultural and natural resource management practices impact on malaria transmission by either increasing or decreasing the
risk of disease. These practices have been described in general terms but what is still lacking is a stratification and identification
of ecological settings, which favor various technical approaches, or combination of interventions. This includes consideration of
the local vector species. SIMA research will identify and demonstrate specific interventions that will reduce the incidence of
malaria. SIMA will be in a position to document as well as evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of interventions in specific
agro-ecological settings.

There is a growing international concern on the use of agrochemicals and their linkages to human health. This includes
environmental health concerns and concerns for cross-resistance of malaria vector mosquitoes to agrochemicals. Further
knowledge on this link is needed to form the basis for follow-up on international conventions such as the Convention on
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS) and to provide knowledge-based guidelines for safeguards on public health. The
international community has accordingly called upon researchers in agriculture and health to jointly identify alternative methods
for the control of insect pests. SIMA will complement existing initiatives in the CGIAR and other international research centers in
the development of sustainable strategies for pest and vector control.




                                                                 19
Only limited scientific data exist on the link between farming systems, human behavior and exposure to malaria. For instance,
certain farming systems could lead to differential exposure of individuals to mosquito bites, encourage the seasonal migration to
malaria prone areas or make the use of protective interventions such as bed nets less feasible for some members of an
agricultural community. Collaboration between malaria control experts and sociologists and anthropologists will help to identify
specific risk behaviors linked to various production systems.

Group members
Sylvain Dossa, Thomas Kruppa, Chioma Amajoh, Yaya Coulibally, Mamadou Diomande, Sampson Agodzo,
Matthew Lynch

- Increasing awareness of households and policy makers
      households: role of mosquitoes as vectors, breeding sites, symptoms of malaria, control measures
          (indigenous and orthodox), appropriate use of insecticides
      policy makers: documenting economic burden, cost of interventions

- Improved agricultural practices
     improved field water management
     planting rice varieties that use less water
     mixed farming (crops + animals

- Agricultural use of pesticides and vector resistance

- Understanding vector ecology and epidemiology of malaria in different ecological zones

- Identification of urban and peri-urban breeding sites

- Improvement of distribution network of malaria control commodities (eg. ITN) linked to agricultural commodities

- Improved household practices
     use of ITN
     use of mosquito repellent plants
     seasonality: temporary farm settlements (use of ITN)

- Increased use of biological control

Discussion
Q: Have you seen any best practices, can you give examples? A: The group proposes to look at water management,
e.g. improved use of water, remove pools, use less water, increase yield as one way of controlling malaria.
Q: On awareness raising: there is not much data on the effect of health education, whether this leads to actual
changes in behavior. A: We may need to work with NGO‟s to qualify the type of intervention and state which ones
are indeed best practices.
Suggestion: Regarding agricultural practices, consider also inter-cropping, you may get rid of excessive water by
careful crop selection and also contribute to better nutrition. For example if you alternate rice with dry land crop this
can also improve the diet. What is the best combination of crops to help control malaria? Which plants would give
the best nutritional protection? A: It will not be possible to identify the one best practice, but there could be a best
combinations of practices. If there are no very good measures, we should look for a minimum package of measures
that would control malaria.



                                                               20
Comment: We need to know whether the low use of bednets has an economical or a sociological background.
Comment: The relation to irrigated agriculture is linked to entomological factors such as longevity of mosquitoes.
Therefore it is important to study impact of practices on mosquito populations that not necessarily lead to more
malaria. Fish ponds might provide breeding sites or the fish could eat mosquito larvae. Perhaps this is a good idea
for rice fields: introduce larvivorous fish in rice ponds or plant rice in fish ponds.

Theme 3: Malaria’s Influence on Productivity and Food Security
Current information on the negative impact of malaria on household food security, labor, and general investment in agriculture
is inadequate. Therefore, the impact of malaria on farming households’ food security and on agricultural productivity needs to
be determined under different geographical, social and agricultural production systems, to guide future interventions and policy
developments. Social and economic impact studies are needed to quantify the impact of malaria on agricultural productivity,
human nutrition, food security and poverty.

One of the obvious effects of agricultural development is the potential to improve the nutritional status of the people. CGIAR
Centers will be a key resource in studies on the agricultural and nutritional aspects, while the specific inputs on malaria could be
brought in both from within and outside the CGIAR system. An example of an area of research for which SIMA has a
comparative advantage is the possible effect of aflatoxins on malaria. These aflatoxins are related to storage problems of maize
and other staple foods and appear to have important effects on human and animal health by suppressing the immune system.

Another group of research topics under this theme concerns the linkages between malaria and the socioeconomic status at
household and community level. This would include the effect of malaria on the productive base and well being, as well as the
contribution of increased income through agricultural development activities on malaria prevention and care.


Group members
Agatha Bonney, Frank Abamu, S. O. Akande, Dyno Keatinge, Koffi Amegbeto, Assomption Hounsa, Victor
Manyong, Omer Mensah, B. Ouattara, Denis Ouedraogo, and R. A. Sanusi

INTRODUCTION
1. Malaria has a negative effect on labor productivity through direct and indirect effects:
 Overall loss of hours of labor
 Loss of labor at key period of demand
 General loss of effectiveness during disease
 Loss of female labor due to child and adult health care needs
 Substitution of adult with child or hired labor

2. Malaria has a negative effect on food security
 Availability of food for all members of family, country all year round.
 Quantity
 Quality
 Accessibility

3. Malaria has a negative effect on income distribution and poverty (particularly in rural area)

RESEARCH PRIORITIES
 Extent of Malaria effects on productivity
 Extent of Malaria effects on household financial resources
 Labor saving devices and their effectiveness in the village/household contact
 Gender dimension of Malaria impact on labor productivity



                                                                21
   Ex-ante study of Malaria impact at national and regional level
   Nutritional status of farming household and the incidence/prevalence of Malaria

Discussion
Comment: I propose to add the impact of malaria on wealth creation.
Q: Shouldn‟t we also add the poverty dimension and child education (# schooldays lost)? A: We considered the
child as an aspect of the study on the impact on labor productivity. If the child is not part of the labor force, there is
still an impact because of the time spent by the mother to take care of her sick child.
Q: You could include another element of the child dimension: the replacement of a child in the labor force. Children
can replace adults that are sick. A: Pregnant women and under five‟s are considered as a separate group, therefore
we want to emphasize the rest of the population.

Theme 4 Anti-mosquito and Anti-malaria Products
During the consultative process SIMA was encouraged to assist in the evaluation of the medicinal value of plants known to have
either anti-parasitic or larvicidal properties. The CGIAR’s expertise in conserving plant genetic material and in the
identification of optimal cultivation practices for use at the community level, was regarded as an obvious advantage. The need to
assess the impact of agricultural development on plants with medicinal, insecticidal or repellent value has been underscored by
various partners. SIMA would complement research efforts of other initiatives already involved in the evaluation of ethno-
botanical products such as the Research Initiative on Traditional Anti-malarial Methods (RITAM), especially with regard to the
scaling-up process leading to community uptake of various technologies.


Group members
Sidibé Daouda, Emmanuel Tia, O. M. Bolaji , Marie-Agnès Zoumenou, M. E. Mosanya

1. Evaluation of medicinal plants and insecticides
     survey of plants
     efficacy study
     toxicological studies of plants
     analysis of plants for identification of active ingredients
     genetic studies of identified plants for gene bank
     establish links with existing research organizations dealing with phyto-medicine

2. Establish herbarium for our identified plants for conservation
     herbarium in communities where plants have been identified
     It is difficult to get the knowledge and collaboration of healers. They must be involved and convinced.
         Identify the head or spokesman of the healers and discuss with him as a partner. In an earlier study the team
         told the healer “that we are here to help, not to take your knowledge”. This indicated that sociological
         studies are needed and all the sensibilities should be taken into account. A multidisciplinary team is needed.
         Use the potential disappearance of medicinal plants to convince healers or propose some alternative plants.
         At any stage we still need the confidence of healers. Concoction does not last long so it could be good to
         tell healers to find out techniques to preserve concoctions.
     To investigate the effect of conventional fertilizers on medicinal plants properties

3. Assess the impact of agricultural practices on medicinal plants
     evolve a system which discourage shifting cultivation




                                                               22
Discussion
Q: What about the cultivation of already identified plants that are useful in malaria control? There is a formal
collection of plants available in Nigeria. A: Cultivation is exactly what was meant under herbarium: this should
stimulate the cultivation of those plants, identify where land should be made available etc.
Q: There have been several projects in the past with short lasting successes, reason of this lack of sustainability was
that end users were not really involved in planning from the beginning. So where will the farmers come in? Farmers
should acceptit as their own project to guarantee sustainability. A: Community research: make them give the
suggestion, give them the feeling that they own the project. We should not try to impose projects on communities. If
communities do not participate in planning and dissemination, the project will not last.
Comment: This type of research can best be done multidisciplinary so that all the expertise is available.
Q: Are you going to develop commercial opportunities for farmers? A: This will depend on the ultimate aim of the
group. If there is a company that wants to buy research products for commercial exploitation, this might be arranged.
Q: A literature research / documentation component is missing. We should be careful not to re-invent the wheel.
Careful review of existing knowledge is important. A: After literature search, before going to the community, we
should first investigate if it is really a medicinal plant.
Comment: if you identify a medicinal plant, maybe it could be integrated in day to day food seeking activities for
communities, for example ginger is said to work as a mosquito repellent, if this is true you could promote cooking
with it and growing it etc.
Comment: A network is absolutely needed to list plants for malaria control and for mosquito repellent activity. In
every country there will be somebody who studies it, this available knowledge should be exploited. This could be
developed into a list of say 5 plants that people should plant in their garden. Comment: Intellectual property rights
should be in place. Editors’ comment: This is why SIMA proposes collaboration with RITAM, the Research
Initiative on Traditional Anti-malarial Methods.



SIMA projects

Dr. Clifford Mutero explained the set up of SIMA projects with respect to donor funding. Small grants are arranged
directly with the donors, but in consultation with SIMA. Proposals should be based on the identified regional
priorities. The end goal for the workshop is a general concept note or proposal outline, which can be transformed
into big, medium, or small grants proposal. The SIMA coordinator is to give feedback on communication with
donors.



Research Questions

The thematic working groups addressed the research priorities under each theme and worked to translate these into
research questions, sometimes in small sub-groups. This is the complete list of questions and sub-questions, as
developed by the participants for each theme.

Theme 1
1.   What is the impact of deforestation on vector ecology and parasite distribution in different ecologies? (e.g.
     Cameroon bench mark area IITA and others)
2.   Does (peri) urban agriculture modify the pattern of urban transmission of malaria (crop types, ecology)
3.   Does agro-processing increase malaria risk?



                                                          23
4.    Do small water enclosures like livestock dams, fishponds, small dams, soil/sand mining ponds etc. increase
      malaria risk?
5.    What are the mechanisms behind decreased malaria prevalence in areas with increased vector density in
      irrigated rice areas?
6.    What is the impact of tillage on vector ecology?
7.    What is the impact of cropping pattern on vector ecology?
8.    What is the impact of planting density/time on vector ecology?
9.    How does agricultural pesticide use affect resistance of malaria vectors? (more specific: Does increased use of
      pesticides in cash crops increase malaria vector resistance?
10.   Can the development of IPM options affect malaria vector control?
11.   Does off or on farm living affect patterns in malaria prevalence?
12.   Do seasonal living patterns have an impact on malaria prevalence, e.g. safe-guarding of crops?
13.   Does crop/livestock integration affect malaria vector distribution?

Theme 2
1.    Which are the appropriate communication tools to raise awareness in malaria control?
2.    What are the results of improved field water management on crop yield, vector density and malaria transmission
      in West Africa?
3.    Can the development of rice varieties that use less water lead to reduction in vector density and malaria
      transmission in West Africa?
4.    What are the benefits and risks of human health with mixed farming?
5.    What is the role of agricultural pesticide use in the occurrence of malaria vector resistance in West Africa?
6.    What is the current malaria vector distribution in each ecological zone in West Africa?
7.    How do you improve the use of household practices on the use of ITN?
8.    What is the effect of ITN use in combination with repellent plants on malaria control?

Theme 3
1.    What is the impact of malaria on agricultural productivity and efficiency of production with specific reference
      to labor?
2.    How does malaria affect generation and use of financial resources at the farm household level?

Theme 4
1.    Will the functioning of a research laboratory on the therapeutic and toxic qualities of the active ingredients of
      anti-malarial plants collected in Benin reduce the incidence of malaria?
2.    Will insecticide-producing plants and repellent plants prove to be effective against malaria carrying vectors?
3.    How to domesticate some selected anti-malarial and anti-mosquito plants in West Africa?
4.    Do certain selected plants from phyto-medicine compendium exhibit anti-malaria and anti-mosquito activities
      and are they safe for use?

These 27 research questions were then selected and grouped by the organizing committee. Questions outside the
scope of SIMA, as well as questions that have already been answered in previous studies, were deleted. A list of 12
questions remained, which were used to compile new groups or rather teams, based on the interest of the
participants. Eventually a total of nine research questions served as a starting point for group discussions on concept
notes or proposal outlines.




                                                          24
COMPILATION OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Do artificially created water bodies (e.g. livestock dams, fishponds, small dams, mining ponds, agro-processing
    ponds) increase malaria risk?
2. Do certain selected plants in West Africa contain therapeutic and toxic qualities against malaria parasites and
    vectors and are they safe for use?
3. Do seasonal (or daily) living patterns (sleeping on/off the farm) have on impact on malaria prevalence?
4. Does (peri) urban agriculture modify the pattern of malaria transmission?
5. Does increased use of pesticides or alternatives such as IPM in agriculture affect malaria vector resistance?
6. How to domesticate some selected anti-malarial and anti-mosquito plants in West Africa?
7. What are the mechanisms behind decreased malaria prevalence in areas with increased vector density in
    irrigated rice areas?
8. What are the results of improved field water management on crop yield, vector density and malaria transmission
    in West Africa?
9. What is the impact of agricultural practices (e.g. tillage, rotation, mixed farming, livestock, cropping pattern,
    planting density, cropping calendar) on vector ecology and malaria transmission?
10. What is the impact of land coverage clearing for agriculture (e.g. deforestation, bush fires) on vector ecology
    and parasite distribution in different ecological zones?
11. What is the impact of malaria on agricultural productivity and on generation and use of financial resources at
    the farm household level?
12. Will insecticide-producing plants and repellent plants (in combination with the use of ITN) prove to be effective
    in reducing malaria transmission?



COMPILATION DES QUESTIONS DE RECHERCHE
1. Est-ce que les points d‟eau artificiels (barrages pour l'abreuvage du cheptel, bassins de pisciculture, petites
    retenues d‟eau, mares, points d‟eau pour la transformation des produits agro-industrielles et pour des décharges
    minières) aggravent le risque du paludisme ?
2. Est-ce que certaines espèces de plantes d‟Afrique de l‟Ouest possèdent des qualités thérapeutiques et
    toxicologiques salutaires particulières pour lutter contre les parasites et les vecteurs du paludisme ? Peuvent-
    elles être utilisées sans danger ?
3. Est-ce que les modes de vie saisonniers (ou quotidiens) consistant à dormir, ou non, sur la ferme ont un impact
    sur la prévalence du paludisme ?
4. Est-ce que l‟agriculture péri urbaine altère les rythmes de transmission du paludisme ?
5. Est-ce qu‟une utilisation accrue de pesticides (ou de produits alternatifs, comme l‟IPM) a un impact sur la
    résistance des vecteurs paludéens?
6. Comment « domestiquer » des espèces végétales sélectionnées pour leur propriétés anti-moustiques et anti-
    paludéennes en Afrique de l‟Ouest ?
7. Quels mécanismes expliquent la réduction de la prévalence du paludisme dans les zones de culture de riz irrigué
    où la densité des vecteurs paludéens augmente ?
8. Quels sont les impacts d‟une amélioration de la gestion de l‟eau agricole sur les rendements, sur la densité des
    vecteurs paludéens et sur la transmission du paludisme en Afrique de l‟Ouest ?
9. Quel est l‟impact des pratiques agricoles (labour, rotation, polyculture, élevage, répartition des cultures, densité
    des cultures, calendrier des récoltes) sur l'écologie du vecteur paludéen et sur la transmission du paludisme ?
10. Qu‟est-ce qu‟est l‟impact de la suppression du couvert végétal à des fins agricoles (déboisement, feu de
    brousse) sur l'écologie du vecteur paludéen et sur la distribution du parasite dans différentes zones écologiques ?
11. Quel est l'impact du paludisme sur la productivité agricole et sur la génération et l‟utilisation des ressources
    financières au niveau du foyer agricole ?


                                                          25
12. Les plantes produisant naturellement des substances insecticides (ou qui repoussent naturellement les insectes),
    utilisées conjointement avec des filets anti-moustiques peuvent-elles être efficaces pour réduire la transmission
    du paludisme ?

These research questions summarize the research priorities for West and Central Africa and are posted on the SIMA
website for future reference. The questions can be used as points of departure for project proposals by all SIMA
partners and collaborators.



Concept Notes
All SIMA concept notes have to follow a standard lay out to provide the outline for a future project proposals. In
addition to the Concept Notes developed at the workshop, some teams handed in research ideas that they had
developed earlier.

Matthew Lynch (USAID) gave a short presentation on the EHP program of USAID as an example of a possible
donor. This program offers interesting opportunities for small projects. The concept notes the participants developed
at the workshop will mostly be for bigger proposals, but for small projects, participants were invited to apply for
these EHP grants. The project should focus on malaria and agriculture, based on community work. More
information on these grants at www.iwmi.org/sima/grants1.htm.

All concept notes developed during the SIMA Stakeholder Consultation for West and Central Africa are listed
below. For each concept note, the title or research question is mentioned, together with the names of the authors and
the details of the contact person. The concept notes are still under development or being reviewed. Once approved,
the concept notes will be posted on the SIMA website http://www.cgiar.org/iwmi/sima/CNs.htm.

A. Do certain selected plants in West Africa contain therapeutic and toxic qualities against malaria parasites
   and vectors and are they safe for use?
   Developed by O. M. Bolaji (Nigeria) and M.-A. Zoumenou (Benin)
   Contact person: O. M. Bolaji, email: olabolaji@onebox.com

B. Le rythme de vie des agro-éleveurs a-t-il un impact sur la prévalence du paludisme en Afrique de l’Ouest?
   (Do seasonal (or daily) living patterns (sleeping on/off the farm) have on impact on malaria prevalence?)
   Developed (in French) by S. C. Dossa (Benin) and and B. Ouattara (Côte d‟Ivoire)
   Contact person: Sylvain C. Dossa, email: sdossa@avu.org or inrabdg4@bow.intnet.bj

C. Does (peri) urban agriculture modify the pattern of malaria transmission?
   Developed by M. Lynch (USAID), A. Hounsa (IITA), A. Dao (Mali), T. Kruppa (Ghana), and E. Klinkenberg
   (IWMI)
   A large proposal to study the impact of urban agriculture on malaria in six West African cities has been
   developed by IWMI and collaborating partners; and this CN will be integrated in that proposal.
   Contact person: Eveline Klinkenberg, email: e.klinkenberg@cgiar.org

D. Pesticide Use in Agriculture and Impact on Resistance of Malarial Vectors: Implications for Public Health
   in West Africa
   Developed by K. Hell (IITA), Y. Coulibaly (Mali), K. Owusu-Daaku (Ghana), O. Oyeleye (Nigeria)
   Contact person: Kerstin Hell, email: k.hell@cgiar.org



                                                         26
E. What are the mechanisms behind decreased malaria prevalence in areas with increased vector density in
   irrigated rice areas?
   Developed by F. Abamu (WARDA) and E. Klinkenberg (IWMI)
   Contact person: Frank Abamu, email: f.abamu@cgiar.org
   This CN fits into another CN developed for SIMA by Olivier Briët (IWMI).

F. What are the results of improved field water management on crop yield, vector density and malaria
   transmission in West Africa?
   Developed by S. Agodzo (Ghana) and M. Diamondé (Côte d‟Ivoire)
   Contact person: Sampson Agodzo, email: skagodzo7@usa.net

G. Examination of the impact of agriculture associated deforestation on the epidemiology of malaria in the
   IITA forest benchmark area in Southern Cameroon.
   Developed by M. Tindo, R. Moyou, E. Fondjo and N. Wolfe (all Cameroon)
   Contact persons: Roger Moyou (scientific), email: roger_moyou@yahoo.fr; and Nathan Wolfe
   (communications), email: nwolfe@jhsph.edu.

H. Impact of malaria on agricultural productivity and farm household assets use in West and Central Africa
   Developed by O. Mensah (Benin), V. Manyong (IITA), J. Dada (Nigeria), R. A. Sanusi (Nigeria), D. Keatinge
   (IITA), K. Amegbeto (IITA), D. Ouedraogo (Burkina Faso), E. Iwuafor (Nigeria), F. Abamu (WARDA)
   Contact person: Omer Mensah, email: mensmer@hotmail.com

I. Effectiveness of a combination of repellent and insecticidal plants and ITN in malaria control
    Developed by C. N. Amajoh (Nigeria), S. Daouda (Mali), E. Tia (Côte d‟Ivoire) and A. Bonney (Ghana)
    Contact person: C. N. Amajoh, email: amajohc@yahoo.com




Acknowledgments

SIMA would like to thank IITA for hosting this second stakeholder consultation for West and Central Africa and
especially the efforts of the local organizer Victor Manyong and the indispensable help of Ms. Oluyem Nwoke. The
workshop would not have been a success without the facilitator Reid Whitlock, while communication was further
aided by smooth simultaneous translation of Ms Moudachirou and Mr Dia Cheik. Furthermore we are grateful to
USAID who together with IWMI made it financially possible to invite all the stakeholders. Anne Bichard assisted
with the French translations in these proceedings.




                                                       27
Appendix 1: SIMA Summary

Goal
To reduce malaria resulting in improved health and well being, increased agricultural productivity, and poverty alleviation.


Project Purpose
To develop and promote methods and tools for malaria control through improved agricultural practices and proper management
and utilization of natural resources. These will be based on scientifically documented interactions between agricultural
production systems and malaria, and will complement existing antimalarial approaches.



Output 1 - Identify, validate and demonstrate 'integrated antimalarial intervention portfolios' that will reduce the disease
in specific agro-ecosystem settings.
    Research will concentrate on a number of SIMA Benchmark Sites where agriculture intersects with malarial problems. These
     studies will identify and test combinations of anti-malarial interventions in real-life situations. Based on these findings, a
     series of „integrated antimalarial portfolios‟ will be developed that have proven effective to reduce malaria in specific
     conditions.
     An example of integrated intervention would be a combination of land preparation practices, the choice of crops and
     cropping patterns, appropriate small-scale irrigation approaches, education on the use of bed nets, and the use of medicinal
     and mosquito repellant plants.
    The socio-ecological (including gender) and local health-support systems currently in operation in malaria-affected areas
     will be reviewed and characterized.
    The SIMA research teams will validate malaria-control tools and practices (current and new approaches, and traditional
     practices).

     Indicators Output 1
    2003 to 2006 - SIMA interventions started at one SIMA Benchmark site each year.
    By 2006 - Evidence that projects at Benchmark Sites have been successful in achieving a substantial reduction in malaria
     incidence.


Output 2 - Build capacity and encourage the exchange of experience
   The core of SIMA‟s work centers on some 30-50 collaborative research projects over five years. These projects will create
    links between new colleagues in the agriculture, malaria/health and development communities. A longer-term impact of
    SIMA will be the creation of lasting ties between these three sectors to support the creation of integrated antimalarial
    policies at the national level. Gender balance will be an important aspect of national-level capacity building.
   Specific capacity-building components of SIMA include the following:
        A. Ph.D. program.
        A postdoctoral scientist program.
        Creating and delivering teaching and training materials for university courses and supporting the work of agricultural-
         extension and implementing NGOs.

     Indicators Output 2
    2002 to 2006 - At least one regional capacity-building workshop conducted each year.
    End 2003 - A set of teaching materials developed.
    2004 - National institutes in at least 8 countries using teaching materials.
    2003 to 2006 - At least four scientists from developing countries starting a Ph.D. or postdoctoral program each year as part
     of a SIMA project.


Output 3 - Create a knowledge base of practical information on agricultural solutions to malaria reduction.
   Create a body of new research knowledge on interactions between malaria and agriculture.
   Compile an inventory and scientific validation of existing research on malaria and make it available to all interested users.
   Publish and deliver practical information to the development and agricultural-extension communities and to agricultural and
    health-sector policy makers and implementers.




                                                                28
     Indicators Output 3
    2002 to 2006 - At least five research projects initiated each year.
    From 2003 onwards - Five research projects completed each year.
    2003 to 2006 - A comprehensive data-base compiled of existing knowledge on four research themes: agriculture-malaria
     links, best practices for malaria control, malaria‟s impact on agricultural productivity and household food security, and anti-
     mosquito and antimalarial products.


Output 4 - Increase awareness of the potential of environmental interventions to reduce malaria in the development,
agricultural and health communities.
    Implement an information and advocacy campaign to encourage the incorporation of malaria-reducing farming practices in
     development projects, agricultural/water interventions and health policies.
    SIMA researchers provide input to key malaria-strategy and -policy conferences on the yearly agriculture/ health/
     development calendar, by presenting papers and by representing SIMA on the relevant committees.

     Indicators Output 4
    2003 - Awareness activities defined and launched following a detailed international communications plan.
    2002 to 2006 - SIMA is represented at one major agricultural conference and one major health conference per year.
    2002 to 2006 - SIMA researchers sit on relevant national and international committees and policy bodies at national and
     international levels.
    2002 to 2005 - At least one authoritative state-of-the-art review per year will be completed on the malaria-agriculture
     relationship, in areas including urban agriculture, aquaculture, livestock, irrigation water management and small multi-
     purpose dams.


Output 5 - Build an international Malaria and Agriculture network.
   One of the important results of SIMA will be the creation of an active network of specialist organizations that will bring new
    skills and expertise to current antimalarial efforts. New malaria-reduction approaches brought by SIMA will be transferred
    to the malaria and health fields; agricultural research and extension; implementation and rural development; educational
    groups and community based-organizations.
   The purpose of the network is to serve as a change catalyst in malaria stricken countries, to help them create the agricultural
    policies and strategies that will reduce malaria in relevant areas.


Impacts

    Reduce malaria. Reducing malaria in high-risk areas and improving livelihoods for millions of poor people.

    Encourage antimalarial practices. Introducing and promoting changes in farming and social practices that significantly
     prevent or reduce malaria.

    Stimulate new policy thinking. Joint development and institutionalization of agro-ecosystem management strategies for
     malaria reduction among communities and national-agricultural and health-research programs in malaria-endemic countries.

    Build health/agriculture partnership. Partnerships between the agriculture and health sectors created on agro-ecosystem
     management for human health.

    Embed research findings. Embedding of research findings into national, development and public-health programs, the
     work and thinking of NGOs, community-based organizations (CBOs) and, through them, into the practices of local
     communities.


Duration
Five years: 2002- 2006.

Costs
US$ 22.7 million.




                                                                29
Appendix 2: SIMA Stakeholder Consultation Process

November 2000
IWMI invited by CGIAR to explore options for a system-wide initiative on malaria and agriculture

December 2000
Planning Meeting (Colombo, Sri Lanka) hosted by IWMI with representations from ISNAR, WHO-PEEM, DBL,
ICIPE.

January 2001
Opening of SIMA website.

February - April 2001
Electronic discussion with 200 people subscribed to the e-list. A summary of the discussion was available on the
website in mid-May.

May 2001
SIMA Stakeholders Consultation (ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya) with 40 participants drawn from CGIAR Centers, other
international research institutions, donor representatives and professionals in health and agriculture from six
countries in East and Southern Africa. The participants endorsed SIMA and proposed goal, objectives, research
themes and an organizational structure of the initiative. These were posted on the website in early June 2001 as the
SIMA Action Plan.

December 2001
First meeting of the Interim Steering Committee hosted by ISNAR in The Hague (Netherlands).

March 2002
SIMA Stakeholders Consultation (IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria) with 40 participants drawn from CGIAR Centers, other
international research institutions, donor representatives and researchers in health and agriculture from seven
countries in West and Central Africa.




                                                         30
Appendix 3: List of participants


1.   Dr Frank Abamu, Agronomist                             9.   Mr Dia Cheik, Interpreter Freelance
     HIV/AIDS Focal point WARDA                                  No 94 cite Asecna, Dakar, Senegal
     01 BP 2551, Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire                           Phone: (221) 65269 83
     Phone: (225) 31-659-430                                     Email: cheikhdia8@hotmail.com
     Email: f.abamu@cgiar.org
                                                            10. Dr Yaya Ibrahim Coulibaly
2.   Dr Marie-Agnes Agboton-Zoumenou                            Researcher, Medical Doctor
     Deputy Coordinator, Minstry of Public Health/              Malaria Research and Training Center FMPOS
     Malaria Control Prog.                                      P.O. Box 1805, Bamako, Mali
     P.O. Box 882, Cotonou, Benin                               Phone: (223) 22 52 77
     Phone: 00(229) 31-44-70                                    Fax: (223) 22 49 87
     Fax: 00(229) 31-44-69                                      Email: yicoulibaly@mrtbko.orgo
     Email: msppmepb@mail.leland.bj                                      yaya7fr@yahoo.fr

3.   Dr Sampson Agodzo, Senior Lecturer                     11. Dr John Dada, Director, Program Dev.
     Kwame Nkrumah University of Science &                      Fantsam Foundation
     Technology                                                 Bayanloco, PO Box 58, Kafanchan, Nigeria
     Private mail bag, KUMASI, Ghana                            Phone: (88) 1631 44 71772
     Phone: (233) 51 60242/60328                                Email: johndada@fantsuam.com
     Fax: (233) 51 60137
     Email: skagodzo7@usa.net                               12. Mr Adama Dao
                                                                Entomological Research Assistant
4.   Prof S.O. Akande, Director                                 Malaria Research and Training Center
     PMB 5, U.I.P.O., Ibadan, Nigeria                           FMPOS, P.O.Box 1805, Bamako, Mali
     Phone: 02-8103941                                          Phone: (223) 22 52 77
     Fax: 02-8101194                                            Fax: (223) 22 49 87
     Email: akande@niser.org.ng                                 Email: adama@mrtcbko.org
                                                                       adama_d@yahoo.fr
5.   Mrs Chioma N. Amajoh, Assistant Director
     Entomologist RBM/FMOH                                  13. Mamadou Diomande,
     FMOH-Federal Ministry of Health,                           Program Coordinator, ECODEV
     Federal Secrectariat, Abuja,Nigeria                        15BP95 ABIDJAN 15, Cote d'Ivoire
     Phone: 234-802-301-6282                                    Phone: 2125 9589/ 4014
     Fax: 234-9-523-8190                                        Fax: 2125 7499
     Email: amajohc@yahoo.com                                   Email: ecoform@odaci.net

6.   Dr Eline Boelee, Associate Expert                      14. Dr Sylvain Dossa, Research scientist
     IWMI                                                       Institut National des Recherches Agricoles du Benin
     P.O.Box 2075, Colombo, Sri Lanka                           (INRAB)
     Phone: (94) 1 787404                                       01 BP 884 Recette Principale, Cotonou, Benin
     Fax: (94) 1 786854                                         Phone: (229) 300264/490685/935726
     Email: e.boelee@cgiar.org                                  Fax: (229) 303770
                                                                Email: sdossa@avu.org
7.   Dr Bolaji O.M., Scientist                                            inrabdgu@bow.intnet.bj
     IMRAT, Col. Of Med. Univ. of Ibadan
     UCN Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria                            15. Dr Etienne Fondjo, Medical Entomologist
     Phone: 2410088/Ext. 3124 or 2412734                        National Malaria Control Programme
     Email: olabolaji@onebox.com                                288 Yaounde, Yaounde, Cameroun
                                                                Phone:(232) 224419
8.   Dr Agatha Akua Bonney, Metropolitan Director of            Email: fondjoetienne@yahoo.fr
     Health Services, Kumasi
     Ghana Health Service/Ministry of Health                16. Dr Kerstin Hell, Postharvest Biologist
     P.O.BOX 1908, KUMASI, Ghana                                IITA- Cotonou
     Phone: (233) 51 24106/27639/27271                          B.P. 08-09 32, Cotonou, Benin
     Fax: (233) 51 60357                                        Phone: (229) 35 01 88
     Email: bonneyja@africaonline.com.gh                        Fax: (229) 35 0556
                                                                Email: K.Hell@CGIAR.ORG




                                                       31
                                                             26. Ms Moudachirou, Interpreter
17. Dr Assomption Hounsa, Medical Epidemiologist                06 BP 1636 Cotonou Benin
    IITA                                                        Phone/Fax: (229) 33 4049
    06 BP 739, Cotonou, Rep. du Benin                           Email: cmodachiron@hotmail.com
    Phone:(+229) 350188
    Fax: (+229) 350556                                       27. Prof Roger Moyou, Chief of Centre
    Email: a.hounsa@cgiar.org                                    Cameroon Medical Research Centre
                                                                 Yaounde, Cameroun
18. Dr Emmanuel Iwuafor, Lecturer/Researcher                     Phone: (237) 997 86 25/222 4529
    Institute for Agricultural Research,                         Fax: (237) 222 64 12
    Ahmadu Bello University                                      Email: roger_moyou@yahoo.fr
    PMB 1044, Zaria, Nigeria
    Phone: 069-550509                                        28. Dr Clifford Mutero, SIMA Coordinator
    Email: c/o j.diels@cgiar.org                                 IWMI
                                                                 PB X813, Silverton 0127,
19. Dr Keatinge, Director RCMD                                   Pretoria, South Africa
    IITA                                                         Phone: (27) 12 845 9100
    PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria                                    Fax: (27) 12 845 9110
    Phone: (234-2)241 26 26                                      Email: c.mutero@cgiar.org
    Fax: (234-2) 241 22 21
    Email: D.KEATINGE.CGIAR.ORG                              29. Mrs Oluyemi Nwoke, Secretary
                                                                 RCMD/IITA
20. Ms Eveline Klinkenberg,                                      P M B 5320, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
    Associate Expert Water & Health                              Phone: (234) 2412626 Ext 2301
    IWMI                                                         Fax: (234-2) 241 22 21
    c/o KNUST, KUMASI, Ghana                                     Email: o.nwoke@cgiar.org
    Phone/Fax: 051-60206
    Email: e.klinkenberg.cgiar.org                           30. Dr Bourhaima Ouattara, Medecin
                                                                 Centre hospitolo universitaire,
21. Dr Thomas Kruppa, Director                                   Universite de Bouake Cote d'Ivoire
    Kumasi Centre Collaborative Research in Tropical             01 BP 1606, Bouake 01, Cote d'Ivoire
    Medicine (KCCR)                                              Phone: (225) 3165 0100/ 0768 0303
    KCCR/KNUST, KUMASI, Ghana                                    Email: bourhaima@yahoo.fr
    Phone: (233) 57 60577
    Fax: (233) 57 60357                                      31. Mr Denis Ouedradgo, Economist
    Email: KRUPPA@KCCR.DE                                        UFR/SEG University of Ouagadougou
                                                                 01 BP 454 Bobo Dioulasso 01,Burkina Faso
22. Dr Matthew Lynch, Malaria Advisor                            Phone: (266) 973009/23 04 59
    USAID/Washington                                             Fax: (266) 972546
    8 st. Georg's road - Baltimore, Rd, USA                      Email: denispca@hotmail.com
    Phone: (202) 712 0644
    Email: mlynch@usaid.gov                                  32. Dr Kofi Owusu-Daaku, Senior Lecturer
                                                                 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science &
23. Dr Victor Manyong, Agricultural Economist                    Technology
    IITA                                                         Private mail bag, KUMASI, Ghana
    PMB 5320      Ibadan Nigeria                                 Phone: (233) 51 60306/60252
    Phone: 234-2)241 26 26                                       Fax: (233) 51 60137
    Fax: (234-2) 241 22 21                                       Email: ustnmsap@africaonline.com.gh
    Email: v.manyong@cgiar.org
                                                             33. Dr Olukayode Oyeleye, Correspondent
24. Mr Omer Mensah, Researcher/lecturer                          Guardian Newspapers Ltd.
    University, 03 BP 422 Jericho, Cotonou, Benin                RUTAM House, Isolo, Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
    Phone: (+229) 97 01 87                                       Phone/Fax: 234-1-4931796
    Fax: (+229) 38 64 58                                         Email: oyeson2@hotmail.com
    Email:mensmer@hotmail.com
                                                             34. Dr R A Sanusi, Lecturer/Nutritionist
25. Dr M.E. Mosanya, Head National Malaria Control               University of Ibadan
    Program FMOH                                                 Ibadan Nigeria 8106074
    National Malaria Control Division, Abuja, Nigeria            Email: sanusis@skannet.com
    Phone: 5238190/08023077276
    Email: memosanya@yahoo.co.uk




                                                        32
35. Mr Daouda Sidibe, Researcher
    Intstitut d'Economie Rurale                      38. Dr Reid E. Whitlock, Senior Adviser
    P.O.Box 258, Bamako, Mali                            Ministry of Agriculture, Burkina Faso
    Phone: (223) 24 64 28                                DANIDA
    Fax: (223) 22 75 88                                  BP 1760, Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso
    Email: dsidibe@ird.ml                                Phone: (226) 32 40 02
                                                         Fax: (226) 31 3189
36. Mr Emmanuel Tia,                                     Email: MINAG-DEP@LIPTINFOR.BF
    Entomologiste Medical CEMV+D62-UNIVERSITE
    de BOUAKE                                        39. Dr Nathan Wolfe, Country Director
    01BP 2597, Bouake 01, Cote d'Ivoire                  Johns Hopkins University
    Phone: (225) 3163 2250 /3163 0957                    2338, Yaounde, Cameroun
    Fax:(225) 3163 2967                                  Phone: (237) 991.08.16
    Email: emtia1fr@yahoo.fr                             Fax: (237) 228.94.29
                                                         Email: nwolfe@jhsph.edu
37. Dr Tindo, Scientist
    c/o IITA-HFC
    B.P. 2008,    Yaounde, Cameroun
    Phone: (+237)223 74 34
    Fax: (+237) 2237437
    Email: m.tindo@cgiar.org




                                                33
Appendix 4: The CGIAR system

The CGIAR group
The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is an association of public and private members
supporting a system of 16 Future Harvest Centers (www.cgiar.org). Its mission is to contribute to food security and poverty
eradication in developing countries through research, partnerships, capacity building, and policy support, promoting sustainable
agricultural development based on the environmentally sound management of natural resources. The CGIAR's research agenda
focuses on both strategic and applied research and all benefits of the research are kept within the public domain, freely available
to everyone. These benefits range from developing crops suited to local conditions, to better farming systems that reduce
agriculture's impact on natural resources, to tackling some of the larger global challenges, such as climate change.

The CGIAR focuses on five major research thrusts:

1. Increasing Productivity
The CGIAR strives to make developing country agriculture more productive through genetic improvements in plants, livestock,
fish, and trees, and through better management practices. One important feature is the focus on building into plants greater
resistance to insects and diseases that adversely affect productivity and the stability of production in the tropics. While protecting
farmers from losses, these improved plants protect the environment because they require little, if any, chemical inputs.

2. Protecting the Environment
Conserving natural resources, especially soil and water, and reducing the impact of agriculture on the surrounding environment,
is an essential, and growing, part of the CGIAR‟s efforts. The CGIAR plays a leading role in developing new research methods to
identify long-term trends in major agricultural environments, and in developing solutions to pressing environmental problems.

3. Saving Biodiversity
The CGIAR holds one of the world's largest ex situ collections of plant genetic resources, with over 500,000 accessions of more
than 3,000 crop, forage, and agro forestry species. The collections are under the auspices of FAO within the International
Network of Ex Situ Collections and the terms of the agreements stipulate that the germplasm within these collections will be
made available without restriction to researchers around the world, on the understanding that no intellectual property protection is
to be applied to the material.

4. Improving Policies
Agricultural producers are heavily influenced by public policy. The CGIAR‟s policy research aims to help streamline and
improve policies that strongly influence the spread of new technologies and the management and use of natural resources.

5. Strengthening National Research
The CGIAR is committed to strengthening national agricultural research in developing countries through side-by-side working
relationships with colleagues in national programs, strengthening skills in research administration and management, and formal
training programs for research staff.

Several CGIAR centers are involved in SIMA. More information on these and other SIMA partners can be found at the website:
www.iwmi.org/sima/partners.htm.




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Appendix 5: Summary of expectations and evaluation

Twenty three participants filled out the evaluation form with their expectations, whether these were met, what they
appreciated about the workshop and what could have been done better. This appendix is based on the analysis by the
facilitator Reid Whitlock.

Most of the expectations coincided well with the objectives of the workshop. Many participants were interested in
networking, wanted to meet and exchange experiences with people from the region and from different disciplines,
though with the same area of interest. More specifically, integration of Anglophone and Francophone countries, was
mentioned, and meeting potential collaborators, as well as getting to know SIMA and link up to the SIMA network.
Secondly, people expected to receive information on funding possibilities, get in contact with donors, obtain
guidelines on refinement of existing proposals and develop proposals for submission. In some cases participants
expected to go home with concrete funding. Unfortunately for them, the workshop did not provide concrete and
immediate funding. However, clear options for funding were presented, such as the USAID/EHP small grants, and
other possibilities were discussed. Regarding the research agenda, the participants were keen to understand how best
to address malaria from different angles. They hoped to increase the interface between agriculture and health with
respect to malaria, to establish a genuine link between the two sectors. The participants were interested in defining
research priorities in this field and learn from colleagues what is currently going on in other countries, in order to
explore opportunities for collaboration. In general people‟s expectations were met and people were satisfied with the
workshop.


                            25
   total frequency (N=23)




                            20

                            15

                            10

                            5

                            0
                                 50   55   60   65       70     75     80        85   90   95   100
                                                     level of satisfaction (%)


Figure – Extent to which participants‟ expectations were met in the workshop.



The organization by SIMA and IITA was highly appreciated. Specifically mentioned was the excellent support by
the facilitator. The bilingual translation was highly appreciated and lead to good integration between Francophone
and Anglophone colleagues. The set up of working in small groups ensured the creation of the expected outcome,
concept notes. It also gave everyone a change to speak up, make new friends and lay the basis for collaboration.
Suggestions for improvement included a further exploration of the intersection between social science, health and
agriculture, and the inclusion of even more diverse disciplines, such as other para-medical specialties to ensure a
truly multidisciplinary outlook. Some participants felt the interaction between the different disciplines was not
sufficient and that people ended up forming their own groups. Others suggested there should be more emphasis on
communication, the use of mass-media and how to pass findings on to the intended users.




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Appendix 6: Workshop Agenda


Date          Time          Activity
16/17 March                 Arrival of participants

Monday        0800-0900     Registration at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
18th March    0900-0915     Welcome remarks by Dr. R.Booth, Deputy Director General IITA
              0915-1000     Self-introduction
              1000-1015     SIMA background / Overview of Consultation objectives – C. Mutero
              1015-1030     Tea Break
              1030-1230     Impact de la riziculture irriguée sur la transmission du paludisme à Niono, Mali
                            (Coulibaly, Adama, Daouda)
              WCA region    Malaria in Burkina Faso: synopsis of studies carried out and new challenges
              situational   (Ouedraogo)
              papers        Contribution of agriculture to malaria control and poverty reduction in rural West
                            Africa: Benin case (Hounsa, Mensah, Dassa, Gazard, Zoumenou)
                            Grass Roots Communication in Côte d’Ivoire (Diomande)
                            Paludisme à Bouaké - Côte d’Ivoire (Ouattara)
                            Aménagements hydro agricoles et paludisme à Côte d’Ivoire (Tia)
                            Surveillance of P. falciparum sensitivity to antimalarials in an agricultural
                            company in Cameroon (Moyou)
                            Impact of rice cultivation on malaria transmission in an irrigated zone at the far
                            north of Cameroon (Fondjo)
              1230-1400     Lunch
              1400-1530     Malaria situation and Roll Back Malaria initiative in Ghana (Bonney)
                            Irrigation and health issues in Ghana (Agodzo)
              WCA region    KCCR and malaria in Ghana (Kruppa)
              situational   Preliminary investigation into possible resistance of A. gambiae to 4 classes of
              papers        insecticides in 3 localities in the Ashanti region of Ghana (Owusu-Daaku)
                            Impact of urban agriculture on the spread of malaria in West African cities
                            (Klinkenberg)
              1530-1600     Tea Break
              1600-1730     Exploring perceptions about malaria in some rural communities in Kaduna State,
                            Nigeria (Dada)
              WCA region    Agricultural research at IAR, Nigeria (Iwuafor)
              situational   NISER and its potential to contribute to research on malaria and agriculture in
              papers        Nigeria (Akande)
                            Situation paper on the research activities of malaria research group college of
                            medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria (Sanusi, Bolaji)
                            Best practices in malaria control in Nigeria (Monsanya, Amadjo)
              1830-1930     Reception at IITA




                                                  36
Date         Time            Activity
Tuesday      0830-1000       The Johns Hopkins University Cameroon Program and its potential to
19th March                   contribute to research on malaria and agriculture (Wolfe)
             State-of-the-   Malaria research by the Health Consortium at WARDA (Abamu)
             art papers      IITA/EPHTA Benchmark areas and its potentials for SIMA activities (Manyong,
             (CG/Others)     Keatinge)
                             Malaria research at IWMI (Boelee)
                             The malaria program of USAID (Lynch)
             1000-1030       Tea Break
             1030-1230       Group discussions on regional priorities.
             1230-1400       Lunch
             1400-1530       Presentation regional priorities and plenary discussion
             1530-1600       Tea Break
             1600-1800       Explanation SIMA projects (Mutero)
                             Group discussion on research questions

Wednesday    0830-1000       Outline SIMA concept notes (Boelee)
20th March                   Group development of concept notes
             1000-1030       Tea Break
             1030-1230       Small grants through EHP/USAID (Lynch)
                             Group development of concept notes.
             1230-1400       Lunch
             1400-1500       Questions on concept notes
                             Rapporteur‟s summary
                             Closing remarks
             1500            Tea Break and End of Workshop




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